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protopanaxatriol

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701876/effects-of-panax-ginseng-extracts-prepared-at-different-steaming-times-on-thermogenesis-in-rats
#1
Hyung Taek Cho, Jun Ho Kim, Jin Hyup Lee, Young Jun Kim
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng (PG) has a long history of use in Asian medicine because of its multiple pharmacological activities. It has been considered that PG in a type of white ginseng may induce undesirable thermogenic effects, but not in a type of red ginseng. However, there is a lack of evidence about the correlation between ginsenoside and thermogenesis. METHODS: We investigated the effects of PG with different ginsenoside compositions on body temperature, blood pressure, and thermogenesis-related factors in rats...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649066/simultaneous-determination-and-pharmacokinetics-of-eight-ginsenosides-by-lc-ms-ms-after-intravenously-infusion-of-shenmai-injection-in-dogs
#2
Jian Yu, Li-Qiang Gu, Yan-Fei Xin, Hai-Yan Gao, Xiao-Zhen Xu, Sheng Zhang, Guo-Liang Zhou, Zhen-Qiang You, Li-Ru Huo, Yao-Xian Xuan
SHENMAI injection, a prescription comprised of Panax ginseng and Ophiopogon japonicas, is being extensively applied in the field of cardio-protection and immune-modulation in China. Ginsenosides are the main active components in SHENMAI injection. In order to capture and analyze the pharmacokinetic profile of major ginsenosides of SHENMAI injection in Beagle dogs, liquid chromatography equipped with electro-spray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry method was applied in simultaneous determination for protopanaxatriol type ginsenoside (Re, Rf, Rg1), protopanaxadiol type ginsenoside (Rb2, Rb1, Rd, Rc) and oleanolic acid type ginsenoside (Ro)...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633513/gram-scale-production-of-ginsenoside-f1-using-a-recombinant-bacterial-%C3%AE-glucosidase
#3
Dong-Shan An, Chang-Hao Cui, Muhammad Zubair Siddiqi, Hong Shan Yu, Feng-Xie Jin, Song-Gun Kim, Wan-Taek Im
Naturally occurring ginsenoside F1 (20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxatriol) is rare. Here, we produced gram-scale quantities of ginsenoside F1 from a crude protopanaxatriol saponin mixture comprised mainly of Re and Rg1 through enzyme-mediated biotransformation using recombinant β-glucosidase (BgpA) cloned from a soil bacterium, Terrabacter ginsenosidimutans Gsoil3082(T). In a systematic, step-by-step process, the concentrations of substrate, enzyme, and NaCl were determined for maximal production of F1...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479731/simultaneous-determination-of-multiple-ginsenosides-in-panax-ginseng-herbal-medicines-with-one-single-reference-standard
#4
Chunwei Wu, Qingxiao Guan, Shumei Wang, Yueying Rong
BACKGROUND: Root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (Renseng in Chinese) is a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine. Ginsenosides are the major bioactive components. However, the shortage and high cost of some ginsenoside reference standards make it is difficult for quality control of P. ginseng. OBJECTIVE: A method, single standard for determination of multicomponents (SSDMC), was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine ginsenosides in P. ginseng (ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rb3, Rd)...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440448/modified-panax-ginseng-extract-regulates-autophagy-by-ampk-signaling-in-a549-human-lung-cancer-cells
#5
Hwa-Seung Yoo, Jung Min Kim, Eunbi Jo, Chong-Kwan Cho, Seung-Yeul Lee, Hwan Su Kang, Min-Goo Lee, Pei-Ying Yang, Ik-Soon Jang
Panax ginseng has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The antiproliferative activity of ginseng has been increased after enzymatic processing of ginseng saponin, which may result in the accumulation of minor saponins, such as Rh2, Rg3, compound K and protopanaxatriol type (PPT) in modified regular ginseng extract (MRGX). In the present study, the anticancer activity and the associated mechanisms of MRGX were investigated using A549 human lung cancer cells...
June 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294969/a-metabolomic-approach-for-the-discrimination-of-red-ginseng-root-parts-and-targeted-validation
#6
Gyo In, Hyun Kyu Seo, Hee-Won Park, Kyoung Hwa Jang
Ginsenosides are used as existing markers of red ginseng (RG) quality, and ginsenoside ratios are also indicative of the different components of red ginseng. For the analysis and classification of ginsenoside content, red ginseng was separated into three parts, namely, main roots, lateral roots, and fine roots, and each extract was subjected to ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between the extracts of main roots and fine roots and suggested discrimination markers (four for the main roots and five for the fine roots)...
