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Lei Cui, Song-Quan Wu, Cheng-Ai Zhao, Cheng-Ri Yin
BACKGROUND: In this study, we screened and identified an endophyte JG09 having strong biocatalytic activity for ginsenosides from Platycodon grandiflorum, converted ginseng total saponins and ginsenoside monomers, determined the source of minor ginsenosides and the transformation pathways, and calculated the maximum production of minor ginsenosides for the conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to assess the transformation activity of endophyte JG09. METHODS: The transformation of ginseng total saponins and ginsenoside monomers Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg1 into minor ginsenosides F2, C-K and Rh1 using endophyte JG09 isolated by an organizational separation method and Esculin-R2A agar assay, as well as the identification of transformed products via TLC and HPLC, were evaluated...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Andrey Stavrianidi, Elena Stekolshchikova, Anna Porotova, Igor Rodin, Oleg Shpigun
Conventional liquid chromatographic methods coupled with ultraviolet detection with low-wavelength range are lacking selectivity and sensitivity to determine both polar and less polar ginsenosides. Also the lack of standard substances for such quality control methods is leading to development of the approaches using single standard for quantitative analysis of multi-component system (QAMS). The objective of present study was to establish and compare for the first time liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry QAMS methods for the simultaneous determination of protopanaxatriol-type and protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides in a variety of ginseng products...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Jingcheng Xiao, Huimin Chen, Dian Kang, Yuhao Shao, Boyu Shen, Xinuo Li, Xiaoxi Yin, Zhangpei Zhu, Haofeng Li, Tai Rao, Lin Xie, Guangji Wang, Yan Liang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Intestinal microflora plays crucial roles in modulating pharmacokinetic characteristics and pharmacological actions of active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). However, the exact impact of altered intestinal microflora affecting the biotransformation of TCMs remains poorly understood. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to reveal the specific enterobacteria which dominate the metabolism of panax notoginseng saponins (PNSs) via exploring the relationship between bacterial community structures and the metabolic profiles of PNSs...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Shengli Gao, Hirotaka Kushida, Toshiaki Makino
Recent pharmacokinetic studies have revealed that ginsenosides, the major ingredients of ginseng (the roots of Panax ginseng), are present in the plasma collected from subjects receiving ginseng, and speculated that ginsenosides might be actively transported via glucose transporters. We evaluated whether ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1, and their metabolites from enteric bacteria act as substrates of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1, the major glucose transporter expressed on the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Zhipeng Li, Hyung Jin Ahn, Nam Yeon Kim, Yu Na Lee, Geun Eog Ji
To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Sun-Joo Oh, Kyunghoon Kim, Chang-Jin Lim
Ginsenosides are responsible for diverse pharmacological properties ascribed to ginseng, a plant used in traditional medicine. Ginsenosides are classified into three categories: Protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol (PPT) and oleanolic acid. As an aglycone of PPT-type ginsenosides, PPT exists in two stereoisomeric forms, 20(S)-PPT and 20(R)‑PPT. The 20(S)‑PPT stereoisomer is a major metabolic product of PPT‑type ginsenosides produced in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, 20(S)-PPT suppressed the elevation of reactive oxygen species in HaCaT cells following irradiation with ultraviolet (UV)‑B...
September 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xiao-Jia Chen, Xiao-Jing Zhang, Yan-Mei Shui, Jian-Bo Wan, Jian-Li Gao
Recently, most anticancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial, and botanical sources, but the low success rates of chemotherapies and the development of multidrug resistance emphasize the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against cancer. Ginseng types, including Asian ginseng, American ginseng, and notoginseng, have been used traditionally to treat various diseases, due to their immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, antioxidative, and antitumor activities...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Feifei Yang, Jing Zhou, Chunyu Liu, Xiao Hu, Ruile Pan, Qi Chang, Xinmin Liu, Yonghong Liao
Protopanaxatriol and protopanaxadiol exhibit limited oral bioavailability due to the poor solubility and intestinal cytochromes P450-mediated metabolism. This study set out to develop a novel cytochromes P450 inhibitory excipient(s)-based self-microemulsion to encapsulate protopanaxatriol and protopanaxadiol so as to enhance the in vivo bioavailability by inhibiting intestinal metabolism. After screening the inhibitory effect of pharmaceutical excipients on the cytochromes P450-mediated metabolism, two self-microemulsions, SME-1 and SME-2, with similar physicochemical properties were prepared by using either active inhibitory excipients or corresponding inactive excipients...
May 24, 2016: Planta Medica
Feng-Yuan Xu, Wen-Qing Shang, Jia-Jun Yu, Qian Sun, Ming-Qing Li, Jian-Song Sun
Ginseng and its components exert various biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, and antitumor activity. Ginsenosides are the main biological components of ginseng. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) are two metabolites of ginsenosides. However, the difference between these compounds in anti-lung cancer is unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity of PPD, PPT, Ginsenosides-Rg3 (G-Rg3) and Ginsenosides-Rh2 (G-Rh2) in lung cancer cell...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Yu Wang, Kang-Duk Choi, Hongshan Yu, Fengxie Jin, Wan-Taek Im
BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside F1, a pharmaceutical component of ginseng, is known to have antiaging, antioxidant, anticancer, and keratinocyte protective effects. However, the usage of ginsenoside F1 is restricted owing to the small amount found in Korean ginseng. METHODS: To enhance the production of ginsenoside F1 as a 10 g unit with high specificity, yield, and purity, an enzymatic bioconversion method was developed to adopt the commercial enzyme Cellulase KN from Aspergillus niger with food grade, which has ginsenoside-transforming ability...
