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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765322/therapeutic-potential-of-ginsenosides-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-for-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Litao Bai, Jialiang Gao, Fan Wei, Jing Zhao, Danwei Wang, Junping Wei
Ginseng, one of the oldest traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, has been used widely in China and Asia for thousands of years. Ginsenosides extracted from ginseng, which is derived from the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, have been used in China as an adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Owing to the technical complexity of ginsenoside production, the total ginsenosides are generally extracted. Accumulating evidence has shown that ginsenosides exert antidiabetic effects. In vivo and in vitro tests revealed the potential of ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3, Rg5, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, compound K, Rk1, Re, ginseng total saponins, malonyl ginsenosides, Rd, Rh2, F2, protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type saponins to treat diabetes and its complications, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic cognitive dysfunction, type 2 diabetes mellitus with fatty liver disease, diabetic cerebral infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and diabetic erectile dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760378/the-ginsenoside-ppd-exerts-anti-endometriosis-effects-by-suppressing-estrogen-receptor-mediated-inhibition-of-endometrial-stromal-cell-autophagy-and-nk-cell-cytotoxicity
#2
Bing Zhang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Chun-Jie Gu, Ke Wu, Hui-Li Yang, Jie Mei, Jia-Jun Yu, Xiao-Fan Hou, Jian-Song Sun, Feng-Yuan Xu, Da-Jin Li, Li-Ping Jin, Ming-Qing Li
Endometriosis (EMS) is an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with a low autophagy level of ectopic endometrial stromal cells (eESCs). Impaired NK cell cytotoxic activity is involved in the clearance obstruction of the ectopic endometrial tissue in the abdominopelvic cavity. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) are two metabolites of ginsenosides, which have profound biological functions, such as anti-cancer activities. However, the role and mechanism of ginsenosides and metabolites in endometriosis are completely unknown...
May 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755556/defensive-properties-of-ginsenoside-re-against-uv-b-induced-oxidative-stress-through-up-regulating-glutathione-and-superoxide-dismutase-in-hacat-keratinocytes
#3
Daehyun Shin, Hee Won Moon, Yuri Oh, Kyunghoon Kim, Dae-Duk Kim, Chang-Jin Lim
Ginseng is now used worldwide as a traditional Oriental medicine. Ginsenosides, also known as ginseng saponins, are responsible for most pharmacological efficacies of ginseng. This work aimed to assess the novel skin anti-photoaging potential of ginsenoside Re (Re), a protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside, by analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS), pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2) and -9 (proMMP-9), total glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and cellular viability in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719458/molecular-signaling-of-ginsenosides-rb1-rg1-and-rg3-and-their-mode-of-actions
#4
REVIEW
Padmanaban Mohanan, Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Deok-Chun Yang
Ginseng has gained its popularity as an adaptogen since ancient days because of its triterpenoid saponins, known as ginsenosides. These triterpenoid saponins are unique and classified as protopanaxatriol and protopanaxadiol saponins based on their glycosylation patterns. They play many protective roles in humans and are under intense research as various groups continue to study their efficacy at the molecular level in various disorders. Ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 are the most abundant ginsenosides present in ginseng roots, and they confer the pharmacological properties of the plant, whereas ginsenoside Rg3 is abundantly present in Korean Red Ginseng preparation, which is highly known for its anticancer effects...
