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Oliver Ciclet, Denis Barron, Steve Bajic, Jean-Luc Veuthey, Davy Guillarme, Alexandre Grand-Guillaume Perrenoud
The MS hyphenation performance of UniSpray®, a new design of atmospheric pressure ionization source was evaluated in both SFC and RPLC modes. Sensitivity, stability, versatility and matrix effects offered by the UniSpray were assessed in positive and negative ionization modes and systematically compared to an electrospray source (ESI) using 120 natural compounds covering an extended chemical space. In a first instance, a multivariate approach was used to screen and optimize the UniSpray source settings to maximize detection sensitivity...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Manman Li, Yanping Chen, Pengfei Zhang, Ling Zhang, Ri Zhou, Yan Xu, Hongda Ding, Qiujing Wang, Zhicai Wang
Tweleve pseudo-ginsensides were synthesized under a mild condition, via a simple three-step called acetylation, elimination-addition and saponification. The inhibitory effects of these tweleve pseudo-ginsenosides were screened on the hemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes caused by 2,2' -azobis (2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH). It was found that the IC50 values followed the sequence of (20Z) pseudo-protopanaxatriol (pseudo-PPT) < (20Z) pseudo-protopanaxadiol (pseudo-PPD) < (20Z) pseudo-Rh2 < (20E) pseudo-PPT< (20E) pseudo-PPD < (20E) pseudo-Rh2 < (20Z) pseudo-Rg2 < (20E) pseudo-Rg2 < Rb1 < (20Z) pseudo-Rh1 < Rg2 < (20E) pseudo-Rh1...
March 7, 2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Cong Lu, Jingwei Lv, Liming Dong, Ning Jiang, Yan Wang, Qiong Wang, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), one of the ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects and to improve memory. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of PPT on scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were pretreated with 2 different doses of PPT (20 and 40 μmol/kg) for 27 days by intraperitoneal injection, and scopolamine (0.75 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 9 days to induce memory impairment...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Tanya Biswas, Shiv Shanker Pandey, Deepamala Maji, Vikrant Gupta, Alok Kalra, Manju Singh, Archana Mathur, A K Mathur
Dual metabolite, i.e., ginsenoside and anthocyanin, co-accumulating cell suspensions of Panax sikkimensis were subjected to elicitation with culture filtrates of Serratia marcescens (SD 21), Bacillus subtilis (FL11), Trichoderma atroviridae (TA), and T. harzianum (TH) at 1.25% and 2.5% v/v for 1- and 3-week duration. The fungal-derived elicitors (TA and TH) did not significantly affect biomass accumulation; however, bacterial elicitors (SD 21 and FL11), especially SD 21, led to comparable loss in biomass growth...
February 15, 2018: Protoplasma
Renzeng Shen, Stephane Laval, Xin Cao, Biao Yu
Four representative Δ20-ginsenosides, namely ginsenosides Rh4 (1), (20E)-Rh3 (2), Rg6 (3) and Rk1 (4) from Panax Ginseng were chemically synthesized for the first time. Dehydration of the naturally occurring 20(S)-protopanaxatriol and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol provided all type of Δ20-sapogenins, which were separated due to a judicious choice of protecting groups. The Δ20-sapogenins were then directly glycosylated with glycosyl ortho-alkynylbenzoate donors under the catalysis of Ph3PAuNTf2 as key steps. The neutral conditions of the glycosylations were crucial to prevent the acid-labileΔ20,21 double bond from isomerization...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Eun-Joo Yang, Tae-Hun Kim, Kyung-Chul Shin, Deok-Kun Oh
Aglycon protopanaxatriol (APPT) has valuable pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-stress activities. However, the complete conversion of all typical glycosylated protopanaxatriol ginsenosides to APPT has not been achieved to date. β-Glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Dictyoglomus turgidum (DT-bgl) hydrolyzes the glucose residues at C-6 and the inner glucose at C-20 in protopanaxatriol (PPT), but not the outer rhamnose residues at C-6. In contrast, β-glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Pyrococcus furiosus (PF-bgl) hydrolyzes the outer rhamnose residue at C-6 but not the inner glucose residues at C-6 and C-20 in PPT...