April 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Guang-Ji Wang, Han-Xu Fu, Jing-Cheng Xiao, Wei Ye, Tai Rao, Yu-Hao Shao, Dian Kang, Lin Xie, Yan Liang
Liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry possessesd both the MS(n) ability of ion trap and the excellent resolution of a time-of-flight, and has been widely used to identify drug metabolites and determine trace multi-components for in natural products. Collision energy, one of the most important factors in acquiring MS(n) information, could be set freely in the range of 10%-400%. Herein, notoginsenosides were chosen as model compounds to build a novel methodology for the collision energy optimization...
April 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Juan Li, Ru-feng Wang, Li Yang, Zheng-tao Wang
Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Sanqi), the underground part of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (Araliaceae) is commonly used in Chinese medicine for treatment of haemorrhage, haemostasis, swelling, etc. The aerial part including leaves, flowers and fruits are also applied for similar functions. Triterpenoid saponins are considered to be responsible for the biological activities of Sanqi. Up to date, more than 100 saponins have been isolated from theroots, rhizomes, leaves, flowers and fruits of P. notoginseng...
September 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Lin-Wei Chen, Qin Wang, Kun-Ming Qin, Xiao-Li Wang, Bin Wang, Dan-Ni Chen, Bao-Chang Cai, Ting Cai
The present study was designed to develop and validate a sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) method to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Qixue Shuangbu Tincture (QXSBT), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription. Under the optimized UPLC and QTOF/MS conditions, 56 components in QXSBT, including chalcones, triterpenoids, protopanaxatriol, flavones and flavanones were identified and tentatively characterized within a running time of 42 min...
February 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Chong-Zhi Wang, Samantha Anderson, Chun-Su Yuan
Asian ginseng, American ginseng, and notoginseng are three major species in the ginseng family. Notoginseng is a Chinese herbal medicine with a long history of use in many Oriental countries. This botanical has a distinct ginsenoside profile compared to other ginseng herbs. As a saponin-rich plant, notoginseng could be a good candidate for cancer chemoprevention. However, to date, only relatively limited anticancer studies have been conducted on notoginseng. In this paper, after reviewing its anticancer data, phytochemical isolation and analysis of notoginseng is presented in comparison with Asian ginseng and American ginseng...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Xian-En Zhao, Tao Lv, Shuyun Zhu, Fei Qu, Guang Chen, Yongrui He, Na Wei, Guoliang Li, Lian Xia, Zhiwei Sun, Shijuan Zhang, Jinmao You, Shu Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Jing Sun, Shuying Liu
This paper, for the first time, reported a speedy hyphenated technique of low toxic dual ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (dual-UADLLME) coupled with microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) for the simultaneous determination of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT). The developed method was based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) detection using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. A mass spectrometry sensitizing reagent, 4'-carboxy-substituted rosamine (CSR) with high reaction activity and ionization efficiency was synthesized and firstly used as derivatization reagent...
March 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
In-Bae Jang, Dae-Young Lee, Jin Yu, Hong-Woo Park, Hwang-Sung Mo, Kee-Choon Park, Dong-Yun Hyun, Eung-Ho Lee, Kee-Hong Kim, Chang-Sik Oh
BACKGROUND: Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established. METHODS: The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17% of LTR...
October 2015: Journal of Ginseng Research
Chong-Zhi Wang, Samantha Anderson, Wei DU, Tong-Chuan He, Chun-Su Yuan
The ginseng family, including Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng), is commonly used herbal medicine. White ginseng is prepared by air-drying after harvest, while red ginseng is prepared by a steaming or heating process. The anticancer activity of red ginseng is significantly increased, due to the production of active anticancer ginsenosides during the steaming treatment, compared with that of white ginseng. Thus far, anticancer studies have been mostly focused on Asian ginseng...
January 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Seong-Bum Park, Ju-Hyeon Chun, Yong-Wook Ban, Jung Yeon Han, Yong Eui Choi
BACKGROUND: The roots of Panax ginseng contain noble tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins derived from dammarenediol-II. Dammarene-type ginsenosides are classified into the protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) groups based on their triterpene aglycone structures. Two cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2) are critical for the production of PPD and PPT aglycones, respectively. CYP716A53v2 is a protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase that catalyzes PPT production from PPD in P...
January 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Li-Yuan Ma, You-Bo Zhang, Qi-Le Zhou, Yan-Fang Yang, Xiu-Wei Yang
A high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was successfully developed and validated for the identification and determination of eight ginsenosides: ginsenoside Rg₁ (1); 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh₁ (2); 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg₂ (3); 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh₁ (4); 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg₂ (5); ginsenoside Rd (6); 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg₃ (7); and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg₃ (8) in rat plasma. The established rapid method had high linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Thi Hong Van Le, Gwang Jin Lee, Huynh Kim Long Vu, Sung Won Kwon, Ngoc Khoi Nguyen, Jeong Hill Park, Minh Duc Nguyen
Chemical and pharmacological studies of Panax vietnamensis (Vietnamese ginseng; VG) have been reported since its discovery in 1973. However, the content of each saponin in different parts of VG has not been reported. In this study, 17 ginsenosides in the different underground parts of P. vietnamensis were analyzed by HPLC/evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). Their contents in the dried rhizome, radix, and fine roots were 195, 156, and 139 mg/g, respectively, which were extremely high compared to other Panax species...
2015: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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