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high AND fat

Xin Wang, Bhramar Mukherjee, Sung Kyun Park
BACKGROUND: Some heavy metals (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury) have been associated with obesity and obesity comorbidities. The analytical approach for those associations has typically focused on individual metals. There is a growing interest in evaluating the health effects of cumulative exposure to metal mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We utilized our Environmental Risk Score (ERS), a summary measure to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research, to evaluate the associations of cumulative exposure to a mixture of correlated heavy metals with obesity and its comorbidities including hypertension, and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) while accounting for high degree correlations and interactions among metal mixtures components...
October 10, 2018: Environment International
Huiting Xu, Qiang Fu, Yi Zhou, Chengbin Xue, Patrick Olson, Ernest C Lynch, Ke K Zhang, Chaodong Wu, Peter Murano, Lanjing Zhang, Linglin Xie
Although a pre-pregnancy dietary intervention is believed to be able to prevent offspring obesity, research evidence is absent. We hypothesize that a long period of pre-pregnancy maternal diet transition from a high-fat (HF) diet to a normal-fat (NF) diet effectively prevents offspring obesity, and this preventive effect is independent of maternal body weight change. In our study, female mice were either continued on an NF diet (NF group) or an HF diet (HF group) until weaning, or switched from an HF to an NF for 1 week (H1N group), 5 weeks (H5N group) or 9 weeks (H9N group) before pregnancy...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Hossein Azizian, Mohammad Khaksari, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Gholamreza Sepehri, Hamid Najafipour
In postmenopausal women, the risk of diabetic cardiovascular disease drastically increases compared with that of premenopausal women. In the present study we surveyed the effects of Tamoxifen (TAM) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) on diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction. Female wistar rats were divided into six groups: sham-control, Diabetes, Ovariectomized (OVX) + Diabetes, OVX + Diabetes + Vehicle, OVX + Diabetes + E2, OVX + Diabetes + TAM. Type 2 diabetes was induced by High Fat Diet and low doses of STZ...
October 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Gitalee Sarker, Rebecca Berrens, Judith von Arx, Pawel Pelczar, Wolf Reik, Christian Wolfrum, Daria Peleg-Raibstein
Maternal overnutrition has been associated with increased susceptibility to develop obesity and neurological disorders later in life. Most epidemiological as well as experimental studies have focused on the metabolic consequences across generations following an early developmental nutritional insult. Recently, it has been shown that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) affects third-generation female body mass via the paternal lineage. We showed here that the offspring born to HFD ancestors displayed addictive-like behaviors as well as obesity and insulin resistance up to the third generation in the absence of any further exposure to HFD...
October 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Khadija El Jellas, Bente B Johansson, Karianne Fjeld, Aristotelis Antonopoulos, Heike Immervoll, Man H Choi, Dag Hoem, Mark E Lowe, Dominique Lombardo, Pål R Njølstad, Anne Dell, Eric Mas, Stuart M Haslam, Anders Molven
Carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) is a pancreatic fat-digesting enzyme associated with human disease. Rare mutations in the CEL gene cause a syndrome of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine dysfunction denoted MODY8, whereas a recombined CEL allele increases the risk for chronic pancreatitis. Moreover, CEL has been linked to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) through a postulated oncofetal CEL variant termed feto-acinar pancreatic protein (FAPP). The monoclonal antibody mAb16D10 was previously reported to detect a glycotope in the highly O-glycosylated, mucin-like C-terminus of CEL/FAPP...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Dahu Li, Houjiu Wu, Huating Dou, Li Guo, Wei Huang
Obesity is associated with the changes in gut microbiota. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of sweet orange essential oil (SOEO) microcapsules on body weight and gut microbiota in obese rats induced by high-fat diet. By analyzing the body weight, fat rate and the sequence of cloned microbial small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA) in rats fecal samples, we found that SOEO microcapsules decreased the body weight and increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium (genus-level) in gut microbiota...