January 24, 2018: AMB Express
Longhai Dai, Jiao Li, Jiangang Yang, Yueming Zhu, Yan Men, Yan Zeng, Yi Cai, Caixia Dong, Zhubo Dai, Xueli Zhang, Yuanxia Sun
Ginsenosides are the principal bioactive ingredients of Panax ginseng and possess diverse notable pharmacological activities. UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated glycosylation of the C6-OH and C20-OH of protopanaxatriol (PPT) is the prominent biological modification that contributes to the immense structural and functional diversity of PPT-type ginsenosides. In this study, the glycosylation of PPT and PPT-type ginsenosides was achieved using a promiscuous glycosyltransferase (Bs-YjiC) from Bacillus subtilis 168...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Zhihao Wang, Guangyue Su, Zhiguo Zhang, Han Dong, Yuehui Wang, Huiying Zhao, Yuqing Zhao, Qi Sun
Oxidative stress injury and apoptosis are the main mechanisms of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MI/RI). Compounds with anti-oxidant properties can treat MI/RI. Therefore, identification of natural antioxidants such as herbs or botanical drugs is an ideal strategy to develop safe and effective anti-MI/RI drugs. Cardioprotective effects of Ginseng are well documented and are attributable to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, anti-arrhythmic, anti-ischemic properties. Ginseng monomer 20® -dammarane -3 beta,6 alpha,12 beta,20,25-pentol(25-hydroxyl-Protopanaxatriol,25-OH-PPT), a novel compound, which belongs to panaxatriol category, is extracted from the leaves and stem of ginseng...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Man-Yun Chen, Li Shao, Wei Zhang, Chong-Zhi Wang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei-Hua Huang, Chun-Su Yuan
Saponins such as notoginsenosides and ginsenosides from Panax notoginseng are responsible for the herb's clinical applications. Unfortunately, there is poor oral bioavailability of saponins. However, gut microbiota can transform saponins to yield the metabolites that are potential bioactive substances. In this study, we aimed to characterize the metabolic profiles of P. notoginseng saponins (PNS) by incubating them with human gut microbiota. The notoginsenosides, ginsenosides and related metabolites were separated and identified using a highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection/quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Eun-Joo Yang, Kyung-Chul Shin, Dae Young Lee, Deok-Kun Oh
Aglycon protopanaxatriol (APPT) has valuable pharmacological effects such as memory enhancement and tumor inhibition. β-Glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Dictyoglomus turgidum (DT-bgl) hydrolyzes the glucose residues linked to APPT, but not other glycoside residues. β-Glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Pyrococcus furiosus (PF-bgl) hydrolyzes the outer sugar at C-6 but not the inner glucose at C-6 or the glucose at C-20. Thus, the combined use of DT-bgl and PF-bgl is expected to increase the biotransformation of PPT-type ginsenosides to APPT...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ruiqi Feng, Jia Liu, Zhenhua Wang, Jingwen Zhang, Courtney Cates, Thomas Rousselle, Qingguo Meng, Ji Li
Ginsenosides have been studied extensively in recent years due to their therapeutic effects in cardiovascular diseases. While most studies examined the different ginsenosides individually, few studies compare the therapeutic effects among the different types. This study examined how effective protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, Rh1, and Rg2 of the ginsenoside family are in protecting H9c2 cardiomyocytes from damage caused by hypoxia/reoxygenation. In the current study, a model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was induced in H9c2 cardiomyocytes by oxygen deprivation via a hypoxia chamber followed by reoxygenation...
December 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Catherine Hu, Aik Jiang Lau, RuiQi Wang, Thomas K H Chang
Conflicting data exist on the effect of ginsenosides on transactivation of human glucocorticoid receptor α (herein referred to as glucocorticoid receptor), and relatively little is known regarding the effect of these chemicals on transrepression of this receptor. We investigated the effect of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), PPD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rh2, and Compound K), 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), and PPT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, Rg1, and Rh1) on glucocorticoid receptor binding, transactivation, and transrepression...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Ga-Yeon Go, Sang-Jin Lee, Ayoung Jo, Jaecheol Lee, Dong-Wan Seo, Jong-Sun Kang, Si-Kwan Kim, Su-Nam Kim, Yong Kee Kim, Gyu-Un Bae
BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside Rg1 belongs to protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides and has diverse pharmacological activities. In this report, we investigated whether Rg1 could upregulate muscular stem cell differentiation and muscle growth. METHODS: C2C12 myoblasts, MyoD-transfected 10T1/2 embryonic fibroblasts, and HEK293T cells were treated with Rg1 and differentiated for 2 d, subjected to immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, or immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: Rg1 activated promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and Akt signaling, that in turn promote the heterodimerization with MyoD and E proteins, resulting in enhancing myogenic differentiation...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
Wei-Wei Dong, Jinhua Zhao, Fei-Liang Zhong, Wen-Jing Zhu, Jun Jiang, Songquan Wu, Deok-Chun Yang, Donghao Li, Lin-Hu Quan
BACKGROUND: In general, after Panax ginseng is administered orally, intestinal microbes play a crucial role in its degradation and metabolization process. Studies on the metabolism of P. ginseng by microflora are important for obtaining a better understanding of their biological effects. METHODS: In vitro biotransformation of P. ginseng extract by rat intestinal microflora was investigated at 37°C for 24 h, and the simultaneous determination of the metabolites and metabolic profile of P...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
Xin Qiu, Jiali Yang, Wei Wang, Qiuhong Wu, Hong Shao
We present a validated liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of 20-(S)-protopanaxatriol and its two oxidative stereoisomeric metabolites (20S,24S)-epoxy-dammarane-3,6,12,25-tetraol (M1) and (20S,24R)-epoxy-dammarane-3,6,12,25-tetraol (M2) in rat plasma. 20-(S)-Protopanaxatriol, M1, and M2 were extracted with methanol and separated on an ACQUITY HSS T3 column. The mass spectrometry detection was accomplished in selected reaction monitoring mode with precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 493...
