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Raul Olivero-David, Maria Belen Ruiz-Roso, Nicola Caporaso, Lourdes Perez-Olleros, Natalia De Las Heras, Vicente Lahera, Baltasar Ruiz-Roso
BACKGROUND: The direct use of phenolic extracts from grape by-products can be useful to formulate functional food to improve consumers' health. The use of phenolic extracts instead of pure polyphenols as an ingredient is relevant in this context. The current work studied the bioavailability and absorption of polyphenols from grape by-product extracts and their health effect on cholesterolemia, by adding the extract (GE) to Wistar rats diet (50 g/kg) in vivo. RESULTS: GE caused the appearance of (+)-catechin, myricetin and quercetic acid in plasma and liver...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Hahyun Park, Sunwoo Park, Fuller W Bazer, Whasun Lim, Gwonhwa Song
Canine osteosarcoma is an aggressive primary bone tumor that shows metastasis to distal regions and is associated with a high mortality rate. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of canine osteosarcoma are not well characterized. In addition, development of prognostic factors and novel therapeutic agents is necessary to efficiently treat osteosarcoma. Therefore, we studied the effects of myricetin, an antioxidant found in berries, nuts, teas, wine, and vegetables, on apoptosis and signal transduction in the canine osteosarcoma cell lines, D-17 and DSN...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Clemencia Chaves-López, Donatella Usai, Matthew Gavino Donadu, Annalisa Serio, Robert Tulio González-Mina, Maria Chiara Simeoni, Paola Molicotti, Stefania Zanetti, Antonio Pinna, Antonello Paparella
Borojó (Borojoa patinoi Cuatrec.) is a fruit used in Colombian traditional medicine with supposed antihypertensive, antitumoral, diuretic, healing, immunological, anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac effects. To explore the relative merits in terms of biological activities of borojó aqueous extract (BAE), we investigated in vitro its antimicrobial activity on nosocomial pathogenic and multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6), Staphylococcus aureus (1) and Candida species (6), as well as its cytotoxicity on human conjunctive Wong-Kilbourne derivative (WKD) cells and Caco-2 cells from heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma...
April 16, 2018: Food & Function
Yong-Quan Xu, Ying-Na Zhang, Jian-Xin Chen, Fang Wang, Qi-Zhen Du, Jun-Feng Yin
Bitterness and astringency are two important quality attributes of green tea infusion, and catechins are the main contributor to the bitterness and astringency. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the bitterness and astringency of green tea infusion according to the concentrations of catechins. The concentration-taste curves of catechins showed a pattern that fit the cubic functions, and their R2 values were higher than 0.956. The bitterness of green tea was highly correlated with the concentrations of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) (R2  = 0...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Manuela M Moreira, M Fátima Barroso, João Vasconcellos Porto, M J Ramalhosa, Jaroslava Švarc-Gajić, Letícia Estevinho, Simone Morais, Cristina Delerue-Matos
Since annually a high amount of wastes is produced in vine pruning, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of vine shoots from two Portuguese grape varieties (Touriga Nacional - TN and Tinta Roriz - TR) to be used as a natural source of phenolic compounds. To reach this goal, three techniques were explored, namely microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), subcritical water extraction (SWE) and conventional extraction (CE). The phenolic composition of the extracts, antioxidant and biological activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry and chromatography...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tatiana M Souza-Moreira, Juliana A Severi, Edvânio Ramos Rodrigues, Mayara Ivani de Paula, Jolindo A Freitas, Wagner Vilegas, Rosemeire C L R Pietro
Plinia cauliflora is a plant species with edible fruits but its chemical composition is not totally known yet although former studies showed its potential as antifungal agent. This work aimed the chemical analysis of the leaves, the activity against fungi species and evaluated cytotoxicity. Extract was obtained with 70% ethanol. An ethyl acetate fraction was obtained and glycosylated quercetin and myricetin were isolated. Samples were tested against Candida species, dermatophytes and entomopathogenic fungi...