April 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518631/natural-compounds-analysis-using-liquid-and-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-hyphenated-to-mass-spectrometry-evaluation-of-a-new-design-of-atmospheric-pressure-ionization-source
#5
Oliver Ciclet, Denis Barron, Steve Bajic, Jean-Luc Veuthey, Davy Guillarme, Alexandre Grand-Guillaume Perrenoud
The MS hyphenation performance of UniSpray®, a new design of atmospheric pressure ionization source was evaluated in both SFC and RPLC modes. Sensitivity, stability, versatility and matrix effects offered by the UniSpray were assessed in positive and negative ionization modes and systematically compared to an electrospray source (ESI) using 120 natural compounds covering an extended chemical space. In a first instance, a multivariate approach was used to screen and optimize the UniSpray source settings to maximize detection sensitivity...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515052/semi-synthesis-of-twelve-known-20z-e-pseudo-ginsenosides-and-their-comparative-study-of-antioxidative-activity-in-free-radical-induced-hemolysis-of-rabbit-erythrocytes
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Manman Li, Yanping Chen, Pengfei Zhang, Ling Zhang, Ri Zhou, Yan Xu, Hongda Ding, Qiujing Wang, Zhicai Wang
Twelve pseudo-ginsenosides were synthesized under a mild condition, via a simple three-step called acetylation, elimination-addition and saponification. The inhibitory effects of these twelve pseudo-ginsenosides were screened on the hemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes caused by 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH). It was found that the IC50 values followed the sequence of (20Z) pseudo-protopanaxatriol (pseudo-PPT)<(20Z) pseudo-protopanaxadiol (pseudo-PPD)<(20Z) pseudo-Rh2<(20E) pseudo-PPT<(20E) pseudo-PPD<(20E) pseudo-Rh2<(20Z) pseudo-Rg2<(20E) pseudo-Rg2<Rb1<(20Z) pseudo-Rh1<Rg2<(20E) pseudo-Rh1...
May 1, 2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468740/neuroprotective-effects-of-20-s-protopanaxatriol-ppt-on-scopolamine-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#7
Cong Lu, Jingwei Lv, Liming Dong, Ning Jiang, Yan Wang, Qiong Wang, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), one of the ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects and to improve memory. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of PPT on scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were pretreated with 2 different doses of PPT (20 and 40 μmol/kg) for 27 days by intraperitoneal injection, and scopolamine (0.75 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 9 days to induce memory impairment...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450757/enhanced-expression-of-ginsenoside-biosynthetic-genes-and-in-vitro-ginsenoside-production-in-elicited-panax-sikkimensis-ban-cell-suspensions
#8
Tanya Biswas, Shiv Shanker Pandey, Deepamala Maji, Vikrant Gupta, Alok Kalra, Manju Singh, Archana Mathur, A K Mathur
Dual metabolite, i.e., ginsenoside and anthocyanin, co-accumulating cell suspensions of Panax sikkimensis were subjected to elicitation with culture filtrates of Serratia marcescens (SD 21), Bacillus subtilis (FL11), Trichoderma atroviridae (TA), and T. harzianum (TH) at 1.25% and 2.5% v/v for 1- and 3-week duration. The fungal-derived elicitors (TA and TH) did not significantly affect biomass accumulation; however, bacterial elicitors (SD 21 and FL11), especially SD 21, led to comparable loss in biomass growth...
February 15, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431441/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-20-ginsenosides-rh-4-20e-rh-3-rg-6-and-rk-1-a-general-approach-to-access-dehydrated-ginsenosides
#9
Renzeng Shen, Stephane Laval, Xin Cao, Biao Yu
Four representative Δ20 -ginsenosides, namely, ginsenosides Rh4 (1), (20E)-Rh3 (2), Rg6 (3), and Rk1 (4) from Panax Ginseng, were chemically synthesized for the first time. Dehydration of the naturally occurring 20(S)-protopanaxatriol and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol provided all types of Δ20 -sapogenins, which were separated due to a judicious choice of protecting groups. The Δ20 -sapogenins were then directly glycosylated with glycosyl ortho-alkynylbenzoate donors under the catalysis of Ph3 PAuNTf2 as key steps...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368130/complete-conversion-of-all-typical-glycosylated-protopanaxatriol-ginsenosides-to-aglycon-protopanaxatriol-by-combined-bacterial-%C3%AE-glycosidases
#10
Eun-Joo Yang, Tae-Hun Kim, Kyung-Chul Shin, Deok-Kun Oh
Aglycon protopanaxatriol (APPT) has valuable pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-stress activities. However, the complete conversion of all typical glycosylated protopanaxatriol ginsenosides to APPT has not been achieved to date. β-Glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Dictyoglomus turgidum (DT-bgl) hydrolyzes the glucose residues at C-6 and the inner glucose at C-20 in protopanaxatriol (PPT), but not the outer rhamnose residues at C-6. In contrast, β-glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Pyrococcus furiosus (PF-bgl) hydrolyzes the outer rhamnose residue at C-6 but not the inner glucose residues at C-6 and C-20 in PPT...
