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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945022/-progress-of-gene-editing-technologies-and-prospect-in-traditional-chinese-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Yan-Yan Ma, Jing-Zhe Li, Er-Ning Gao, Dan Qian, Ju-Ying Zhong, Chang-Zhen Liu
Gene editing is a kind of technologies that makes precise modification to the genome. It can be used to knock out/in and replace the specific DNA fragment, and make accurate gene editing on the genome level. The essence of the technique is the DNA sequence change with use of non homologous end link repair and homologous recombination repair, combined with specific DNA target recognition and endonuclease.This technology has wide range of development prospects and high application value in terms of scientific research, agriculture, medical treatment and other fields...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944845/efficient-inhibition-of-duck-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-by-the-crispr-cas9-system
#2
Qingfen Zheng, Li Bai, Sujun Zheng, Mei Liu, Jinyan Zhang, Ting Wang, Zhongwei Xu, Yu Chen, Jiansheng Li, Zhongping Duan
Current therapeutic strategies cannot eradicate hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA), which accounts for the persistence of HBV infection. Very recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR‑associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has been used as an efficient and powerful tool for viral genome editing. Given that the primary duck hepatocyte (PDH) infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) has been widely used to study human HBV infection in vitro, the present study aimed to demonstrate the targeted inhibition of DHBV DNA, especially cccDNA, by the CRISPR/Cas9 system using this model...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944418/endogenous-epitope-tagging-of-heat-shock-protein-70-isoform-hsc70-using-crispr-cas9
#3
Nitika, Andrew W Truman
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is an evolutionarily well-conserved molecular chaperone involved in several cellular processes such as folding of proteins, modulating protein-protein interactions, and transport of proteins across the membrane. Binding partners of Hsp70 (known as "clients") are identified on an individual basis as researchers discover their particular protein of interest binds to Hsp70. A full complement of Hsp70 interactors under multiple stress conditions remains to be determined. A promising approach to characterizing the Hsp70 "interactome" is the use of protein epitope tagging and then affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP-MS/MS)...
September 24, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944105/tumor-immunology-viewed-from-alternative-animal-models-the-xenopus-story
#4
Maureen Banach, Jacques Robert
A PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonmammalian comparative animal models are important not only to gain fundamental evolutionary understanding of the complex interactions of tumors with the immune system, but also to better predict the applicability of novel immunotherapeutic approaches to humans. After reviewing recent advances in developing alternative models, we focus on the amphibian Xenopus laevis and its usefulness in deciphering the perplexing roles of MHC class I-like molecules and innate (i)T cells in tumor immunity...
March 2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943461/the-importance-of-sourcing-enzymes-from-non-conventional-fungi-for-metabolic-engineering-biomass-breakdown
#5
REVIEW
Susanna Seppälä, St Elmo Wilken, Doriv Knop, Kevin V Solomon, Michelle A O'Malley
A wealth of fungal enzymes has been identified from nature, which continue to drive strain engineering and bioprocessing for a range of industries. However, while a number of clades have been investigated, the vast majority of the fungal kingdom remains unexplored for industrial applications. Here, we discuss selected classes of fungal enzymes that are currently in biotechnological use, and explore more basal, non-conventional fungi and their underexploited biomass-degrading mechanisms as promising agents in the transition towards a bio-based society...
September 21, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942966/haploinsufficiency-of-the-chromatin-remodeler-bptf-causes-syndromic-developmental-and-speech-delay-postnatal-microcephaly-and-dysmorphic-features
#6
Paweł Stankiewicz, Tahir N Khan, Przemyslaw Szafranski, Leah Slattery, Haley Streff, Francesco Vetrini, Jonathan A Bernstein, Chester W Brown, Jill A Rosenfeld, Surya Rednam, Sarah Scollon, Katie L Bergstrom, Donald W Parsons, Sharon E Plon, Marta W Vieira, Caio R D C Quaio, Wagner A R Baratela, Johanna C Acosta Guio, Ruth Armstrong, Sarju G Mehta, Patrick Rump, Rolph Pfundt, Raymond Lewandowski, Erica M Fernandes, Deepali N Shinde, Sha Tang, Juliane Hoyer, Christiane Zweier, André Reis, Carlos A Bacino, Rui Xiao, Amy M Breman, Janice L Smith, Nicholas Katsanis, Bret Bostwick, Bernt Popp, Erica E Davis, Yaping Yang
Bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF) is the largest subunit of nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF), a member of the ISWI chromatin-remodeling complex. However, the clinical consequences of disruption of this complex remain largely uncharacterized. BPTF is required for anterior-posterior axis formation of the mouse embryo and was shown to promote posterior neuroectodermal fate by enhancing Smad2-activated wnt8 expression in zebrafish. Here, we report eight loss-of-function and two missense variants (eight de novo and two of unknown origin) in BPTF on 17q24...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942711/epigenetic-drift-is-a-determinant-of-mammalian-lifespan
#7
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James Larrick
The epigenome, which controls cell identity and function, is not maintained with 100 percent fidelity in somatic animal cells. Errors in the maintenance of the epigenome lead to epigenetic drift, an important hallmark of aging. Numerous studies have described DNA methylation clocks that correlate epigenetic drift with increasing age. The question of how significant a role epigenetic drift plays in creating the phenotypes associated with aging remains open. A recent study describes a new DNA methylation clock that can be slowed by caloric restriction (CR) in a way that correlates with the degree of lifespan and healthspan extension conferred by CR, suggesting that epigenetic drift itself is a determinant of mammalian lifespan...
