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Basant K Puri, Anne Derham, Jean A Monro
Background The use of indwelling central venous access devices (CVADs) is associated with the development of bloodstream infections. When CVADs are used to administer systemic antibiotics, particularly second- or higher-generation cephalosporins, there is a particular risk of developing Clostridium difficile infection. The overall bloodstream infection rate is estimated to be around 1.74 per 1000 central venous catheter (CVC)-days. Objective We hypothesised that daily oral administration of the anion-binding resin colestyramine (cholestyramine) would help prevent infections in those receiving intravenous antibiotic treatment via CVADs...
August 17, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
M-A Quera-Salva, B Claustrat
Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland. It displays a very marked nycthohemeral rhythm, which is entrained to the light dark cycle. The secretion spreads over 8-10 hours, with a maximum around 3-4 a.m. Melatonin plays the role of an endogenous synchronizer which regulates circadian rhythms, especially the sleep/wake and temperature rhythms. Acute melatonin administration reduces sleep latency, increases theta/alpha power and spindle activity (soporific activity). Fast-release melatonin preparations showed inconstant effects in insomnia...
August 11, 2018: L'Encéphale
Claudio Ponticelli, Rachele Escoli, Gabriella Moroni
Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug that is converted to inactive carboxy-cyclophosphamide, acrolein and phosphoramide mustard, an agent that adds alkyl groups to oxygen and nitrogen atoms of guanine, one of the four nitrogen bases that form the DNA nucleotides, causing DNA cross-links and introducing DNA breaks. These cytotoxic and mutagenic effects mainly occur in proliferating cells. Repair mechanisms may prevent DNA damage in quiescent cells, but they may be insufficient to contrast the side effects of cyclophosphamide if high doses of the drug are used...
August 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
David Muchuweti, Edwin G Muguti, Bothwell A Mbuwayesango, Simbarashe Gift Mungazi, Rudo Makunike-Mutasa
INTRODUCTION: Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine producing tumours which arise from chromaffin cells within the adrenal medulla. Patients with these tumours commonly present with a triad of headache, palpitations and hypertension. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 37-year-old male patient who presented with dull left sided abdominal pain and discomfort for 6 weeks. A preoperative Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a huge left suprarenal tumour but urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were negative...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Cecilie Gjerde, Kamal Mustafa, Sølve Hellem, Markus Rojewski, Harald Gjengedal, Mohammed Ahmed Yassin, Xin Feng, Siren Skaale, Trond Berge, Annika Rosen, Xie-Qi Shi, Aymen B Ahmed, Bjørn Tore Gjertsen, Hubert Schrezenmeier, Pierre Layrolle
BACKGROUND: Autologous grafting, despite some disadvantages, is still considered the gold standard for reconstruction of maxillofacial bone defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone regeneration using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in a clinical trial, a less invasive approach than autologous bone grafting. This comprehensive clinical trial included subjects with severe mandibular ridge resorption. METHODS: The study included 11 subjects aged 52-79 years with severe mandibular ridge resorption...
August 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Michael J Reiter, Ryan B Schwope, Jared M Theler
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Surgeons aim to restore occlusion and jaw function to baseline status for patients with mandibular fractures using either closed treatment or reduction and fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occlusion is defined as the relationship between the maxillary and mandibular teeth as they approach each other. RESULTS: Radiologists should be familiar with the goals of repair to help identify which treatment is adequate as well as to diagnose potential complications...
July 30, 2018: Academic Radiology
R Y Yang, X J Wang, P X Zhao, Z Q Xu, C Chen, S Yang, Z Yang, F Z Jiang, Q An, J W Li, S Huang
Objective: To analyze the prognosis and untoward effect in recurrent refractory trigeminal neuralgia (RRTN) patients who underwent repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery treatment (GKRS) retrospectively, and to summarize the experience of repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery treatment of recurrent refractory trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: RRTN patients who treated with repeat GKRS during 1998.8.1 to 2014.10.1 in Gamma Knife treatment Center of the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were involved. The factors influencing long-term prognosis and facial numbness adverse reactions were statistically analyzed...
