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protopanaxatriol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935213/uhplc-q-tof-ms-based-metabolomics-approach-to-compare-the-saponin-compositions-of-xueshuantong-injection-and-xuesaitong-injection
#1
Changliang Yao, Wenzhi Yang, Jingxian Zhang, Shi Qiu, Ming Chen, Xiaojian Shi, Huiqin Pan, Wanying Wu, Dean Guo
Various traditional Chinese medicine preparations developed from Notoginseng total saponins, including Xueshuantong Injection and Xuesaitong Injection, are extensively used in China to treat cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. However, the difference of their saponin compositions remains unknown. An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach was developed to probe the saponin discrimination between Xueshuantong and Xuesaitong and the related factors by large sample analysis...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930975/adaptogenic-herb-ginseng-panax-as-medical-food-status-quo-and-future-prospects
#2
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf
Ginseng, an herbaceous plant, belonging to the family Araliaceae is a traditional medicinal herb. Also, it is emerging as a functional food and potent adjunct medicine. Saponin ginsenosides (protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol) are the signature phytochemicals of this plant. With the surfacing of scientific validations, ginseng is gaining unprecedented attention from consumers as well as researchers. As a number of drug-herb interaction-caused health issues have emerged, the medicinal relevance of this plant has been critically assessed here...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918242/cross-interaction-between-ilyonectria-mors-panacis-isolates-infecting-korean-ginseng-and-ginseng-saponins-in-correlation-with-their-pathogenicity
#3
Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Priyanka Singh, Deok Chun Yang
Ilyonectria mors-panacis belongs to I. radicicola-species complex and causes root rot and replant failure of ginseng in Asia and North America. The aims of this work were to identify I. mors-panacis that infect Korean ginseng using molecular approaches and to investigate whether their aggressiveness depends on their ability to metabolize ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) by their β-glucosidases, in comparison with other identified Ilyonectria species. Fourteen isolates were collected from culture collections or directly isolated from infected roots and mainly identified based on histone H3 (HIS H3) sequence...
December 5, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914321/functional-regulation-of-ginsenoside-biosynthesis-by-rna-interferences-of-a-udp-glycosyltransferase-gene-in-panax-ginseng-and-panax-quinquefolius
#4
Chao Lu, Shoujing Zhao, Guanning Wei, Huijuan Zhao, Qingling Qu
Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) have been used as medicinal and functional herbal remedies worldwide. Different properties of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were confirmed not only in clinical findings, but also at cellular and molecular levels. The major pharmacological ingredients of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. The P. ginseng roots contain a higher ratio of ginsenoside Rg1:Rb1 than that in P. quinquefolius...
November 25, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818927/simultaneous-quantification-of-ginsenoside-rg1-and-its-metabolites-by-hplc-ms-ms-rg1-excretion-in-rat-bile-urine-and-feces
#5
Chiyu He, Ru Feng, Yupeng Sun, Shifeng Chu, Ji Chen, Chao Ma, Jie Fu, Zhenxiong Zhao, Min Huang, Jiawen Shou, Xiaoyang Li, Yuzhu Wang, Jinfeng Hu, Yan Wang, Juntian Zhang
Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), the major effective component of ginseng, has been shown to have multiple bioactivities, but low oral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which could be used to validate and quantify the concentrations of Rg1 and its metabolites in Sprague-Dawley rat bile, urine, and feces after oral administration (25 mg/kg). Calibration curves offered satisfactory linearity (r>0...