October 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mohammed Ali Musa, Syazwani Idrus, Che Man Hasfalina, Nik Norsyahariati Nik Daud
In this study, the performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor operating at mesophilic temperature (35 °C) was examined. Cattle slaughterhouse wastewater (CSWW) was used as the main substrate. The total and effective volumes of the reactor were 8 L and 6 L, respectively. Twelve different organic loading rates (OLR) were applied and the performance was evaluated. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was more than 90% during batch study. In the continuous study, COD removal was also approximately 90% at OLR 0...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Takele Feyera, Pan Zhou, Morakot Nuntapaitoon, Kristina Ulrich Sørensen, Uffe Krogh, Thomas Sønderby Bruun, Stig Purup, Henry Jørgensen, Hanne Damgaard Poulsen, Peter Kappel Theil
The aims of this study were to investigate 1) the effect of high dietary fiber (DF; 19.3 to 21.7%) supplemented to late gestating sows on mammary uptake and metabolism of energy substrates as well as colostrum production and 2) the ontogeny of colostral fat and lactose synthesis using mammary carbon balance, and colostral protein using IgG as a biomarker. Sows were fed either a control diet (CON) consisting of a standard gestation diet (14.6% DF) until d 108 of gestation and a transition diet (16.8% DF) from d 109 of gestation until farrowing or a high DF treatment where part of the daily ration was replaced with a high DF supplement (FIB)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
May A Beydoun, Marie T Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Jennifer Poti, Allyssa Allen, Hind A Beydoun, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
BACKGROUND: Reducing diet costs may lead to the selection of energy-dense foods, such as refined grains or foods high in added sugars and/or fats, which can lower overall dietary quality. We examined the longitudinal association between the monetary value of the diet (MVD) and the overall dietary quality across sex, race and income groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Longitudinal data from 1,466 adult urban participants from Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study were used...
2018: PloS One
Eisuke Tasaki, Yuki Mitaka, Tomonari Nozaki, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura, Yoshihito Iuchi
Aging is associated with the accumulation of DNA damage. High expression of DNA repair genes has been suggested to contribute to prolonged lifespan in several organisms. However, the crucial DNA repair genes contributing to longevity remain unknown. Termite kings have an extraordinary long lifespan compared with that of non-reproductive individuals such as workers despite being derived from the same genome, thus providing a singular model for identifying longevity-related genes. In this study, we demonstrated that termite kings express higher levels of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 than other castes...
October 11, 2018: Aging
Kimberly M Tippens, Andrew Erlandsen, Douglas A Hanes, Robert Graybill, Courtney Jackson, Julie Briley, Heather Zwickey
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of measuring the health impacts of a 12-week naturopathic whole foods nutrition education course among adults with or at risk for prediabetes. DESIGN: A pilot nonrandomized pre-post intervention design investigated physiological changes associated with participation in a 12-week structured naturopathic nutrition education course. Follow-up measures were assessed at 6 and 12 months from baseline. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Three community-based kitchens in Oregon...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Jeong Yoon Chang, Joo Hyun Park, Sung Eun Park, Jinyoung Shon, Yoon Jung Park
OBJECTIVE: Genetic variants at the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) locus are strongly associated with obesity-related traits by regulating neighboring genes. Nevertheless, it is possible that FTO protein is directly involved in mechanisms regulating body composition and adiposity. Here, the in vivo biological functions of FTO in the risk for obesity were studied by reviewing murine models. METHODS: The effects of the locus-specific manipulations of the murine Fto gene on metabolic-related phenotypes in genetically modified mouse models were reviewed and summarized into the following three categories: growth and body composition, eating behaviors, and metabolic homeostasis...
October 12, 2018: Obesity
Taro Langner, Anders Hedström, Katharina Mörwald, Daniel Weghuber, Anders Forslund, Peter Bergsten, Håkan Ahlström, Joel Kullberg
PURPOSE: An approach for the automated segmentation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in multicenter water-fat MRI scans of the abdomen was investigated, using 2 different neural network architectures. METHODS: The 2 fully convolutional network architectures U-Net and V-Net were trained, evaluated, and compared using the water-fat MRI data. Data of the study Tellus with 90 scans from a single center was used for a 10-fold cross-validation in which the most successful configuration for both networks was determined...