September 25, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941341/-application-of-genome-engineering-in-medical-synthetic-biology
#8
Fangyuan Wang, Dehua Zhao, Lei Stanley Qi
Synthetic biology aims to establish a complete set of engineering principles, theories, and methods, via the rational design and assembly of basic biological parts, for the goal of effective implementation of complex biological systems with programmable functions. In recent years, with emerging novel classes of programmable genetic parts, in particular, the establishment and optimization of CRISPR and CRISPRi technology platforms, synthetic biology is entering a new era. This review summarizes recent advances on CRISPR genome editing and gene regulation technologies, their applications in constructing programmable biological parts, and their roles in building sophisticated gene circuits...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941336/-the-new-generation-tool-for-crispr-genome-editing-crispr-cpf1
#9
Fan Yang, Yin Li
Almost all archaea and many bacteria achieve adaptive immunity through a diverse set of CRISPR-Cas systems. From 2012, Cas9 has been harnessed by thousands of laboratories for genome editing applications in a variety of experimental model systems. Cas9 is driving innovative applications from basic biology to biotechnology and medicine. However, numerous challenges still remain, such as limited targeting range, toxicity, and potential for off-target mutagenesis. Cpf1 represents a class 2/type V CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease that is distinct from the type II CRISPR Cas9 nuclease...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941335/-enabling-technologies-in-synthetic-biology-dna-synthesis-assembly-and-editing
#10
Shiyuan Li, Guoping Zhao, Jin Wang
Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline, which aims at creating artificial lives or remolding the present organisms to generate new features. To achieve these goals, synthetic biologists need to design and synthesize new genes, pathways, modules or even whole genomes. As these enabling technologies (e.g. gene synthesis, DNA assembly and genome editing) are very important for the progress of synthetic biology, we will focus on the development of these technologies in this review.
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941334/-synthetic-genomics-the-art-of-design-and-synthesis
#11
Zhouqing Luo, Junbiao Dai
Benefited from the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing, genome editing, DNA synthesis and functional genomics, synthetic genomics gains the momentum in this century. The entire genomes of several viruses and one prokaryote have been chemically synthesized and applied to drive normal cellular processes. The first eukaryotic genome synthesis project (Sc2.0) is on-going and about half of the genome has been synthesized and functionally tested. The Human Genome Project-Write (HGP-Write) was proposed in 2016, which pushes the tide of synthetic genomics to a position we have never seen before...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939824/in-trans-paired-nicking-triggers-seamless-genome-editing-without-double-stranded-dna-cutting
#12
Xiaoyu Chen, Josephine M Janssen, Jin Liu, Ignazio Maggio, Anke E J 't Jong, Harald M M Mikkers, Manuel A F V Gonçalves
Precise genome editing involves homologous recombination between donor DNA and chromosomal sequences subjected to double-stranded DNA breaks made by programmable nucleases. Ideally, genome editing should be efficient, specific, and accurate. However, besides constituting potential translocation-initiating lesions, double-stranded DNA breaks (targeted or otherwise) are mostly repaired through unpredictable and mutagenic non-homologous recombination processes. Here, we report that the coordinated formation of paired single-stranded DNA breaks, or nicks, at donor plasmids and chromosomal target sites by RNA-guided nucleases based on CRISPR-Cas9 components, triggers seamless homology-directed gene targeting of large genetic payloads in human cells, including pluripotent stem cells...
September 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939349/animal-and-model-systems-for-studying-cystic-fibrosis
#13
Bradley H Rosen, Marc Chanson, Lara R Gawenis, Jinghua Liu, Aderonke Sofoluwe, Alice Zoso, John F Engelhardt
The cystic fibrosis (CF) field is the beneficiary of five species of animal models that lack functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel. These models are rapidly informing mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and CFTR function regardless of how faithfully a given organ reproduces the human CF phenotype. New approaches of genetic engineering with RNA-guided nucleases are rapidly expanding both the potential types of models available and the approaches to correct the CFTR defect...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938163/tumor-cell-targeted-delivery-of-crispr-cas9-by-aptamer-functionalized-lipopolymer-for-therapeutic-genome-editing-of-vegfa-in-osteosarcoma
#14
Chao Liang, Fangfei Li, Luyao Wang, Zong-Kang Zhang, Chao Wang, Bing He, Jie Li, Zhihao Chen, Atik Badshah Shaikh, Jin Liu, Xiaohao Wu, Songlin Peng, Lei Dang, Baosheng Guo, Xiaojuan He, D W T Au, Cheng Lu, Hailong Zhu, Bao-Ting Zhang, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a highly aggressive pediatric cancer, characterized by frequent lung metastasis and pathologic bone destruction. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), highly expressed in OS, not only contributes to angiogenesis within the tumor microenvironment via paracrine stimulation of vascular endothelial cells, but also acts as an autocrine survival factor for tumor cell themselves, thus making it a promising therapeutic target for OS. CRISPR/Cas9 is a versatile genome editing technology and holds tremendous promise for cancer treatment...
