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Evan M Gordon, Charles J Lynch, Caterina Gratton, Timothy O Laumann, Adrian W Gilmore, Deanna J Greene, Mario Ortega, Annie L Nguyen, Bradley L Schlaggar, Steven E Petersen, Nico U F Dosenbach, Steven M Nelson
Control over behavior is enabled by the brain's control networks, which interact with lower-level sensory motor and default networks to regulate their functions. Such interactions are facilitated by specialized "connector hub" regions that interconnect discrete networks. Previous work has treated hubs as a single category of brain regions, although their unitary nature is dubious when examined in individual brains. Here we investigated the nature of hubs by using fMRI to characterize individual-specific hub regions in two independent datasets...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Xiangyun Han, Xi Zhang, Lei Zhang, Mei Pan, Jinlong Yan
The photodegradation of benzothiazole (BTH) in wastewater with the coexistence of iron oxides and oxalic acid under UV light irradiation was investigated. Results revealed that an effective heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like system could be set up for BTH abatement in wastewater under UV irradiation without additional H2 O2 , and 88.1% BTH was removed with the addition of 2.0 mmol l-1 oxalic acid and 0.2 g l-1 α-Fe2 O3 using a 500 W high-pressure mercury lamp (365 nm). The degradation of BTH in the photo-Fenton-like system followed the first-order kinetic model...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Doaa M Anwar, Sherine Nabil Khattab, Maged W Helmy, Mohamed K Kamal, Adnan A Bekhit, Kadria A Elkhodairy, Ahmed O Elzoghby
In this study, promising approaches of dual-targeted micelles and drug-polymer conjugation were combined to enable injection of poorly soluble anti-cancer drugs together with site-specific drug release. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as a hepatoprotective agent was grafted to maltodextrin (MD) via carbodiimide coupling to develop amphiphilic maltodextrin-ursodeoxycholic acid (MDCA)-based micelles. Sulfasalazine (SSZ), as a novel anti-cancer agent, was conjugated via a tumor-cleavable ester bond to MD backbone to obtain tumor-specific release whereas resveratrol (RSV) was physically entrapped within the hydrophobic micellar core...
August 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Muhammad Faizan Nazar, Muhammad Yasir Siddique, Muhammad Atif Saleem, Muddassar Zafar, Faisal Nawaz, Muhammad Ashfaq, Asad Muhammad Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Abd Ur Rahman, Muhammad Tahir, Azwan Mat Lazim
To overcome the increased disease rate, utilizing of the versatile broad spectrum antibiotic drugs in controlled drug delivery systems has been a challenging and complex consignment. However, with the development of microemulsion (μE) based formulations, drugs can be effectively encapsulated and transferred to the target source. Herein, two biocompatible oil-in-water (o/w) μE formulations comprising clove oil/ tween 20/ ethylene glycol/ water (Formulation-A) and clove oil/ tween 20/ 1-butanol/ water (Formulation-B) were developed for encapsulating the gatifloxacin (GTF), a fourth-generation antibiotic...
August 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
M Trisha C Ang, Roger Gumbau-Brisa, David S Allan, Robert McDonald, Michael J Ferguson, Bruce E Holbein, Matthias Bierenstiel
Depriving microorganisms of bioavailable iron is a promising strategy for new anti-infective agents. The new, highly water-soluble, low molecular weight co-polymer DIBI was developed to selectively bind iron(iii) ions as a tris chelate and acts as a standalone anti-infective. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) studies show DIBI is effective against representative reference strains for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria S. aureus and A. baumannii , and the fungus C. albicans . Compared to the small molecule iron chelators, deferiprone and deferoxamine, DIBI outclassed these by factors of 100 to 1000 for inhibition of initial growth...