July 3, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Umberto Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Claudio Pedone, Moises Muley-Vilamu, Raffaele Antonelli-Incalzi
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly associated with other chronic diseases, which poses several diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Indeed, important comorbidities frequently remain unrecognized and, then, untreated, whereas respiratory drugs may have non respiratory side effects, and selected non respiratory drugs may variably affect the respiratory function. OBJECTIVE: to describe: how COPD affects the presentation and contributes to the diagnostic challenges of its most common comorbidities; how coexisting COPD impacts the therapeutic approach to selected comorbidities and viceversa...
August 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
C El Kahi, V Martinet, J P Praet, T Pepersack
We report a case of hepatotoxicity following the introduction of two drugs to treat a 81 years old man. The presence of liver alterations following the introduction of a new drug must suggest an adverse drug reaction. Manifestations of adverse drug reactions are often non-specific. Thus, the most important problem in assessing adverse drug reactions is establishing whether there is a causal association between the suspected drug and the untoward clinical event. The use of the Naranjo score could help the clinician to assess the probability of a causal relationship between a drug and the suspected adverse drug reaction...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Yalei Lin, Fanyang Kong, Hongfei Li, Dandan Xu, Fei Jia, Xudong Zhang, Baohong Wang, Guowen Li
The present study aimed to investigate the variations in target volume, clinical reaction and transplantation effects of helical tomotherapy (HT)‑total body irradiation (TBI), HT‑total marrow and lymphatic irradiation (TMLI), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)‑TBI and IMRT‑TMLI within patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A total of 18 patients with ALL were treated with the four aforementioned radiotherapy plans prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A planned prescribed dose of 12 Gy/6 Frequency was administered to determine planning target volume (PTV)...
June 27, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ofosua Adi-Dako, Kwabena Ofori-Kwakye, Kennedy Kwami Edem Kukuia, Jerry Asiedu-Larbi, Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko, Doris Kumadoh, Grace Frimpong
Natural polymer research has recently become the focus of intensive research in the quest for new enabling excipients for novel drugs in pharmaceutical formulation for optimal treatment outcomes. Evaluations of some excipients have shown deleterious haematological effects of varying extents on the safety profile of these excipients. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study was conducted to evaluate the influence of cocoa pod husk (CPH) pectin on indicators for haematotoxicity. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats (SDRs) were fed with CPH pectin in doses up to 71...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutics
Nanjundappa S Harshavardhana, Kalana Rathnayake, Andy Tanagho, Calum Cree
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to report a rare case of segmental neck of femur fracture (SNoFF) and highlight its quality assurance and governance implications with respect to national guidelines, care pathways and best practice tariff. Design/methodology/approach Case report of an SNoFF in a 67-year-old woman treated at a district general hospital (DGH) was used in this study. Findings SNoFF required additional implants that delayed the surgery by five days. The authors were unable to adhere to the British Orthopaedic Association standards for trauma and Scottish Inter-Collegiate Guidelines Network recommendations which indicate that all neck of femur fractures (NoFFs) be fixed within 48 h...
July 9, 2018: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
Paul Bissell, Marian Peacock, Michelle Holdsworth, Katie Powell, John Wilcox, Angie Clonan
This study explores the ways in which social networks might shape accounts about food practices. Drawing on insights from the work of Christakis and Fowler () whose claims about the linkages between obesity and social networks have been the subject of vigorous debate in the sociological literature, we present qualitative data from a study of women's' accounts of social networks and food practices, conducted in Nottingham, England. We tentatively suggest that whilst social networks in their broadest sense, might shape what was perceived to be normal and acceptable in relation to food practices (and provide everyday discursive resources which normalise practice), the relationship between the two is more complex than the linear relationship proposed by Christakis and Fowler...