September 13, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937686/serine-392-phosphorylation-modulates-p53-mitochondrial-translocation-and-transcription-independent-apoptosis
#15
Cédric Castrogiovanni, Béranger Waterschoot, Olivier De Backer, Patrick Dumont
The tumor suppressor p53 is a key regulator of apoptosis induced by various cellular stresses. p53 can induce apoptosis by two mechanisms. First, p53 acts as a transcription factor inducing and repressing pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic targets genes, respectively. Second, p53 is able to translocate to the mitochondria, where it interacts with BCL-2 family members to induce membrane permeabilization and cytochrome c release. p53 transcriptional activity is regulated by a set of post-translational modifications that have been well documented...
September 22, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936886/inducible-crispr-genome-editing-tool-classifications-and-future-trends
#16
Xiaofeng Dai, Xiao Chen, Qiuwu Fang, Jia Li, Zhonghu Bai
The discovery of CRISPR-Cas9/dCas9 system has reinforced our ability and revolutionized our history in genome engineering. While Cas9 and dCas9 are programed to modulate gene expression by introducing DNA breaks, blocking transcription factor recruitment or dragging functional groups towards the targeted sites, sgRNAs determine the genomic loci where the modulation occurs. The off-target problem, due to limited sgRNA specificity and genome complexity of many species, has posed concerns for the wide application of this revolutionary technique...
September 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936208/cas9-nickase-assisted-rna-repression-enables-stable-and-efficient-manipulation-of-essential-metabolic-genes-in-clostridium-cellulolyticum
#17
Tao Xu, Yongchao Li, Zhili He, Joy D Van Nostrand, Jizhong Zhou
Essential gene functions remain largely underexplored in bacteria. Clostridium cellulolyticum is a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing; however, its genetic manipulation to reduce the formation of less-valuable acetate is technically challenging due to the essentiality of acetate-producing genes. Here we developed a Cas9 nickase-assisted chromosome-based RNA repression to stably manipulate essential genes in C. cellulolyticum. Our plasmid-based expression of antisense RNA (asRNA) molecules targeting the phosphotransacetylase (pta) gene successfully reduced the enzymatic activity by 35% in cellobiose-grown cells, metabolically decreased the acetate titer by 15 and 52% in wildtype transformants on cellulose and xylan, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934591/combining-traditional-mutagenesis-with-new-high-throughput-sequencing-and-genome-editing-to-reveal-hidden-variation-in-polyploid-wheat
#18
Cristobal Uauy, Brande B H Wulff, Jorge Dubcovsky
Induced mutations have been used to generate novel variation for breeding purposes since the early 1900s. However, the combination of this old technology with the new capabilities of high-throughput sequencing has resulted in powerful reverse genetic approaches in polyploid crops. Sequencing genomes or exomes of large mutant populations can generate extensive databases of mutations for most genes. These mutant collections, together with genome editing, are being used in polyploid species to combine mutations in all copies of a gene (homoeologs), and to expose phenotypic variation that was previously hidden by functional redundancy among homoeologs...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934505/combining-asymmetric-13c-labeling-and-isotopic-filter-edit-noesy-a-novel-strategy-for-rapid-and-logical-rna-resonance-assignment
#19
Regan M LeBlanc, Andrew P Longhini, Stuart F J Le Grice, Bruce A Johnson, Theodore K Dayie
Although ∼98% of the human genomic output is transcribed as non-protein coding RNA, <2% of the protein data bank structures comprise RNA. This huge structural disparity stems from combined difficulties of crystallizing RNA for X-ray crystallography along with extensive chemical shift overlap and broadened linewidths associated with NMR of RNA. While half of the deposited RNA structures in the PDB were solved by NMR methods, the usefulness of NMR is still limited by the high cost of sample preparation and challenges of resonance assignment...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934476/crystal-structure-of-an-engineered-hiv-specific-recombinase-for-removal-of-integrated-proviral-dna
#20
Gretchen Meinke, Janet Karpinski, Frank Buchholz, Andrew Bohm
As part of the HIV infection cycle, viral DNA inserts into the genome of host cells such that the integrated DNA encoding the viral proteins is flanked by long terminal repeat (LTR) regions from the retrovirus. In an effort to develop novel genome editing techniques that safely excise HIV provirus from cells, Tre, an engineered version of Cre recombinase, was designed to target a 34-bp sequence within the HIV-1 LTR (loxLTR). The sequence targeted by Tre lacks the symmetry present in loxP, the natural DNA substrate for Cre...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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