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high AND fat

Stefan Z Lutz, Anita M Hennige, Andreas Peter, Marketa Kovarova, Charisis Totsikas, Jürgen Machann, Stefan M Kröber, Bianca Sperl, Erwin Schleicher, Fritz Schick, Martin Heni, Axel Ullrich, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Norbert Stefan
Context: The effect of a lifestyle intervention to reduce liver fat content in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in humans is influenced by genetics. We hypothesized that the functionally active amino acid exchange in humans Gly388Arg (mouse homologue: Gly385Arg) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), which regulates bile acid, lipid and glucose metabolism, may determine the dynamics of hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin sensitivity in humans. Mechanisms of this substitution were studied in mice under normal chow and high-fat diet...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jing Ma, Dan Zhao, Xiaolin Wang, Chuanrui Ma, Ke Feng, Shuang Zhang, Yuanli Chen, Yan Zhu, Xiumei Gao, Buchang Zhao, Yong Wang, Ke Qian, Xiaoju Li, Yajun Duan, Jihong Han, Xiaoxiao Yang
Disorders of lipid metabolism and inflammation play an important role in atherosclerosis. LongShengZhi capsule (LSZ), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for treatment of patients with vascular diseases for many years. Herein, we determined the effect of LSZ on the progression of established atherosclerotic lesions in apoE deficient (apoE) mice. ApoE mice were pre-fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce atherosclerosis, then started with LSZ treatment contained in HFD for 10 weeks. Although LSZ had little effect on HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia, it substantially reduced en face and sinus aortic lesions...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Alegra I Mendez, Amelia A Miramonti, Zachary M Gillen, Brianna D McKay, Todd J Leutzinger, Joel T Cramer
Mendez, AI, Miramonti, AA, Gillen, ZM, McKay, BD, Leutzinger, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Stature, body mass, and BMI in high school american football players: Appropriate determinants of obesity prevalence? J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3119-3126, 2018-The purpose of this study was to evaluate stature (HT), mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), and obesity prevalence based on BMI categories in a large sample (n = 7,175) of high school American football players enrolled as freshmen, sophomores, or juniors. Players were categorized by their positions: offensive linemen (OLs), defensive linemen (DLs), tight end, defensive end, linebacker, running back, quarterback, defensive back, and wide receiver...
November 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Dimpymoni Saikia, Sultana Jesmin Ahmed, Hiranya Saikia, Ratna Sarma
Background: Body mass index (BMI) is one of the most commonly used indices to measure the weight status of an individual. However, it takes only height and weight of individual into account. The relative body composition can be calculated regardless of height and weight by body fat percentage (BF%). Objectives: The objectives of the study are (1) To assess the prevalence of obesity using BMI and BF% among early adolescents studying in schools of Dibrugarh. (2) To assess the relationship between BMI and BF%...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Adel A Gomaa, Rania M Makboul, Mohamed A El-Mokhtar, Engy A Abdel-Rahman, Israa A Ahmed, Mariam A Nicola
PURPOSE: Recent studies suggested that the non-familiar form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be consequence of metabolic syndrome and neuroinflammation. Elettaria cardamomum extract (EC) has exhibited antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of EC on AD-like alterations in rats induced by high fructose and high fat diet coupled with a single small dose of STZ (25 mg/kg) (T2DM rats). METHODS: Phytochemical analysis was carried out...
January 2019: Cytokine
Hyun Young Kim
Background: An association between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been reported. However, previous studies have focused on obesity or central obesity. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of anthropometric index and endoscopic erosive esophagitis (EE) in health check-up of Koreans. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: A total of 1,207 consecutive subjects (aged 40-80 years) during health checkup underwent upper endoscopy and bioelectrical impedance analysis...
December 12, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Imene Fhoula, Amel Rehaiem, Afef Najjari, Donatella Usai, Abdellatif Boudabous, Leonardo Antonio Sechi, Ouzari Hadda-Imene
The research and the selection of novel probiotic strains from novel niches are receiving increased attention on their proclaimed health benefits to both humans and animals. This study aimed to evaluate the functional properties of Weissella strains from arid land living-hosts and to select strains with cholesterol-lowering property in vitro and in vivo , for use as probiotics. They were assessed for acid and bile tolerance, antibiotic susceptibility, membrane properties, antibacterial activity, antiadhesive effect against pathogens to host cell lines, and cholesterol assimilation in vitro ...