April 5, 2018: Natural Product Research
Celestina E Sobral-Souza, Ana R P Silva, Nadghia F Leite, José G M Costa, Irwin R A Menezes, Francisco A B Cunha, Larissa A Rolim, Henrique D M Coutinho
This study aimed to verify the chelating, antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Psidium brownianum Mart. Ex DC against mercury and aluminum. The ethanolic extract, as well as the tannic and flavonoid fractions, were prepared and subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Ferric ion reduction and antioxidant activity measurement using the FRAP method were performed with P. brownianum. After determining the sub-allelopathic doses, germination tests using Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seeds were performed...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Sumangala Darsandhari, Dipesh Dhakal, Biplav Shrestha, Prakash Parajuli, Joo-Hyun Seo, Tae-Su Kim, Jae Kyung Sohng
A flavonoid comprises polyphenol compounds with pronounced antiviral, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The flavonoid modification by methylation provides a greater stability and improved pharmacokinetic properties. The methyltransferase from plants or microorganisms is responsible for such substrate modifications in a regiospecific or a promiscuous manner. GerMIII, originally characterized as a putative methyltransferase in a dihydrochalcomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of the Streptomyces sp...
June 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Nenad L Vukovic, Ana D Obradovic, Milena D Vukic, Danijela Jovanovic, Predrag M Djurdjevic
Isolated and structurally confirmed, eleven flavonoids from propolis were examined for their cytotoxicity toward human colon cancer and human breast cancer cells. Their effect on induction of apoptosis and their antioxidative activities were also evaluated. Six flavonoids induced cytotoxic effects in both cell lines. Luteolin had a marked effect on both cell lines, especially on HCT-116 cells (IC50 72h, 66.86μM). Also, luteolin was observed to have the highest apoptotic potential after 72h treatment of examined cell lines (27...
April 2018: Food Research International
Na-Hyun Kim, Jeong-Doo Heo, Jung-Rae Rho, Min Hye Yang, Eun Ju Jeong
Background: In traditional folk medicine, Limonium tetragonum is used in the treatment of uterine hemorrhage, tinnitus, and oligomenorrhea. Objective: This study aimed to identify the therapeutic effect of L. tetragonum EtOAc extract (EALT) on liver of mice with chronic alcohol poisoning. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were administered 100 mg/kg of EALT with a single binge ethanol/Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks. Results: The chronic-binge ethanol diet induced a significant increase in liver marker enzyme activities...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Rongying Qiu, Junru Wang, Kirk L Parkin
BACKGROUND: Buckwheat is an important alternative crop and raw material for functional food formulation. Phase II detoxification proteins/enzymes provide cytoprotective roles against oxidative stress and inflammation originating from various stressors. We sought to identify and characterize potential phase II enzyme inducers from methanolic extracts of buckwheat flour, using an activity-guided fractionation based on the induction of quinone reductase (QR, E.C. in Hepa 1c1c7 cells...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Dunsfort N Malejane, Peter Tinyani, Puffy Soundy, Yasmina Sultanbawa, Dharini Sivakumar
This study investigated the effect of deficit irrigation at three management allowable depletion levels (MAD) 25%, 50%, and 75% on phytochemicals, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity, glucose, fructose, and fresh and dry mass in two green leafy lettuce cultivars (Lollo Bionda and Vera) at harvest. Genotype response was observed during deficit irrigation on fresh and dry mass at harvest. Vera revealed similar fresh mass at MAD levels 25% and 50%. Chicoric acid, caftaric acid, and chlorogenic and caffeic acid tended to increase at 50% MAD, while kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin increased at 75% MAD in both cultivars indicating increasing antioxidant properties...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Yingqian Ci, Yubo Zhang, Yanjie Liu, Shuai Lu, Jianhua Cao, Huajun Li, Jing Zhang, Zongyu Huang, Xudong Zhu, Jin Gao, Mei Han
Tumour metastasis is the major cause of breast cancer mortality. Myricetin, a natural polyphenol, is found in teas, wines, and berries. The pharmacodynamic action and molecular mechanism of myricetin on breast cancer metastasis remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of myricetin on MDA-Mb-231Br cell viability, migration, invasion, and 4T1 mouse lung metastasis mouse models. MMP-2/9 protein expression and ST6GALNAC5 expression were analysed using western blot assays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Chloé Roullier-Gall, Julie Signoret, Daniel Hemmler, Michael A Witting, Basem Kanawati, Bernhard Schäfer, Régis D Gougeon, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
Whisky can be described as a complex matrix integrating the chemical history from the fermented cereals, the wooden barrels, the specific distillery processes, aging, and environmental factors. In this study, using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we analyzed 150 whisky samples from 49 different distilleries, 7 countries, and ranging from 1 day new make spirit to 43 years of maturation with different types of barrel...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Maria F Quintero-Soto, Ana G Saracho-Peña, Jeanett Chavez-Ontiveros, Jose A Garzon-Tiznado, Karen V Pineda-Hidalgo, Francisco Delgado-Vargas, Jose A Lopez-Valenzuela
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes, nine kabuli from Mexico and 9 desi from other countries, were investigated for their phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity (AA). Phenolics in methanol extracts (ME) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-MS), whereas the AA was measured as Trolox equivalents (TE) by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods. Twenty phenolic compounds were identified in the ME and their levels showed a great variability among the chickpea genotypes...
