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Lars R Jensen, Lillian Garrett, Sabine M Hölter, Birgit Rathkolb, Ildikó Rácz, Thure Adler, Cornelia Prehn, Wolfgang Hans, Jan Rozman, Lore Becker, Juan Antonio Aguilar-Pimentel, Oliver Puk, Kristin Moreth, Monika Dopatka, Diego J Walther, Viola von Bohlen Und Halbach, Matthias Rath, Martin Delatycki, Bettina Bert, Heidrun Fink, Katharina Blümlein, Markus Ralser, Anke Van Dijck, Frank Kooy, Zornitza Stark, Sabine Müller, Harry Scherthan, Jozef Gecz, Wolfgang Wurst, Eckhard Wolf, Andreas Zimmer, Martin Klingenspor, Jochen Graw, Thomas Klopstock, Dirk Busch, Jerzy Adamski, Helmut Fuchs, Valérie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Hans-Hilger Ropers, Andreas W Kuss
Mutations in the X chromosomal tRNA 2'‑O‑methyltransferase FTSJ1 cause intellectual disability (ID). Although the gene is ubiquitously expressed affected individuals present no consistent clinical features beyond ID. In order to study the pathological mechanism involved in the aetiology of FTSJ1 deficiency-related cognitive impairment, we generated and characterized an Ftsj1 deficient mouse line based on the gene trapped stem cell line RRD143. Apart from an impaired learning capacity these mice presented with several statistically significantly altered features related to behaviour, pain sensing, bone and energy metabolism, the immune and the hormone system as well as gene expression...
December 14, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Cristian Dima, Stefan Dima
Chlorogenic acid (CA) is a natural compound used as an antioxidant in the preparation of food, drugs and cosmetics. Due to their low stability and bioavailability, many researchers have studied the encapsulation of CA in various delivery colloidal systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions loaded with CA and its antioxidant capacity. For this purpose, CA-W/O/W double emulsions were prepared using Span 80 and lecithin as lipophilic emulsifiers, and Tween 20 as a hydrophilic emulsifier...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
Victor O Oria, Paul Lopatta, Tatjana Schmitz, Bogdan-Tiberius Preca, Alexander Nyström, Catharina Conrad, Jörg W Bartsch, Birte Kulemann, Jens Hoeppner, Jochen Maurer, Peter Bronsert, Oliver Schilling
A disintegrin and a metalloprotease (ADAM) 9 is a metzincin cell-surface protease with strongly elevated expression in solid tumors, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) of a tissue microarray (TMA) to examine the expression of ADAM9 in a cohort of > 100 clinically-annotated PDAC cases. We report that ADAM9 is prominently expressed by PDAC tumor cells, and increased ADAM9 expression levels correlate with poor tumor grading (p = 0.027) and the presence of vasculature invasion (p = 0...
December 17, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Liangfei Tian, Mei Li, Juntai Liu, Avinash J Patil, Bruce W Drinkwater, Stephen Mann
Acoustically trapped periodic arrays of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-loaded poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) / adenosine 5'-triphosphate coacervate microdroplet-based protocells exhibit a spatiotemporal biochemical response when exposed to a codiffusing mixture of substrate molecules ( o -phenylenediamine ( o -PD) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )) under nonequilibrium conditions. Unidirectional propagation of the chemical concentration gradients gives rise to time- and position-dependent fluorescence signal outputs from individual coacervate microdroplets, indicating that the organized protocell assembly can dynamically sense encoded information in the advancing reaction-diffusion front...
November 28, 2018: ACS Central Science
Revathi Raviadaran, Mei Han Ng, Sivakumar Manickam, Davannendran Chandran
This study aimed to formulate a stable palm oil-based water-in-oil (W/O) nano-emulsion. Emphasis was placed on the effects of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), medium chain triglyceride (MCT), lecithin and sodium chloride (NaCl) addition towards the stability of nano-emulsion. Among the performed analyses were mean droplet diameter (MDD), dispersity index (DI), critical micelle concentration (CMC), lipid peroxidation, viscosity, sedimentation index (SI) and surface morphology. The most stable optimized palm oil-based W/O nano-emulsion was produced using 61...
December 8, 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
P Corkum, S Weiss, W Hall, C Brown, C Chambers, E Constantin, R Godbout, A Hanlon-Dearman, O Ipsiroglu, G J Reid, S Shea, I M Smith, R Stremler, M Witmans
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: This paper outlines the current state of Canadian training, clinical services, research, and advocacy initiatives related to non-respiratory sleep disorders, with a specific focus on insomnia, the most common sleep problem in children. METHODS: Information for this narrative review was collected from peer-reviewed publications, web-resources, and personal communications and experiences. RESULTS: It is estimated that approximately one-third of Canadian children and youth present with insomnia, and that this is impacting their physical and mental health, as well as learning in school...