November 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816645/stereospecificity-of-ginsenoside-rg2-epimers-in-the-protective-response-against-uv-b-radiation-induced-oxidative-stress-in-human-epidermal-keratinocytes
#6
Hyun-Ji Kang, Yu-Hua Huang, Hye-Won Lim, Daehyun Shin, Kyounghee Jang, Yoonjin Lee, Kyunghoon Kim, Chang-Jin Lim
Ginseng, referring to the dried roots of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been known as a famous traditional folkloric medicine in East Asian countries for a long time. In recent years, it has been gaining a worldwide popularity as a dietary herbal supplement. Ginsenosides are bioactive ingredients that are responsible for most pharmacological efficacies of ginseng. Ginsenoside Rg2 (Rg2), one of minor protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides, exists in two epimeric forms, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg2 [20(S)-Rg2] and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg2 [20(R)-Rg2]...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771457/identification-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitors-following-shenfu-injection-and-bioactivity-integrated-uplc-q-tof-ms-and-screening-for-related-anti-inflammatory-targets-in-vitro-and-in-silico
#7
Pan Li, Bin Lv, Xiaoqing Jiang, Ting Wang, Xianghui Ma, Nianwei Chang, Xiaoying Wang, Xiumei Gao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shenfu injection (SFI) is a commercial medicinal product approved by the China Food and Drug Administration that is widely used in the treatment of stroke and coronary heart disease. However, the material basis and the mechanism of SFI are not fully understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: With network pharmacology analysis, our research committed to identify the anti-inflammatory ingredients and mechanism of SFI by combining high-throughput screening...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746689/microbial-conversion-of-major-ginsenosides-in-ginseng-total-saponins-by-platycodon-grandiflorum-endophytes
#8
Lei Cui, Song-Quan Wu, Cheng-Ai Zhao, Cheng-Ri Yin
BACKGROUND: In this study, we screened and identified an endophyte JG09 having strong biocatalytic activity for ginsenosides from Platycodon grandiflorum, converted ginseng total saponins and ginsenoside monomers, determined the source of minor ginsenosides and the transformation pathways, and calculated the maximum production of minor ginsenosides for the conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to assess the transformation activity of endophyte JG09. METHODS: The transformation of ginseng total saponins and ginsenoside monomers Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg1 into minor ginsenosides F2, C-K and Rh1 using endophyte JG09 isolated by an organizational separation method and Esculin-R2A agar assay, as well as the identification of transformed products via TLC and HPLC, were evaluated...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697574/combination-of-hplc-ms-and-qams-as-a-new-analytical-approach-for-determination-of-saponins-in-ginseng-containing-products
#9
Andrey Stavrianidi, Elena Stekolshchikova, Anna Porotova, Igor Rodin, Oleg Shpigun
Conventional liquid chromatographic methods coupled with ultraviolet detection with low-wavelength range are lacking selectivity and sensitivity to determine both polar and less polar ginsenosides. Also the lack of standard substances for such quality control methods is leading to development of the approaches using single standard for quantitative analysis of multi-component system (QAMS). The objective of present study was to establish and compare for the first time liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry QAMS methods for the simultaneous determination of protopanaxatriol-type and protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides in a variety of ginseng products...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637802/qualitatively-and-quantitatively-investigating-the-regulation-of-intestinal-microbiota-on-the-metabolism-of-panax-notoginseng-saponins
#10
Jingcheng Xiao, Huimin Chen, Dian Kang, Yuhao Shao, Boyu Shen, Xinuo Li, Xiaoxi Yin, Zhangpei Zhu, Haofeng Li, Tai Rao, Lin Xie, Guangji Wang, Yan Liang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Intestinal microflora plays crucial roles in modulating pharmacokinetic characteristics and pharmacological actions of active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). However, the exact impact of altered intestinal microflora affecting the biotransformation of TCMs remains poorly understood. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to reveal the specific enterobacteria which dominate the metabolism of panax notoginseng saponins (PNSs) via exploring the relationship between bacterial community structures and the metabolic profiles of PNSs...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619505/ginsenosides-ingredients-of-the-root-of-panax-ginseng-are-not-substrates-but-inhibitors-of-sodium-glucose-transporter-1
#11
Shengli Gao, Hirotaka Kushida, Toshiaki Makino
Recent pharmacokinetic studies have revealed that ginsenosides, the major ingredients of ginseng (the roots of Panax ginseng), are present in the plasma collected from subjects receiving ginseng, and speculated that ginsenosides might be actively transported via glucose transporters. We evaluated whether ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1, and their metabolites from enteric bacteria act as substrates of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1, the major glucose transporter expressed on the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582326/korean-ginseng-berry-fermented-by-mycotoxin-non-producing-aspergillus-niger-and-aspergillus-oryzae-ginsenoside-analyses-and-anti-proliferative-activities
#12
Zhipeng Li, Hyung Jin Ahn, Nam Yeon Kim, Yu Na Lee, Geun Eog Ji
To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485900/photoprotective-properties-of%C3%A2-20-s-protopanaxatriol-an-aglycone-of-ginseng-saponins-protection-from-ultraviolet-b-radiation-induced-oxidative-stress-in-human-epidermal-keratinocytes
#13
Sun-Joo Oh, Kyunghoon Kim, Chang-Jin Lim
Ginsenosides are responsible for diverse pharmacological properties ascribed to ginseng, a plant used in traditional medicine. Ginsenosides are classified into three categories: Protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol (PPT) and oleanolic acid. As an aglycone of PPT-type ginsenosides, PPT exists in two stereoisomeric forms, 20(S)-PPT and 20(R)‑PPT. The 20(S)‑PPT stereoisomer is a major metabolic product of PPT‑type ginsenosides produced in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, 20(S)-PPT suppressed the elevation of reactive oxygen species in HaCaT cells following irradiation with ultraviolet (UV)‑B...