March 7, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Farida Larit, Khaled M Elokely, Narayan D Chaurasiya, Samira Benyahia, Manal A Nael, Francisco León, Mohammad Sanad Abu-Darwish, Thomas Efferth, Yan-Hong Wang, Djamila Belouahem-Abed, Samir Benayache, Babu L Tekwani, Stephen J Cutler
BACKGROUND: Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are outer mitochondrial membrane flavoenzymes. They catalyze the oxidative deamination of a variety of neurotransmitters. MAO-A and MAO-B may be considered as targets for inhibitors to treat neurodegenerative diseases and depression and for managing symptoms associated with Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. PURPOSE: The objective was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Hypericum afrum and Cytisus villosus against MAO-A and B and to isolate the compounds responsible for the MAO-inhibitory activity...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Pan-Pan Liu, Jun-Feng Yin, Gen-Sheng Chen, Fang Wang, Yong-Quan Xu
Flavor characteristics and chemical compositions of Tieguanyin oolong tea processed using different semi-fermentation times were investigated. Six flavor attributes of the teas, namely, astringency, bitterness, umami, sweet aftertaste, floral flavor, and green fruity flavor, were analysed. With extended semi-fermentation time, the taste intensity of sweet aftertaste increased, and the aroma intensity of floral and green fruity flavors increased, while the intensities of astringency, bitterness, and umami showed no clear trend...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Nathália de Andrade Neves, Paulo César Stringheta, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Isidro Hermosín-Gutiérrez
Extracts of jabuticaba peels show complex chromatographic profiles at 360 nm, with some peaks presenting UV-Vis spectra resembling those of flavonol glycosides and others resembling that of ellagic acid. The presence and tentative identification of these phenolic compounds were comprehensively studied in four species of Brazilian jabuticaba fruit - Plinia trunciflora, variety 'jabuticaba de cabinho'; P. caulifora, varieties 'jabuticaba paulista' and 'jabuticaba canaã-açu'; P. jaboticaba, variety 'jabuticaba sabará'; and P...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Lih-Jeng Juang, Xiang-Yu Gao, Shou-Ting Mai, Cheng-Hung Lee, Ming-Chung Lee, Chao-Ling Yao
OBJECTIVE: Currently, the cosmetic and medical industries are paying considerable attention to solve or prevent skin damage or diseases, such as hyperpigmentation and oxidation and free radical damage. In this study, the effective compounds in Myrica rubra fruit were extracted and studied the biological effects of these M. rubra fruit extracts. METHODS: In this study, we extracted M. rubra fruit using solutions with various ratios of water to ethanol (100:0, 50:50, 5:95) and studied the anti-melanogenesis, anti-oxidation and radical scavenging effects of these M...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Somaieh Zafari, Mohsen Sharifi, Najmeh Ahmadian Chashmi
The callus and hairy root cultures of Prosopis farcta were established to develop effective strategies to enhance its valuable and medicinally important flavonoid compounds. For callus induction, the hypocotyl, cotyledon and shoot explants were subjected to different plant hormones, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Greater callus induction was obtained from hypocotyl explants on MS medium containing 3.0 mg L-1 NAA + 2.0 mg L-1 BAP. With the addition of 0...
February 19, 2018: Cytotechnology
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