November 26, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Jennifer M Hurley, Meaghan S Jankowski, Hannah De Los Santos, Alexander M Crowell, Samuel B Fordyce, Jeremy D Zucker, Neeraj Kumar, Samuel O Purvine, Errol W Robinson, Anil Shukla, Erika Zink, William R Cannon, Scott E Baker, Jennifer J Loros, Jay C Dunlap
Transcriptional and translational feedback loops in fungi and animals drive circadian rhythms in transcript levels that provide output from the clock, but post-transcriptional mechanisms also contribute. To determine the extent and underlying source of this regulation, we applied newly developed analytical tools to a long-duration, deeply sampled, circadian proteomics time course comprising half of the proteome. We found a quarter of expressed proteins are clock regulated, but >40% of these do not arise from clock-regulated transcripts, and our analysis predicts that these protein rhythms arise from oscillations in translational rates...
November 30, 2018: Cell Systems
Alice R Bird, David J Bird, Matthew W McMillan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the endotracheal tube cuff pressure produced with two inflation techniques, in two brands of endotracheal tube in cats. To determine the inspiratory pressure which produces an audible leak when the intracuff pressure is 30 cmH2 O. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, clinical, randomized study. ANIMALS: A total of 40 client-owned healthy adult cats. METHODS: Following induction of anaesthesia, endotracheal intubation was performed with a Parker Flex-Tip PFLP (Parker; n = 20) or Flexicare VentiSeal (Flexicare; n = 20) endotracheal tube...
October 13, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Jorge R Espinosa, Charlie R Wand, Carlos Vega, Eduardo Sanz, Daan Frenkel
We present a numerical study of the relative solubility of cholesterol in octanol and water. Our calculations allow us to compare the accuracy of the computed values of the excess chemical potential of cholesterol for several widely used water models (SPC, TIP3P, and TIP4P). We compute the excess solvation free energies by means of a cavity-based method [L. Li et al. , J. Chem. Phys. 146 (21), 214110 (2017)] which allows for the calculation of the excess chemical potential of a large molecule in a dense solvent phase...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Lorenzo Rossi, Lauren N Fedenia, Hamidreza Sharifan, Xingmao Ma, Leonardo Lombardini
A greenhouse study comparing the physiological responses and uptake of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants to foliar applications of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4 ) and zinc nano-fertilizer (ZnO NPs) was conducted with the aim to understand their effects on plant physiology. One-year old coffee plants were grown in greenhouse conditions and treated with two foliar applications of 10 mg/L of Zn as either zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnSO4 ‧ H2 O) or zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO NPs 20% w/t) and compared to untreated control plants over the course of 45 days...
December 10, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yutao Ren, Xiaoling Li, Bo Han, Na Zhao, Min Mu, Chao Wang, Ying Du, Yuelong Wang, Aiping Tong, Yi Liu, Liangxue Zhou, Chao You, Gang Guo
Tannic acid, a hydrolysable tannin, exists commonly in food plants. Tannic acid has already been shown various anticancer mechanisms such as inhibiting the proliferation, inducing a higher apoptotic rate and slowing down the metastasis of different cancers. Moreover, tannic acid was reported to reduce the side effects caused by chemotherapeutics on patients. But whether the tannic acid can improve the treatment of oxaliplatin on colorectal carcinomatosis has yet been studied. In this study, we developed an injectable drug delivery system by physical incorporation of oxaliplatin (OXA) and tannic acid (TA) polymeric nanoparticles (OXA/TA NPs) into a thermo-sensitive hydrogel, OXA/TA NPs-hydrogel (OXA/TA NPs-H)...
December 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
G O R Santos, R Wolf, M M Silva, A L F Rodacki, G Pereira
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two exercise intensities on exergame training program in muscle strength, functional capacity and perceptual parameters in pre-frail older women. Thirty-four women (69.5 ± 5.4 years) were randomly assigned to either moderate- (MG: 11-13 perceived exertion) or vigorous-exercise intensity group (VG: 14-16 perceived exertion). Muscle strength and functional capacity were evaluated before and after 3 months of training. The affective responses were measured once a week and perceived benefit was evaluated after training period...
December 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Mattia Bonsignori, Eric Scott, Kevin Wiehe, David Easterhoff, S Munir Alam, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Melissa Cooper, Shi-Mao Xia, Ruijun Zhang, David C Montefiori, Rory Henderson, Xiaoyan Nie, Garnett Kelsoe, M Anthony Moody, Xuejun Chen, M Gordon Joyce, Peter D Kwong, Mark Connors, John R Mascola, Andrew T McGuire, Leonidas Stamatatos, Max Medina-Ramírez, Rogier W Sanders, Kevin O Saunders, Thomas B Kepler, Barton F Haynes
Elicitation of VRC01-class broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is an appealing approach for a preventative HIV-1 vaccine. Despite extensive investigations, strategies to induce VRC01-class bnAbs and overcome the barrier posed by the envelope N276 glycan have not been successful. Here, we inferred a high-probability unmutated common ancestor (UCA) of the VRC01 lineage and reconstructed the stages of lineage maturation. Env immunogens designed on reverted VRC01-class bnAbs bound to VRC01 UCA with affinity sufficient to activate naive B cells...