March 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273939/microbial-transformation-of-ginsenoside-rb1-re-and-rg1-and-its-contribution-to-the-improved-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-ginseng
#7
Shanshan Yu, Xiaoli Zhou, Fan Li, Chunchun Xu, Fei Zheng, Jing Li, Huanxi Zhao, Yulin Dai, Shuying Liu, Yan Feng
Microbial transformation of ginsenosides to increase its pharmaceutical effect is gaining increasing attention in recent years. In this study, Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20, which was isolated from soil samples on which ginseng grown, exhibited effective ginsenoside-transforming activity. After protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenoside (Rb1) and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides (Re and Rg1) were fed to C. sp. TH20, a total of 12 metabolites, including 6 new intermediate metabolites, were identified. Stepwise deglycosylation and dehydrogenation on the feeding precursors have been observed...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078264/comparison-of-ginsenoside-contents-in-different-parts-of-korean-ginseng-panax-ginseng-c-a-meyer
#8
Ok-Ju Kang, Ji-Sang Kim
The present study was conducted to investigate the ginsenoside profiles of the main root, root hair, and leaf of ginseng in order to demonstrate their possible application in medicine. The total ginsenoside content of the leaf was up to 12 times than that in the main root, and the content of protopanaxadiol groups was higher than that of protopanaxatriol groups in all the samples. The leaf was shown to contain high amounts of ginsenosides Rb3 and Rh1, whereas the main root contained large amounts of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rc...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974091/arachidicoccus-ginsenosidivorans-sp-nov-with-ginsenoside-converting-activity-isolated-from-ginseng-cultivating-soil
#9
Muhammad Zubair Siddiqi, Zubair Aslam, Wan-Taek Im
A Gram-reaction-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, aerobic, non-motile, light yellow and rod-shaped bacterium (designated Gsoil 809T) isolated from soil of ginseng field, was characterized by a polyphasic approach to clarify its taxonomic position. Strain Gsoil 809T was observed to grow optimally at 30 °C and at pH 7.0 on nutrient agar medium. Strain Gsoil 809T possessed β-glucosidase activity, which was responsible for its ability to transform protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside Rg1 to ginsenoside Rh1...
April 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935213/uhplc-q-tof-ms-based-metabolomics-approach-to-compare-the-saponin-compositions-of-xueshuantong-injection-and-xuesaitong-injection
#10
Changliang Yao, Wenzhi Yang, Jingxian Zhang, Shi Qiu, Ming Chen, Xiaojian Shi, Huiqin Pan, Wanying Wu, Dean Guo
Various traditional Chinese medicine preparations developed from Notoginseng total saponins, including Xueshuantong injection and Xuesaitong injection, are extensively used in China to treat cardiocerebrovascular diseases. However, the difference of their saponin compositions remains unknown. An ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach was developed to probe the saponin discrimination between Xueshuantong and Xuesaitong and the related factors by large sample analysis...
February 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930975/adaptogenic-herb-ginseng-panax-as-medical-food-status-quo-and-future-prospects
#11
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf
Ginseng, an herbaceous plant, belonging to the family Araliaceae is a traditional medicinal herb. Also, it is emerging as a functional food and potent adjunct medicine. Saponin ginsenosides (protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol) are the signature phytochemicals of this plant. With the surfacing of scientific validations, ginseng is gaining unprecedented attention from consumers as well as researchers. As a number of drug-herb interaction-caused health issues have emerged, the medicinal relevance of this plant has been critically assessed here...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918242/cross-interaction-between-ilyonectria-mors-panacis-isolates-infecting-korean-ginseng-and-ginseng-saponins-in-correlation-with-their-pathogenicity
#12
Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Priyanka Singh, Deok-Chun Yang
Ilyonectria mors-panacis belongs to I. radicicola species complex and causes root rot and replant failure of ginseng in Asia and North America. The aims of this work were to identify I. mors-panacis that infect Korean ginseng using molecular approaches and to investigate whether their aggressiveness depends on their ability to metabolize ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) by their β-glucosidases, in comparison with other identified Ilyonectria species. Fourteen isolates were collected from culture collections or directly isolated from infected roots and mainly identified based on histone H3 (HIS H3) sequence...
May 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914321/functional-regulation-of-ginsenoside-biosynthesis-by-rna-interferences-of-a-udp-glycosyltransferase-gene-in-panax-ginseng-and-panax-quinquefolius
#13
Chao Lu, Shoujing Zhao, Guanning Wei, Huijuan Zhao, Qingling Qu
Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) have been used as medicinal and functional herbal remedies worldwide. Different properties of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were confirmed not only in clinical findings, but also at cellular and molecular levels. The major pharmacological ingredients of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. The P. ginseng roots contain a higher ratio of ginsenoside Rg1:Rb1 than that in P. quinquefolius...
February 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818927/simultaneous-quantification-of-ginsenoside-rg1-and-its-metabolites-by-hplc-ms-ms-rg1-excretion-in-rat-bile-urine-and-feces
#14
Chiyu He, Ru Feng, Yupeng Sun, Shifeng Chu, Ji Chen, Chao Ma, Jie Fu, Zhenxiong Zhao, Min Huang, Jiawen Shou, Xiaoyang Li, Yuzhu Wang, Jinfeng Hu, Yan Wang, Juntian Zhang
Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), the major effective component of ginseng, has been shown to have multiple bioactivities, but low oral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which could be used to validate and quantify the concentrations of Rg1 and its metabolites in Sprague-Dawley rat bile, urine, and feces after oral administration (25 mg/kg). Calibration curves offered satisfactory linearity (r>0...