July 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Marcília P Costa, Anderson C S Feitosa, Fátima C E Oliveira, Bruno C Cavalcanti, Gleiston G Dias, Ewerton W S Caetano, Francisco A M Sales, Valder N Freire, Stefano Di Fiore, Rainer Fischer, Luiz O Ladeira, Eufrânio N da Silva Júnior, Claudia Pessoa
In this work, we characterize nor-β-lapachone-loaded (NβL-loaded) microcapsules prepared using an emulsification/solvent extraction technique. Features such as surface morphology, particle size distribution, zeta potential, optical absorption, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermal analysis data, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug release kinetics and in vitro cytotoxicity were studied. Spherical microcapsules with a size of 1.03 ± 0.46 μm were produced with an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 19%...
October 1, 2017: MedChemComm
J C Frisvad, V Hubka, C N Ezekiel, S-B Hong, A Nováková, A J Chen, M Arzanlou, T O Larsen, F Sklenář, W Mahakarnchanakul, R A Samson, J Houbraken
Aflatoxins and ochratoxins are among the most important mycotoxins of all and producers of both types of mycotoxins are present in Aspergillus section Flavi , albeit never in the same species. Some of the most efficient producers of aflatoxins and ochratoxins have not been described yet. Using a polyphasic approach combining phenotype, physiology, sequence and extrolite data, we describe here eight new species in section Flavi . Phylogenetically, section Flavi is split in eight clades and the section currently contains 33 species...
June 2019: Studies in Mycology
George W Brown, Tirril O Harris, Thomas K J Craig
BACKGROUND: Both childhood maltreatment and insecure attachment are known to be associated with depression in adulthood. The extent insecure attachment increases the risk of adult clinical depression over that of parental maltreatment among women in the general population is explored, using those at high risk because of their selection for parental maltreatment together with an unselected sample. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and investigator-based measures are employed...
August 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
S Klesse, R Weigt, K Treydte, M Saurer, L Schmid, R T W Siegwolf, D C Frank
Stable isotopes ratios in tree rings have become an important proxy for paleoclimatology, particularly in temperate regions. Yet, temperate forests are often characterized by heterogeneous stand structures, and the effects of stand dynamics on carbon (δ13 C) and oxygen isotope ratios (δ18 O) in tree rings are not well explored. In this study we investigated long-term trends and offsets in δ18 O and δ13 C of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in relation to tree age, size and distance to the upper canopy at seven temperate sites across Europe...
August 14, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
J S Berek, U A Matulonis, U Peen, P Ghatage, S Mahner, A Redondo, A Lesoin, N Colombo, I Vergote, O Rosengarten, J Ledermann, M Pineda, S Ellard, J Sehouli, A Gonzalez-Martin, D Berton-Rigaud, R Madry, A Reinthaller, S Hazard, W Guo, M R Mirza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
M Mardal, S S Johansen, A B Davidsen, R Telving, J R Jornil, P W Dalsgaard, J B Hasselstrøm, Å M Øiestad, K Linnet, M F Andreasen
Methoxyacetylfentanyl belongs to the group of fentanyl analogues and has been associated with several deaths in recent years. We present three case reports of deceased individuals that tested positive for methoxyacetylfentanyl consumption, as well as in vitro and in vivo metabolite profiles. Methoxyacetylfentanyl was quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in femoral blood, as well as in urine and brain tissue when these were available. Metabolite profiling was performed by incubating methoxyacetylfentanyl with pooled human hepatocytes (pHH) in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum...