December 5, 2018: Immunity
Oluwaseun O Akinduro, Eric W Nottmeier
We describe the operative approach and management for thoracic metastatic disease in a 78-yr-old man with worsening mechanical lower back and left-sided thoracic radicular pain. Imaging of the thoracic spine revealed an osteolytic T11 mass with destruction of the left T11 pedicle and transverse process. Biopsy confirmed spinal metastasis from the liver. Preoperative angiogram was completed for localization of the artery of Adamkewicz and microparticle embolization of the left T11 intercostal artery. Surgical resection was supplemented with electrophysiological monitoring and neuronavigation...
December 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Nicholas C Lazzara, Robert J Rosano, Purav P Vagadia, Matthew T Giovine, Mark W Bezpalko, Nicholas A Piro, Wm Scott Kassel, Walter J Boyko, Deanna Lynn Zubris, Kevin K Schrader, David E Wedge, Stephen O Duke, Robert M Giuliano
The phytotoxin diplopyrone is considered to be the main phytotoxin in a fungus that is responsible for cork oak decline. A carbohydrate-based synthesis of the enantiomer of the structure proposed for diplopyrone has been developed from 1,2:3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-galactopyranose, a commercially available derivative of D-galactose. Key steps in the synthesis are a highly stereoselective pyranose chain-extension based on methyltitanium, preparation of a vinyl glycoside via Isobe C-alkynylation-rearrangment/reduction, and RCM (ring-closing methathesis)-based pyranopyran construction...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Laura G Senyonjo, Oscar Debrah, Diana L Martin, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Stephanie J Migchelsen, Sarah Gwyn, Dzeidzom K deSouza, Anthony W Solomon, David Agyemang, Nana Biritwum-Kwadwo, Benjamin Marfo, Didier Bakajika, Ernest O Mensah, Agatha Aboe, Joseph Koroma, James Addy, Robin Bailey
BACKGROUND: Validation of elimination of trachoma as a public health problem is based on clinical indicators, using the WHO simplified grading system. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and anti-Ct antibody responses (anti-Pgp3) have both been evaluated as alternative indicators in settings with varying levels of trachoma. There is a need to evaluate the feasibility of using tests for Ct infection and anti-Pgp3 antibodies at scale in a trachoma-endemic country and to establish the added value of the data generated for understanding transmission dynamics in the peri-elimination setting...
December 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Essam A Assali, Dovi Shlomo, Jialiu Zeng, Evan P Taddeo, Kyle M Trudeau, Karel A Erion, Aaron H Colby, Mark W Grinstaff, Marc Liesa, Guy Las, Orian S Shirihai
Chronic exposure of pancreatic β cells to high concentrations of free fatty acids leads to lipotoxicity (LT)-mediated suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This effect is in part caused by a decline in mitochondrial function as well as by a reduction in lysosomal acidification. Because both mitochondria and lysosomes can alter one another's function, it remains unclear which initiating dysfunction sets off the detrimental cascade of LT, ultimately leading to β-cell failure. Here, we investigated the effects of restoring lysosomal acidity on mitochondrial function under LT...
December 14, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Trinidad Cisneros, Danielle W Dillard, Xiumei Qu, Justin Arredondo-Guerrero, Martha Castro, Steven Schaffert, Renata Martin, Carlos O Esquivel, Sheri M Krams, Olivia M Martinez
Stem cell-based approaches have the potential to address the organ shortage in transplantation. Whereas both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have been utilized as cellular sources for differentiation and lineage specification, their relative ability to be recognized by immune effector cells is unclear. We determined the expression of immune recognition molecules on hepatocyte-like cells (HLC) generated from murine embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, compared to adult hepatocytes, and we evaluated the impact on recognition by NK cells...
December 14, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Simon W L Hogan, Tanja van Mourik
Density functional theory calculations were performed on halogen-bonded and hydrogen-bonded systems consisting of a halobenzene (XPh; X = F, Cl, Br, I, and At) and one or two water molecules, using the M06-2X density functional with the 6-31+G(d) (for C, H, F, Cl, and Br) and aug-cc-pVDZ-PP (for I, At) basis sets. The counterpoise procedure was performed to counteract the effect of basis set superposition error. The results show halogen bonds form in the XPh-H2 O system when X > Cl. There is a trend toward stronger halogen bonding as the halogen group is descended, as assessed by interaction energy and X•••Ow internuclear separation (where Ow is the water oxygen)...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
S P Verney, L E Gibbons, N O Dmitrieva, A M Kueider, M W Williams, O L Meyer, J J Manly, S M Sisco, M Marsiske
OBJECTIVE: Health literacy is critical for understanding information from healthcare providers and correct use of medications and includes the capacity to filter other information in navigating health care systems. Older adults with low health literacy exhibit more chronic health conditions, worse physical functioning, and poorer mental health. This study examined the relationship between sociodemographic variables and health literacy, and the impact of cognitive training on change in health literacy over 10 years in older adults...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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