2018: BioMed Research International
Hannah K Drescher, Fabienne Schumacher, Teresa Schenker, Maike Baues, Twan Lammers, Thomas Hieronymus, Christian Trautwein, Konrad L Streetz, Daniela C Kroy
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most common chronic, progressive liver disease in Western countries. The significance of cellular interactions of the HGF/c-Met axis in different liver cell subtypes and its relation to the oxidative stress response remains unclear so far. Hence, the present study is aimed at investigating the role of c-Met and the interaction with the oxidative stress response during NASH development in mice and humans. Conditional c-Met knockout (KO) lines (LysCre for Kupffer cells/macrophages, GFAPCre for α -SMA+ and CK19+ cells and MxCre for bone marrow-derived immune cells) were fed chow and either methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCD) for 4 weeks or high-fat diet (HFD) for 24 weeks...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Liang Liu, Qinling Hu, Huihui Wu, Xiujing Wang, Chao Gao, Guoxun Chen, Ping Yao, Zhiyong Gong
Diets containing various docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratios protect against liver damage in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). However, it is unclear whether these beneficial roles of DHA and EPA are associated with alterations of fatty acid (FA) composition in the liver. This study evaluated the positive impacts of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) containing different DHA/EPA ratios on HFD-induced liver disease and alterations of the hepatic FA composition. ApoE-/- mice were fed with HFDs with various ratios of DHA/EPA (2 : 1, 1 : 1, and 1 : 2) and an n-6/n-3 ratio of 4 : 1 for 12 weeks...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Roberto Mota, Matthew J Campen, Matthew E Cuellar, William S Garver, Jacob Hesterman, Mohammed Qutaish, Tamara Daniels, Monique Nysus, Carston R Wagner, Jeffrey P Norenberg
Atherosclerosis-related morbidity and mortality remain a global concern. Atherosclerotic disease follows a slow and silent progression, and the transition from early-stage lesions to vulnerable plaques remains difficult to diagnose. Inflammation is a key component of the development of atherosclerotic plaque and consequent life-threatening complications. This study assessed 111 In-DANBIRT as an in vivo , noninvasive SPECT/CT imaging probe targeting an inflammatory marker, Lymphocyte Function Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1), in atherosclerotic plaques...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Dahan da Cunha Nascimento, Samuel da Cunha Oliveira, Denis Cesar Leite Vieira, Silvana Schwerz Funghetto, Alessandro Oliveira Silva, Renato Valduga, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Jonato Prestes
Objective: The objective of this study was to apply the newly standardized definition for sarcopenia from the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) and the current definition for obesity to 1) determine the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in obese elderly women; 2) compare the muscle strength, lean body mass, and markers of inflammation between obese elderly women with SO and nonsarcopenic obesity (NSO), and 3) elucidate the relationship between appendicular lean mass adjusted for body mass index (aLM/BMI) with muscle strength, lean body mass, and obesity indices...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
Garima Daga, Prashant Kerkar
Sarcomatoid carcinoma is an extremely rare aggressive tumor variant comprising about 0.3% of all primary tumors of the urinary bladder and carries an overall dismal prognosis. Diagnosis is important and is sometimes difficult. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in establishing diagnosis. We report a case with sarcomatoid variant of bladder urothelial carcinoma and review the pathologic features. A 65-year-old male on evaluation of long standing obstructive voiding symptoms and intermittent hematuria found to have a bladder mass...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Jia Wang, Zhuo Wang, Bing Li, Yu Qiang, Tian Yuan, Xintong Tan, Zihan Wang, Zhigang Liu, Xuebo Liu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of lycopene (LYC), a major carotenoid present in tomato, on high-fat and high-fructose western diet (HFFD)-induced cognitive impairments and the protective effects on HFFD-elicited insulin resistance, lipid metabolism dysfunction and inflammatory responses in the gut-liver-brain axis. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We randomly assigned 3-month-old C57BL/6 J mice to three groups with different diets: the control group, HFFD group and HFFD + LYC group (LYC, 0...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Yeon-Seop Jung, Hyo-Seon Lee, Hye-Rin Cho, Keuk-Jun Kim, Joung-Hee Kim, Stephen Safe, Syng-Ook Lee