November 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816645/stereospecificity-of-ginsenoside-rg2-epimers-in-the-protective-response-against-uv-b-radiation-induced-oxidative-stress-in-human-epidermal-keratinocytes
#15
Hyun-Ji Kang, Yu-Hua Huang, Hye-Won Lim, Daehyun Shin, Kyounghee Jang, Yoonjin Lee, Kyunghoon Kim, Chang-Jin Lim
Ginseng, referring to the dried roots of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been known as a famous traditional folkloric medicine in East Asian countries for a long time. In recent years, it has been gaining a worldwide popularity as a dietary herbal supplement. Ginsenosides are bioactive ingredients that are responsible for most pharmacological efficacies of ginseng. Ginsenoside Rg2 (Rg2), one of minor protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides, exists in two epimeric forms, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg2 [20(S)-Rg2] and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg2 [20(R)-Rg2]...
December 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771457/identification-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitors-following-shenfu-injection-and-bioactivity-integrated-uplc-q-tof-ms-and-screening-for-related-anti-inflammatory-targets-in-vitro-and-in-silico
#16
Pan Li, Bin Lv, Xiaoqing Jiang, Ting Wang, Xianghui Ma, Nianwei Chang, Xiaoying Wang, Xiumei Gao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shenfu injection (SFI) is a commercial medicinal product approved by the China Food and Drug Administration that is widely used in the treatment of stroke and coronary heart disease. However, the material basis and the mechanism of SFI are not fully understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: With network pharmacology analysis, our research committed to identify the anti-inflammatory ingredients and mechanism of SFI by combining high-throughput screening...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746689/microbial-conversion-of-major-ginsenosides-in-ginseng-total-saponins-by-platycodon-grandiflorum-endophytes
#17
Lei Cui, Song-Quan Wu, Cheng-Ai Zhao, Cheng-Ri Yin
BACKGROUND: In this study, we screened and identified an endophyte JG09 having strong biocatalytic activity for ginsenosides from Platycodon grandiflorum, converted ginseng total saponins and ginsenoside monomers, determined the source of minor ginsenosides and the transformation pathways, and calculated the maximum production of minor ginsenosides for the conversion of ginsenoside Rb1 to assess the transformation activity of endophyte JG09. METHODS: The transformation of ginseng total saponins and ginsenoside monomers Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg1 into minor ginsenosides F2, C-K and Rh1 using endophyte JG09 isolated by an organizational separation method and Esculin-R2A agar assay, as well as the identification of transformed products via TLC and HPLC, were evaluated...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697574/combination-of-hplc-ms-and-qams-as-a-new-analytical-approach-for-determination-of-saponins-in-ginseng-containing-products
#18
Andrey Stavrianidi, Elena Stekolshchikova, Anna Porotova, Igor Rodin, Oleg Shpigun
Conventional liquid chromatographic methods coupled with ultraviolet detection with low-wavelength range are lacking selectivity and sensitivity to determine both polar and less polar ginsenosides. Also the lack of standard substances for such quality control methods is leading to development of the approaches using single standard for quantitative analysis of multi-component system (QAMS). The objective of present study was to establish and compare for the first time liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry QAMS methods for the simultaneous determination of protopanaxatriol-type and protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides in a variety of ginseng products...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637802/qualitatively-and-quantitatively-investigating-the-regulation-of-intestinal-microbiota-on-the-metabolism-of-panax-notoginseng-saponins
#19
Jingcheng Xiao, Huimin Chen, Dian Kang, Yuhao Shao, Boyu Shen, Xinuo Li, Xiaoxi Yin, Zhangpei Zhu, Haofeng Li, Tai Rao, Lin Xie, Guangji Wang, Yan Liang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Intestinal microflora plays crucial roles in modulating pharmacokinetic characteristics and pharmacological actions of active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). However, the exact impact of altered intestinal microflora affecting the biotransformation of TCMs remains poorly understood. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to reveal the specific enterobacteria which dominate the metabolism of panax notoginseng saponins (PNSs) via exploring the relationship between bacterial community structures and the metabolic profiles of PNSs...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619505/ginsenosides-ingredients-of-the-root-of-panax-ginseng-are-not-substrates-but-inhibitors-of-sodium-glucose-transporter-1
#20
Shengli Gao, Hirotaka Kushida, Toshiaki Makino
Recent pharmacokinetic studies have revealed that ginsenosides, the major ingredients of ginseng (the roots of Panax ginseng), are present in the plasma collected from subjects receiving ginseng, and speculated that ginsenosides might be actively transported via glucose transporters. We evaluated whether ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1, and their metabolites from enteric bacteria act as substrates of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1, the major glucose transporter expressed on the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells...
January 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
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