October 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
David Allaway, Carlos H de Alvaro, Adrian Hewson-Hughes, Ruth Staunton, Penelope Morris, Janet Alexander
The protein leverage hypothesis proposes that the need to prioritise protein intake drives excess energy intake (EI) when the dietary ratio of protein to fat and carbohydrate is reduced. We hypothesised that cats may become prone to overconsuming energy content when moderate protein diets were offered, and considered the potential influence of fat and carbohydrate on intake. To determine the effect of dietary protein and macronutrient profile (MNP) on EI, weight and body composition, cats (1-4 years) were offered food in excess of energy requirements (ER)...
October 12, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Kamil Ziarniak, Paweł A Kołodziejski, Ewa Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Imre Kallό, Joanna H Śliwowska
Apart from the primary metabolic symptoms of obesity and/or diabetes, there are numerous secondary problems, including disruptions of the reproductive system. The KNDy neurons, expressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin A and located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), are important regulators of reproduction. Their functions are highly influenced by the metabolic and hormonal status. We have previously shown that in male rats with experimentally induced diabetes type 2 (but not with high-fat diet-induced obesity) alterations are found in the number of these cells...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
A Suárez-Vega, J J Arranz, V Pérez, L F de la Fuente, J Mateo, B Gutiérrez-Gil
Adipose deposits influence the quality of ruminant carcasses, and in suckling lambs, internal types of adipose deposits represent a notable proportion of total fat. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the perirenal fat transcriptomes of suckling lambs from two breeds with different growth and carcass characteristics. The perirenal fat tissue from 14 suckling lambs (Assaf, n = 8; Churra, n = 6) was used for the RNA-seq analysis. The functional enrichment analysis of the 670 highly expressed genes (>150 fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped) in the perirenal fat transcriptome of both breeds revealed that the majority of these genes were involved in energy processes...
October 12, 2018: Animal Genetics
Rajesh Kushwaha, Juhi Mishra, Anand Prakash Gupta, Keerti Gupta, Jitendra Vishwakarma, Naibedya Chattopadhyay, Jiaur Rahaman Gayen, Mohan Kamthan, Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay
The anti-diabetic drug and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist, rosiglitazone, alters astrocyte activation; however, its mechanism remains less-known. We hypothesized participation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), known to control astrocyte reactivity. We first detected that rosiglitazone promoted glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in primary astrocytes as well as the mouse cerebral cortex, associated with increased EGFR activation. Screening for EGFR ligands revealed a rosiglitazone-mediated increase of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) in astrocytes, resulting in HB-EGF release into culture medium and mouse cerebrospinal fluid too...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Carolina Rodrigues Mendonça, Matias Noll, Erika Aparecida Silveira
Background: Although a variety of instruments implement body maps for the precise identification of pain symptoms, no instrument has been validated for use in people with obesity. This study reports the adaptation and validation of body maps for musculoskeletal pain location in people with obesity. Methods: Nine key anatomical regions were highlighted based on the original images of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire body maps. Adult silhouettes were generated from photographs of men and women with obesity...
October 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
Daniela Viramontes Hörner, Nicholas M Selby, Maarten W Taal
OBJECTIVE: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are uremic toxins that result from hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation. AGEs are also formed in food during cooking. On the other hand, malnutrition may contribute to AGE formation through its association with oxidative stress and inflammation. AGE accumulation can be measured by skin autofluorescence (SAF) and elevated SAF is independently associated with higher mortality on hemodialysis (HD). We aimed to investigate associations between SAF, dietary AGE intake, and markers of malnutrition in persons receiving HD...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Hwan-Hee Jang, Heon-Woong Kim, Su-Yeon Kim, Sang-Mi Kim, Jung-Bong Kim, Young-Min Lee
Anthocyanins are major components of purple sweet potatoes (PSP) with antioxidant, anti-obesity, and antidiabetic activity. In this study, we evaluated the hypoglycemic effects of 12 individual anthocyanins purified from PSP (Korean variety Shinzami). We separated the anthocyanins using liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS). Three anthocyanins were selected through a radical scavenging activity test. We examined whether individual anthocyanins inhibited glucose secretion in HepG2 cells (hepatic gluconeogenesis)...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
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