BACKGROUND: Suppression of adipogenesis has been considered as a potential target for the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and the nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1/Nur77) and AMPKα are known to play important roles during early and intermediate stages of adipogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that dual targeting Nur77 and AMPKα would show strong inhibitory effect on adipogenesis. METHODS: We screened a herbal medicine-based small molecule library to identify novel natural compounds dual targeting Nur77 and AMPKα, and the antiadipogenic effects and mechanisms of action of a "hit" compound were studied in 3T3-L1 cells...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jan-Inge Bjune, Christine Haugen, Oddrun Gudbrandsen, Ole P Nordbø, Hans J Nielsen, Villy Våge, Pål R Njølstad, Jørn V Sagen, Simon N Dankel, Gunnar Mellgren
OBJECTIVE: A causal obesity risk variant in the FTO locus was recently shown to inhibit adipocyte thermogenesis via increased adipose expression of the homeobox transcription factors IRX3 and IRX5. However, causal effects of IRX5 on fat storage remain to be shown in vivo, and discovery of downstream mediators may open new therapeutic avenues. METHODS: 17 WT and 13 Irx5 knockout (KO) mice were fed low-fat control (Ctr) or high-fat (HF) diet for 10 weeks. Body weight, energy intake and fat mass were measured...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jennifer M Lang, Calvin Pan, Rita M Cantor, W H Wilson Tang, Jose Carlos Garcia-Garcia, Ira Kurtz, Stanley L Hazen, Nathalie Bergeron, Ronald M Krauss, Aldons J Lusis
Interindividual variation in the composition of the human gut microbiome was examined in relation to demographic and anthropometric traits, and to changes in dietary saturated fat intake and protein source. One hundred nine healthy men and women aged 21 to 65, with BMIs of 18 to 36, were randomized, after a two-week baseline diet, to high (15% total energy [E])- or low (7%E)-saturated-fat groups and randomly received three diets (four weeks each) in which the protein source (25%E) was mainly red meat (beef, pork) (12%E), white meat (chicken, turkey) (12%E), and nonmeat sources (nuts, beans, soy) (16%E)...
December 11, 2018: MBio
Dong Hoon Lee, Edward L Giovannucci
Current understanding of the association of body composition on mortality in the general population is limited. This review evaluated the available epidemiologic studies on body composition and mortality that leveraged diverse approaches to estimate body composition. Although studies showed inconsistent results, there was evidence suggesting that high fat mass and low lean body mass may be independently associated with mortality in the general population. This review may help partially explain the "obesity paradox" phenomenon and facilitate further studies to advance the understanding of the association of body composition on health in the general and patient populations...
December 11, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Zhiyong Huang, Guangyong Tian, Saibo Cheng, Dandan Zhao, Yu Zhang, Yuhua Jia, Fenghua Zhou
Cholesterol metabolism becomes imbalanced during the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) has recently been found to affect lipid deposition and inflammation in atherosclerosis. Here, we aimed to study the effects and molecular mechanism of Polydatin on atherosclerosis in ApoE-knockout (ApoE <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msup> <mml:mrow/> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>-</mml:mo> <mml:mo>∕</mml:mo> <mml:mo>-</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msup> </mml:math> ) mice...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Rui Zhou, Long Yi, Xikun Ye, Xianglong Zeng, Kai Liu, Yu Qin, Qianyong Zhang, Mantian Mi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lipid droplets (LDs) are dynamic organelles that store neutral lipids during times of energy excess, and an increased accumulation of LDs in the liver is closely linked to hepatic steatosis. Our previous studies suggested that resveratrol (RSV) supplement could improve hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanism, particularly which related to LD accumulation, has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: A high-fat diet (HFD) and palmitic acid were used to induce hepatic steatosis in mouse liver and hepatocytes, respectively...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Giuditta Mannelli, Francesco Arcuri, Lara Valentina Comini, Domenico Valente, Giuseppe Spinelli
OBJECTIVE: The buccal fat pad (BFP) has been progressively introduced into clinical practice for oral defect reconstruction. This study describes our experience with this technique and compares indications in the literature and outcomes. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 24 patients presenting oral surgical defects and treated between January 2012 and January 2015 at our institution. They all were eligible for BFP defect reconstruction. A comprehensive literature review was performed from 1977 onwards and surgical indications and results were compared...
December 11, 2018: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
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