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Satomi Tsuboko-Ishii, Ronald S Burton
Copepods of the genus Tigriopus, which are common zooplankton in rocky tide pools, show precopulatory mate-guarding behavior where a male clasps a potential mate to form a pair. While this phenomenon has attracted interest of researchers, methods for its analysis have not been well described. Here we describe procedures for: 1) individual culturing and staging of Tigriopus juveniles and adults, and 2) video-based analysis of their mate-guarding behavior. The culturing method enables experimental control of paring experience of animals as well as the ability to track their development before behavioral tests...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Daniel A Pupo, John W Kakareka, Jonathan Krynitsky, Lorenzo Leggio, Tom Pohida, Stephanie Studenski, Brandon K Harvey
Monitoring age-related changes in motor function can be used to identify deviations that represent underlying diseases for which early diagnosis is often paramount for efficacious, interventional therapies. Currently, the availability of cost-effective and reliable diagnostic tools capable of routine monitoring is limited. Adequate diagnostic systems are needed to identify, monitor and distinguish early subclinical symptoms of neurological diseases from normal aging-associated changes. Herein, we describe the development, initial validation and reliability of the Hand-Arm Movement Monitoring System (HAMMS), a video-based data acquisition system built using a programmable, versatile platform for acquiring temporal and spatial metrics of hand and arm movements...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Rodrigo Calvillo-Ortiz, Danilo Acosta, Ammara A Watkins, Amy Evenson, Katharyn M Atkins, Tara S Kent
OBJECTIVE: Trainee mistreatment, either intentional or unintentional, negatively affects the learning environment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention about mistreatment and the learning environment on general surgery residents. DESIGN: Video-based modules were developed and added to the residency curriculum. Modules provided definitions and examples of active and passive mistreatment and components of positive and negative learning environments...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Cristina P Garcia, Lauren T Catalano, Kristen R Dwyer, Julie M McCarthy, Melanie E Bennett, Jack J Blanchard
Social affiliation, or engagement in positive social interactions, is often profoundly impaired in individuals with schizophrenia. Valid measures of social affiliation are needed to understand these impairments and their symptom and functional correlates; however, such measures are limited and have not been validated. This pilot study evaluated one such measure-the video-based Social Affiliation Interaction Task (SAIT)-and a novel in vivo behavioral measure, the Affiliative Conversation Task (ACT). Twenty participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ) and 35 nonpsychiatric controls (CT) completed both tasks and measures of negative symptoms and functioning...
November 2018: Behavior Therapy
Brenda Benson Deaver, Tyrel Nelson, Catherine Turner
CONTEXT: Popularity of using handheld devices in clinical settings has increased, especially the use of motion analysis applications (MAA). Video-based measurement tools have been found reliable in measuring knee valgus in subjects without anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, there is a need for validation of using a MAA to measure knee valgus in an injured population given that they may exhibit higher degrees of knee valgus. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and validity of using a MAA to measure knee valgus during functional activities used to assess return-to-sport after ACL reconstruction (ACLR)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Liping Xie, Dacheng Tao, Haikun Wei
Video-based facial expression recognition has received substantial attention over the past decade, while early expression detection (EED) is still a relatively new and challenging problem. The goal of EED is to identify an expression as quickly as possible after the expression starts and before it ends. This timely ability has many potential applications, ranging from human-computer interaction to security. The max-margin early event detector (MMED) is a well-known ranking model for early event detection. It can achieve competitive EED performance but suffers from several critical limitations: 1) MMED lacks flexibility in extracting useful information for segment comparison, which leads to poor performance in exploring the ranking relation between segment pairs; 2) the training process is slow due to the large number of constraints, and the memory requirement is also usually hard to satisfy; and 3) MMED is linear in nature, and hence may not be appropriate for data in a nonlinear feature space...
October 3, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Yang Kun, Jacques Hubert, Luo Bin, Wang Xing Huan
OBJECTIVE: Video-based teaching is considered highly effective in debriefing, especially in minimally invasive surgeries. In this study, the benefits of using a new integrated video recording system, were investigated and compared to those of the standard basic skills robotic training procedure. DESIGN: Fifty residents from the 2nd and 3rd year medical faculty without any experience of robot usage or laparoscopy were randomized into 2 groups: group A--a natural self-training group without a trainer, and group B--a self-training group assisted by an integrated video recording system during training...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Peipei Zhou, Qinghai Ding, Haibo Luo, Xinglin Hou
It is very important to automatically detect violent behaviors in video surveillance scenarios, for instance, railway stations, gymnasiums and psychiatric centers. However, the previous detection methods usually extract descriptors around the spatiotemporal interesting points or extract statistic features in the motion regions, leading to limited abilities to effectively detect video-based violence activities. To address this issue, we propose a novel method to detect violence sequences. Firstly, the motion regions are segmented according to the distribution of optical flow fields...
2018: PloS One
Brooke J Cull, Sara K Rosenkranz, Richard R Rosenkranz
Objective: To examine the effectiveness of tailored, online, video-based training on Girl Scout troop leaders' wellness promotion self-efficacy, intention, and knowledge regarding physical activity and fruit and vegetable practices during troop meetings. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: Thirty Girl Scouts leaders were randomized to control (CON; n = 16) or intervention (INT; n = 14) conditions. INT leaders received six online weekly training videos on implementation of physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (FV) practices during troop meetings...