December 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Xiao-Dong Wu, Ting Guo, Li Liu, Chao Wang, Kun Zhang, Han-Qiang Liu, Feng Wang, Wen-Dong Bai, Meng-Yao Zhang
Rg1 is a predominant protopanaxatriol-type of ginsenoside found in Panax ginseng, and it has been shown to have anti-cancer effects in multiple types of cancer cells. However, Rg1 also induces the expression of proangiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), in endothelial cells. Unfortunately, angiogenesis positively correlates with cancer development. In this study, we identified RUNX2 as a regulator of ginsenoside Rg1-induced angiogenesis for the first time. We found that RUNX2 was directly targeted and regulated by miR-23a...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Yan-Ping Lin, Mei-Ping Zhang, Kang-Yu Wang, Chun-Yu Sun, Yi Wang
Panax ginseng is one of the famous rare medicinal herbs, and ginsenosides are the main active ingredient of ginseng is ginsenoside.They can be divided into three chemotypes: oleanane type, protopanaxadiol (PPD) type and the protopanaxatriol (PPT)type. Ginsenosides possess anti-thrombotic, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, cancer control, strengthening the immune system and many other effects. Rrogress has remarkably been made in pharmacology, efficacy and blosynthesis of ginsenosides.This review covers the recent research achievements of ginsenasides, which would be helpful for the relevant researchers to get useful information...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yi Cao, Chao-Qun Wang, Feng Xu, Xiu-Hong Jia, Guang-Xue Liu, Sheng-Chao Yang, Guang-Qiang Long, Zhong-Jian Chen, Fu-Zhou Wei, Shao-Zhou Yang, Kozo Fukuda, Xuan Wang, Shao-Qing Cai
Panax notoginseng is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine with blood activating effect while has continuous cropping obstacle problem in planting process. In present study, a semimicroextraction method with water-saturated n-butanol on 0.1 g notoginseng sample was established with good repeatability (RSD<2.5%) and 9.6%-20.6% higher extraction efficiency of seven saponins than the conventional method. A total of 16 characteristic peaks were identified by LC-MS-IT-TOF, including eight 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT) type saponins and eight 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) type saponins...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Peihe Zheng, Yinbin Chen, Yangyang Fu, Hecheng Wang, Jia Wang, Siwen Zheng, Shengyuan Xiao, Yingping Wang
After cultivation of ginseng, ginsenosides, which are the major active ingredients of gingeng, were approved for use by the food industry, and began to be used as added functional ingredients to try to improve the quality and price of functional foods. However, the interaction between different types of ginsenosides and nutrients needs further study. We investigated the effect of B-complex vitamins (which are essential nutrients) on the pharmacokinetics of the ginsenosides protopanaxatriol-type saponin Rg1, protopanaxadiol-type saponin Rb1, and oleanolic acid-type saponin Ro after oral administration...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
Yajun Wu, Jingjing Liu, Su Gu, Li Lin, Yingzhuang Chen, Ming Ma, Bo Chen
Ginsenosides have been widely conceded as having various biological activities and are considered to be the active ingredient of ginseng. Nowadays, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography is considered to be a highly efficient method for ginseng saponins purification and preparation. However, in the process of practical application, due to the complex and varied composition of natural products and relatively simple pretreatment process, it is likely to block the chromatographic column and affect the separation efficiency and its service life...
November 2017: Journal of Separation Science
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