September 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446225/anticancer-activities-of-protopanaxadiol-and-protopanaxatriol-type-ginsenosides-and-their-metabolites
#14
REVIEW
Xiao-Jia Chen, Xiao-Jing Zhang, Yan-Mei Shui, Jian-Bo Wan, Jian-Li Gao
Recently, most anticancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial, and botanical sources, but the low success rates of chemotherapies and the development of multidrug resistance emphasize the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against cancer. Ginseng types, including Asian ginseng, American ginseng, and notoginseng, have been used traditionally to treat various diseases, due to their immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, antioxidative, and antitumor activities...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220080/cytochromes-p450-inhibitory-excipient-based-self-microemulsions-for-the-improved-bioavailability-of-protopanaxatriol-and-protopanaxadiol-preparation-and-evaluation
#15
Feifei Yang, Jing Zhou, Chunyu Liu, Xiao Hu, Ruile Pan, Qi Chang, Xinmin Liu, Yonghong Liao
Protopanaxatriol and protopanaxadiol exhibit limited oral bioavailability due to the poor solubility and intestinal cytochromes P450-mediated metabolism. This study set out to develop a novel cytochromes P450 inhibitory excipient(s)-based self-microemulsion to encapsulate protopanaxatriol and protopanaxadiol so as to enhance the in vivo bioavailability by inhibiting intestinal metabolism. After screening the inhibitory effect of pharmaceutical excipients on the cytochromes P450-mediated metabolism, two self-microemulsions, SME-1 and SME-2, with similar physicochemical properties were prepared by using either active inhibitory excipients or corresponding inactive excipients...
May 24, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186294/the-antitumor-activity-study-of-ginsenosides-and-metabolites-in-lung-cancer-cell
#16
Feng-Yuan Xu, Wen-Qing Shang, Jia-Jun Yu, Qian Sun, Ming-Qing Li, Jian-Song Sun
Ginseng and its components exert various biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, and antitumor activity. Ginsenosides are the main biological components of ginseng. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) are two metabolites of ginsenosides. However, the difference between these compounds in anti-lung cancer is unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity of PPD, PPT, Ginsenosides-Rg3 (G-Rg3) and Ginsenosides-Rh2 (G-Rh2) in lung cancer cell...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158232/production-of-ginsenoside-f1-using-commercial-enzyme-cellulase-kn
#17
Yu Wang, Kang-Duk Choi, Hongshan Yu, Fengxie Jin, Wan-Taek Im
BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside F1, a pharmaceutical component of ginseng, is known to have antiaging, antioxidant, anticancer, and keratinocyte protective effects. However, the usage of ginsenoside F1 is restricted owing to the small amount found in Korean ginseng. METHODS: To enhance the production of ginsenoside F1 as a 10 g unit with high specificity, yield, and purity, an enzymatic bioconversion method was developed to adopt the commercial enzyme Cellulase KN from Aspergillus niger with food grade, which has ginsenoside-transforming ability...
April 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27114315/appropriate-choice-of-collision-induced-dissociation-energy-for-qualitative-analysis-of-notoginsenosides-based-on-liquid-chromatography-hybrid-ion-trap-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#18
Guang-Ji Wang, Han-Xu Fu, Jing-Cheng Xiao, Wei Ye, Tai Rao, Yu-Hao Shao, Dian Kang, Lin Xie, Yan Liang
Liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry possessesd both the MS(n) ability of ion trap and the excellent resolution of a time-of-flight, and has been widely used to identify drug metabolites and determine trace multi-components for in natural products. Collision energy, one of the most important factors in acquiring MS(n) information, could be set freely in the range of 10%-400%. Herein, notoginsenosides were chosen as model compounds to build a novel methodology for the collision energy optimization...
April 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26978992/-structure-and-biological-action-on-cardiovascular-systems-of-saponins-from-panax-notoginseng
#19
REVIEW
Juan Li, Ru-feng Wang, Li Yang, Zheng-tao Wang
Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Sanqi), the underground part of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (Araliaceae) is commonly used in Chinese medicine for treatment of haemorrhage, haemostasis, swelling, etc. The aerial part including leaves, flowers and fruits are also applied for similar functions. Triterpenoid saponins are considered to be responsible for the biological activities of Sanqi. Up to date, more than 100 saponins have been isolated from theroots, rhizomes, leaves, flowers and fruits of P. notoginseng...
September 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968680/chemical-profiling-of-qixue-shuangbu-tincture-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-electrospray-ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight-high-definition-mass-spectrometry-uplc-qtof-ms
#20
Lin-Wei Chen, Qin Wang, Kun-Ming Qin, Xiao-Li Wang, Bin Wang, Dan-Ni Chen, Bao-Chang Cai, Ting Cai
The present study was designed to develop and validate a sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) method to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Qixue Shuangbu Tincture (QXSBT), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription. Under the optimized UPLC and QTOF/MS conditions, 56 components in QXSBT, including chalcones, triterpenoids, protopanaxatriol, flavones and flavanones were identified and tentatively characterized within a running time of 42 min...
February 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
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