January 24, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338263/use-of-a-promiscuous-glycosyltransferase-from-bacillus-subtilis-168-for-the-enzymatic-synthesis-of-novel-protopanaxatriol-type-ginsenosides
#11
Longhai Dai, Jiao Li, Jiangang Yang, Yueming Zhu, Yan Men, Yan Zeng, Yi Cai, Caixia Dong, Zhubo Dai, Xueli Zhang, Yuanxia Sun
Ginsenosides are the principal bioactive ingredients of Panax ginseng and possess diverse notable pharmacological activities. UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated glycosylation of the C6-OH and C20-OH of protopanaxatriol (PPT) is the prominent biological modification that contributes to the immense structural and functional diversity of PPT-type ginsenosides. In this study, the glycosylation of PPT and PPT-type ginsenosides was achieved using a promiscuous glycosyltransferase (Bs-YjiC) from Bacillus subtilis 168...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324310/25-hydroxyl-protopanaxatriol-protects-against-h-2-o-2-induced-h9c2-cardiomyocytes-injury-via-pi3k-akt-pathway-and-apoptotic-protein-down-regulation
#12
Zhihao Wang, Guangyue Su, Zhiguo Zhang, Han Dong, Yuehui Wang, Huiying Zhao, Yuqing Zhao, Qi Sun
Oxidative stress injury and apoptosis are the main mechanisms of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MI/RI). Compounds with anti-oxidant properties can treat MI/RI. Therefore, identification of natural antioxidants such as herbs or botanical drugs is an ideal strategy to develop safe and effective anti-MI/RI drugs. Cardioprotective effects of Ginseng are well documented and are attributable to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, anti-arrhythmic, anti-ischemic properties. Ginseng monomer 20® -dammarane -3 beta,6 alpha,12 beta,20,25-pentol(25-hydroxyl-Protopanaxatriol,25-OH-PPT), a novel compound, which belongs to panaxatriol category, is extracted from the leaves and stem of ginseng...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245089/metabolic-analysis-of-panax-notoginseng-saponins-with-gut-microbiota-mediated-biotransformation-by-hplc-dad-q-tof-ms-ms
#13
Man-Yun Chen, Li Shao, Wei Zhang, Chong-Zhi Wang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei-Hua Huang, Chun-Su Yuan
Saponins such as notoginsenosides and ginsenosides from Panax notoginseng are responsible for the herb's clinical applications. Unfortunately, there is poor oral bioavailability of saponins. However, gut microbiota can transform saponins to yield the metabolites that are potential bioactive substances. In this study, we aimed to characterize the metabolic profiles of P. notoginseng saponins (PNS) by incubating them with human gut microbiota. The notoginsenosides, ginsenosides and related metabolites were separated and identified using a highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection/quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169217/complete-biotransformation-of-protopanaxatriol-type-ginsenosides-in-panax-ginseng-leaf-extract-to-aglycon-protopanaxatriol-by-%C3%AE-glycosidases-from-dictyoglomus-turgidum-and-pyrococcus-furiosus
#14
Eun-Joo Yang, Kyung-Chul Shin, Dae Young Lee, Deok-Kun Oh
Aglycon protopanaxatriol (APPT) has valuable pharmacological effects such as memory enhancement and tumor inhibition. β-Glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Dictyoglomus turgidum (DT-bgl) hydrolyzes the glucose residues linked to APPT, but not other glycoside residues. β-Glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Pyrococcus furiosus (PF-bgl) hydrolyzes the outer sugar at C-6 but not the inner glucose at C-6 or the glucose at C-20. Thus, the combined use of DT-bgl and PF-bgl is expected to increase the biotransformation of PPT-type ginsenosides to APPT...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032181/the-structure-activity-relationship-of-ginsenosides-on-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-apoptosis-of-cardiomyocytes
#15
Ruiqi Feng, Jia Liu, Zhenhua Wang, Jingwen Zhang, Courtney Cates, Thomas Rousselle, Qingguo Meng, Ji Li
Ginsenosides have been studied extensively in recent years due to their therapeutic effects in cardiovascular diseases. While most studies examined the different ginsenosides individually, few studies compare the therapeutic effects among the different types. This study examined how effective protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, Rh1, and Rg2 of the ginsenoside family are in protecting H9c2 cardiomyocytes from damage caused by hypoxia/reoxygenation. In the current study, a model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was induced in H9c2 cardiomyocytes by oxygen deprivation via a hypoxia chamber followed by reoxygenation...