July 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ana Banito, Xiang Li, Aimée N Laporte, Jae-Seok Roe, Francisco Sanchez-Vega, Chun-Hao Huang, Amanda R Dancsok, Katerina Hatzi, Chi-Chao Chen, Darjus F Tschaharganeh, Rohit Chandwani, Nilgun Tasdemir, Kevin B Jones, Mario R Capecchi, Christopher R Vakoc, Nikolaus Schultz, Marc Ladanyi, Torsten O Nielsen, Scott W Lowe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Cancer Cell
J Y Mao, O Rosmej, Y Ma, M H Li, B Aurand, F Gaertner, W M Wang, J Urbancic, A Schoenlein, B Zielbauer, U Eisenbarth, V Bagnoud, F Wagner, F Horst, M Syha, S Mathias, Y T Li, M Aeschlimann, L M Chen, T Kuehl
One order of magnitude energy enhancement of the target surface electron beams with central energy at 11.5 MeV is achieved by using a 200 TW, 500 fs laser at an incident angle of 72° with a prepulse intensity ratio of 5×10-6 . The experimental results demonstrate the scalability of the acceleration process to high electron energy with a longer (sub-picosecond) laser pulse duration and a higher laser energy (120 J). The total charge of the beam is 400±20  pC(E>2.7  MeV). Such a high orientation and mono-energetic electron jet would be a good method to solve the problem of the large beam divergence in fast ignition schemes and to increase the laser energy deposition on the target core...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Xiaoli Sun, Baitao Zhang, Bingzheng Yan, Guoru Li, Hongkun Nie, Kejian Yang, Chengqian Zhang, Jingliang He
Few-layered titanium carbide (Ti3 C2 Tx ), a novel two-dimensional (2D) Van der Waals material in the MXene family, was fabricated with a liquid-phase method and applied as a saturable absorber for a continuous-wave mode-locked femtosecond bulk laser. Pulses as short as 316 fs with a repetition rate of 64.06 MHz and maximum output power of 0.77 W were achieved at the central wavelength of 1053.2 nm, demonstrating the first known, to the best of our knowledge, application of MXene in an all-solid-state laser...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Michael W Henry, Andy O Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Mabi Singh, Athena Papas, Robert W Gerlach
PURPOSE: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a two-step dentifrice/gel oral hygiene sequence in a vulnerable population. METHODS: Prior to the research, institutional review was obtained for the protocol, consent and advertising. The study targeted adults with medication-associated xerostomia, because of the plaque accumulation and possible oral safety risks seen in this population. Eligible subjects with a medication history and measured hyposalivation were randomly assigned to one of two oral hygiene groups:(1) a two-step 0...
July 2018: American Journal of Dentistry
Pejmon Amini, Alborz Amini, Robert W Gerlach
PURPOSE: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a two-step dentifrice/whitening gel oral hygiene sequence on natural gingivitis and extrinsic stain. METHODS: The population consisted of healthy adults with clinical evidence of gingivitis and extrinsic stain. Consent, demographic information and clinical measurements were collected, after which subjects were randomized to treatment. Eligible subjects were dispensed blinded test kits containing over-labeled two-step 0...
July 2018: American Journal of Dentistry
Robert W Gerlach, Paul A Sagel
PURPOSE: Health-related outcomes from three randomized controlled trials represented the initial research on the feasibility of novel, sequential oral hygiene with a stannous fluoride (SnF₂) dentifrice then hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) whitening gel. METHODS: One crossover and two parallel clinical trials were conducted independently. Objectives varied, with individual studies assessing short, intermediate or longer-term outcomes from breath, dental plaque or gingivitis, respectively...
July 2018: American Journal of Dentistry
Jiaoyan Zhou, Mingzhang Xie, Anyang Cui, Bin Zhou, Kai Jiang, Liyan Shang, Zhigao Hu, Jun-Hao Chu
Vanadium dioxide (VO$_{2}$) with a metal-insulator transition (MIT) has been supposed as a candidate in the optoelectronic devices. However, the MIT temperature ($T_{\rm MIT}$) above room temperature limits its application scope. Here, high-quality V$_{1-x}$W$_{x}$O$_{2}$ films have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Based on temperature dependent transmittance and Raman spectra, it was found that the $T_{\rm MIT}$ increases from 241 to 279 K, when increasing doping concentration in the range of $0.16 \leqslant x \leqslant 0...
August 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Peter Pruisscher, Sören Nylin, Karl Gotthard, Christopher W Wheat
Diapause is a life history strategy allowing individuals to arrest development until favourable conditions return, and it is commonly induced by shortened day-length that is latitude specific for local populations. Although understanding the evolutionary dynamics of a threshold trait like diapause induction provides insights into the adaptive process and adaptive potential of populations, the genetic mechanism of variation in photoperiodic induction of diapause is not well understood. Here we investigate genetic variation underlying latitudinal variation in diapause induction and the selection dynamics acting upon it...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Ecology
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