June 19, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Avner Hershlag, Sara L Bristow
The rapid development of gene-editing technologies has led to an exponential rise in both basic and translational research initiatives studying molecular processes and investigating possible clinical applications. Early experiments using genome editing to study human embryo development have contradicted findings in studies on model organisms. Additionally, a series of four experiments over the past 2 years set out to investigate the possibilities of introducing genetic modifications to human embryos, each with varying levels of success...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Rachel I Gafni, Craig B Langman, Lori C Guthrie, Beth A Brillante, Robert James, Nancy A Yovetich, Alison M Boyce, Michael T Collins
Subcutaneous human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) therapy can effectively manage hypocalcemia in hypoparathyroidism, with varying effects on hypercalciuria. However, little is known about its ability to decrease the renal comorbidities of hypoparathyroidism: nephrocalcinosis (NC), nephrolithiasis (NL), and renal insufficiency. Urinary citrate (Ucit) promotes the solubility of urinary calcium (UCa); hypocitraturia is a risk factor for NC/NL. Twenty-four-hour UCa, Ucit, and UCa/Ucit were determined in 31 hypoparathyroid subjects receiving hPTH 1-34 therapy for up to 5 years...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Laureen A Lammers, Roos Achterbergh, Johannes A Romijn, Ron A A Mathôt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that nutritional status can alter drug metabolism which may result in treatment failure or untoward side effects. This study assesses the effect of two nutritional conditions, short-term fasting, and a short-term high fat diet (HFD) on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) mediated drug metabolism by studying the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and its main metabolites. METHODS: In a randomized-controlled cross-over trial, nine healthy subjects received a single intravenous administration of 0...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Ferga C Gleeson, Erik J Tryggestad, Nicholas B Remmes, Chris J Beltran, Jon J Kruse, Michael G Haddock, Christopher L Hallemeier, Andrew C Storm, Michael J Levy
Background and study aims : Little consideration has been given to selection of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fiducials for proton radiotherapy and the resulting perturbations in the therapy dose and pattern. Our aim was to assess the impact of perturbations caused by six fiducials of different composition and dimensions in a phantom gel model. Materials and methods:  The phantom was submerged in a water bath and irradiated with a uniform 10 cm × 10 cm field of 119...
June 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Jialin Duan, Jingwen Tao, Maocai Zhai, Chengpeng Li, Ning Zhou, Jiagao Lv, Lin Wang, Li Lin, Rong Bai
Anticancer drugs may have proarrhythmic effects including drug-induced QT interval prolongation, which is of particular importance because it can lead to a fatal polymorphic ventricular tachycardia termed torsade de pointes (TdP). QT interval prolongation and TdP are rare life-threatening untoward effects of anticancer therapy, particularly with arsenic trioxides and anthracyclines, and even some novel molecular targeted drugs touted as 'tumor specific'. Several factors that affect myocardial repolarization can further increase the risk of TdP...
May 22, 2018: Oncotarget
René Hameau, Luigi Gabrielli, Marcelo Garrido, Ana María Guzmán, Ignacio Retamal, María José Vacarezza, Douglas Greig, Mauricio Ocqueteau, César Sánchez, Marcela Pizarro, Alejandro Corvalán, Sergio Lavandero, Pablo F Castro, Gonzalo Martínez
Recently, we have witnessed major improvements in cancer treatment. Early diagnosis and development of new therapies have reduced cancer-related mortality. However, these new therapies, along with greater patient survival, are associated with an increase in untoward effects, particularly in the cardiovascular system. Although cardiotoxicity induced by oncologic treatments affects predominantly the myocardium, it can also involve other structures of the cardiovascular system, becoming one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in those who survive cancer...
January 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Christina Halgren, Nete M Nielsen, Lusine Nazaryan-Petersen, Asli Silahtaroglu, Ryan L Collins, Chelsea Lowther, Susanne Kjaergaard, Morten Frisch, Maria Kirchhoff, Karen Brøndum-Nielsen, Allan Lind-Thomsen, Yuan Mang, Zahra El-Schich, Claire A Boring, Mana M Mehrjouy, Peter K A Jensen, Christina Fagerberg, Lotte N Krogh, Jan Hansen, Thue Bryndorf, Claus Hansen, Michael E Talkowski, Mads Bak, Niels Tommerup, Iben Bache
The 6%-9% risk of an untoward outcome previously established by Warburton for prenatally detected de novo balanced chromosomal rearrangements (BCRs) does not account for long-term morbidity. We performed long-term follow-up (mean 17 years) of a registry-based nationwide cohort of 41 individuals carrying a prenatally detected de novo BCR with normal first trimester screening/ultrasound scan. We observed a significantly higher frequency of neurodevelopmental and/or neuropsychiatric disorders than in a matched control group (19...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
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