December 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031898/comparative-analysis-of-ginsenosides-in-human-glucocorticoid-receptor-binding-transactivation-and-transrepression
#16
Catherine Hu, Aik Jiang Lau, RuiQi Wang, Thomas K H Chang
Conflicting data exist on the effect of ginsenosides on transactivation of human glucocorticoid receptor α (herein referred to as glucocorticoid receptor), and relatively little is known regarding the effect of these chemicals on transrepression of this receptor. We investigated the effect of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), PPD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rh2, and Compound K), 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), and PPT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, Rg1, and Rh1) on glucocorticoid receptor binding, transactivation, and transrepression...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021711/ginsenoside-rg1-from-panax-ginseng-enhances-myoblast-differentiation-and-myotube-growth
#17
Ga-Yeon Go, Sang-Jin Lee, Ayoung Jo, Jaecheol Lee, Dong-Wan Seo, Jong-Sun Kang, Si-Kwan Kim, Su-Nam Kim, Yong Kee Kim, Gyu-Un Bae
BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside Rg1 belongs to protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides and has diverse pharmacological activities. In this report, we investigated whether Rg1 could upregulate muscular stem cell differentiation and muscle growth. METHODS: C2C12 myoblasts, MyoD-transfected 10T1/2 embryonic fibroblasts, and HEK293T cells were treated with Rg1 and differentiated for 2 d, subjected to immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, or immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: Rg1 activated promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and Akt signaling, that in turn promote the heterodimerization with MyoD and E proteins, resulting in enhancing myogenic differentiation...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021702/biotransformation-of-panax-ginseng-extract-by-rat-intestinal-microflora-identification-and-quantification-of-metabolites-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Wei-Wei Dong, Jinhua Zhao, Fei-Liang Zhong, Wen-Jing Zhu, Jun Jiang, Songquan Wu, Deok-Chun Yang, Donghao Li, Lin-Hu Quan
BACKGROUND: In general, after Panax ginseng is administered orally, intestinal microbes play a crucial role in its degradation and metabolization process. Studies on the metabolism of P. ginseng by microflora are important for obtaining a better understanding of their biological effects. METHODS: In vitro biotransformation of P. ginseng extract by rat intestinal microflora was investigated at 37°C for 24 h, and the simultaneous determination of the metabolites and metabolic profile of P...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960789/a-validated-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-20-s-protopanaxatriol-and-its-two-active-metabolites-in-rat-plasma-application-to-a-pharmacokinetics-study
#19
Xin Qiu, Jiali Yang, Wei Wang, Qiuhong Wu, Hong Shao
We present a validated liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of 20-(S)-protopanaxatriol and its two oxidative stereoisomeric metabolites (20S,24S)-epoxy-dammarane-3,6,12,25-tetraol (M1) and (20S,24R)-epoxy-dammarane-3,6,12,25-tetraol (M2) in rat plasma. 20-(S)-Protopanaxatriol, M1, and M2 were extracted with methanol and separated on an ACQUITY HSS T3 column. The mass spectrometry detection was accomplished in selected reaction monitoring mode with precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 493...
December 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938538/mir-23a-targets-runx2-and-suppresses-ginsenoside-rg1-induced-angiogenesis-in-endothelial-cells
#20
Xiao-Dong Wu, Ting Guo, Li Liu, Chao Wang, Kun Zhang, Han-Qiang Liu, Feng Wang, Wen-Dong Bai, Meng-Yao Zhang
Rg1 is a predominant protopanaxatriol-type of ginsenoside found in Panax ginseng, and it has been shown to have anti-cancer effects in multiple types of cancer cells. However, Rg1 also induces the expression of proangiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), in endothelial cells. Unfortunately, angiogenesis positively correlates with cancer development. In this study, we identified RUNX2 as a regulator of ginsenoside Rg1-induced angiogenesis for the first time. We found that RUNX2 was directly targeted and regulated by miR-23a...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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