2018: AIMS Public Health
Samuel G Charlton, Nicola J Starkey
As drivers move through the road transport system they are exposed to a range of different situations and road conditions in a relatively short space of time. Drivers' expectations about what will happen on different types of roads have strong effects on their speed choices, and where they look and what they attend to. As a result it is important to assist drivers to change their expectations when they transition from one road type to another. In this experiment we investigated the effectiveness of different centreline road markings in preparing for a horizontal curve as drivers moved from a motorway to a two-lane rural country road...
September 29, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jun Li, Ran Duan, Yingying Zhang, Xin Zhao, Yanxin Cheng, Yongxue Chen, Jinge Yuan, Hong Li, Jianping Zhang, Li Chu, Dengyun Xia, Senming Zhao
In order to determine the role of the adrenergic system in bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity, a series of experiments were performed. In an animal experiment, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats under chloral hydrate anesthesia received intravenous bupivacaine, followed by an intravenous injection of adrenalin or isoprenalin, and the electrocardiogram (ECG), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), the maximum rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (+dP/dtmax) and the maximum rate of pressure decrease (-dP/dtmax) were continually monitored...
2018: PloS One
Aparna Sarangapani, Andrea N Simpson, John Snelgrove, Mary Higgins, Rory Windrim, Abheha Satkunaratnam
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, the rate of operative vaginal deliveries has decreased, and as a result trainees are lacking exposure and training. The aim of this study was to determine whether a video-based masterclass can improve trainees' confidence, comfort, and knowledge in performing second stage labour assessments and selecting appropriate patients and instruments for operative vaginal deliveries. METHODS: Current University of Toronto obstetrics and gynaecology residents were invited to participate...
September 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Matthew C Camden, Alejandra Medina-Flintsch, Jeffrey S Hickman, Richard J Hanowski, Brian Tefft
Although research has found advanced safety technologies to be effective at preventing large truck crashes, limited empirical data exists regarding their cost effectiveness to the U.S. society. Without these data, carriers are hesitant to adopt costly technologies and government agencies are hesitant to create regulation mandating their use. The objective of this study was to provide scientifically-based estimates of the societal benefits and costs of large truck automatic emergency braking (AEB), lane departure warning (LDW), and video-based onboard safety monitoring (OSM)...
September 22, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Aaron Donoghue, Mary Kate Abbadessa, Ting-Chang Hsieh, Warren Frankenberger, Sage Myers
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify time performing chest compressions (CCs) per year of individual providers in a pediatric ED and to project a rate of opportunity for CC based on median clinical hours per provider category. METHODS: This was an observational study of video-recorded resuscitations in a pediatric ED over 1 year. Events where CCs were performed for more than 2 minutes were included. Identification of providers and duration of CCs per provider were determined by video review...
September 21, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Matthew T Brodhead, So Yeon Kim, Mandy J Rispoli
The first purpose of this study was to attempt to replicate previous findings that video-based preference assessments without access to selected stimuli may accurately predict relative reinforcing efficacy of stimuli. To do this, we conducted a concurrent operant reinforcer assessment in which we evaluated the relative reinforcing value of highly preferred and less preferred items identified in a video-based preference assessment. The second purpose of this study was to begin to evaluate the potential behavioral mechanisms responsible for the validity of this assessment...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Nicola Wright, David Charnock
Some aspects of mental health nursing practice are inherently oppressive; for example detention in hospital or forced medication under restraint. What is more challenging is thinking about oppression in the context of everyday mental health nursing work, such as nursing handovers, and the impact this has on the quality and safety of service user care. An online resource was co-developed for use (via a workshop) with student mental health nurses to assist them with questioning their own and others practice in relation to oppression as exhibited in the nursing handover...
September 7, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Dawn Phillips, Donna Griffin, Tracy Przybylski, Erica Morrison, Amy L Reeves, Marc Vallee, Kenji P Fujita, Katherine L Madson
PURPOSE: To modify the Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment-Gait (POMA-G) subtest and validate this modified POMA-G (mPOMA-G) in children with hypophosphatasia (HPP), a rare metabolic disorder that can manifest with musculoskeletal symptoms that impair mobility and ambulation. METHODS: Based on feedback from an expert panel, the POMA-G was modified by removing gait initiation/path assessments and expanding the rating scale for step length/continuity to capture aspects of observational gait analysis relevant to children with HPP...
2018: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
Jason W Kempenich, Ross E Willis, Mohammed Al Fayyadh, Haisar Dao Campi, Tatiana Cardenas, William A Hopper, Cynthia A Giovannetti, Charles C Reed, Daniel L Dent
OBJECTIVE: Decipher if patient attitudes toward resident participation in surgical care can be improved with patient education using a video-based modality. DESIGN: A survey using a 5-pt Likert scale was created, piloted, and distributed in general and colorectal surgery outpatient clinics that had residents involved with patient care at 2 facilities, both with control and intervention groups. The intervention group viewed a short video (∼4 min) explaining the role, education, and responsibilities of medical students, residents, and attending surgeons prior to answering the survey...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Eric Matthew Ritter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: Annals of Surgery
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