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Oncology, neuroblastoma

Valerio Maggio, Marco Chierici, Giuseppe Jurman, Cesare Furlanello
We introduce the CDRP (Concatenated Diagnostic-Relapse Prognostic) architecture for multi-task deep learning that incorporates a clinical algorithm, e.g., a risk stratification schema to improve prognostic profiling. We present the first application to survival prediction in High-Risk (HR) Neuroblastoma from transcriptomics data, a task that studies from the MAQC consortium have shown to remain the hardest among multiple diagnostic and prognostic endpoints predictable from the same dataset. To obtain a more accurate risk stratification needed for appropriate treatment strategies, CDRP combines a first component (CDRP-A) synthesizing a diagnostic task and a second component (CDRP-N) dedicated to one or more prognostic tasks...
2018: PloS One
Sujith Baliga, Torunn I Yock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The advent of proton beam therapy (PBT) has initiated a paradigm shift in the field of pediatric radiation oncology, with increasing promise to alleviate both short-term and long-term toxicities. Given the dramatic rise in proton therapy centers in the United States, a discussion of the quality of evidence supporting its use in pediatric cancers is warranted. RECENT FINDINGS: Proton radiotherapy appears to decrease the incidence and severity of late effects with the strongest evidence in pediatric brain tumor cohorts that shows benefits in neurocognitive, hearing, and endocrine outcomes...
December 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Maddalena Grimaldi, Veronica Dal Bo, Beatrice Ferrari, Elisa Roda, Fabrizio De Luca, Paola Veneroni, Sergio Barni, Manuela Verri, Sandra A De Pascali, Franco P Fanizzi, Graziella Bernocchi, Maria G Bottone
Cisplatin (cisPt), among the best known components of multi-drug front-line therapies used for the treatments of solid tumors, such as the childhood neuroblastoma, acts through DNA linking. Nevertheless, the cisPt effectiveness is compromised by the onset of severe side effects, including neurotoxicity that results in neurodegeneration, cell death, and drug-resistance. In the field of experimental oncology, aimed at overcoming cytotoxicity and chemoresistance, great efforts are devoted to the synthesis of new platinum-based drugs, such as [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] (PtAcacDMS), which shows a specific reactivity with sulfur residues of enzymes involved in apoptosis...
December 6, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Katherine Cooper, Guy Makin, Emma Davies, Andrew Turner, Prashant Hiwarkar, Robert Wynn
We report an 8 year old boy with disseminated, life-threatening, drug treatment-resistant varicella zoster infection occurring during standard treatment for neuroblastoma in whom viral clearance and cure was effected by donor Lymphocyte infusion from his HLA-identical twin sibling.
November 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Wei Yao, Kai Li, Kui-Ran Dong, Shan Zheng, Xian-Min Xiao
BACKGROUND: Low-risk neuroblastomas have favorable biologic characteristics. Children Oncology Group (COG) proposed that surgical resection of the primary tumor was sufficient. We evaluated the long-term prognosis of surgery alone for patients with low-risk neuroblastoma in China. METHODS: A total of 34 patients with low-risk neuroblastoma were treated in our center between Jan 2009 and Dec 2013. The medical records of these patients were reviewed. RESULTS: The primary lesion was located in the adrenal gland in 19 patients, the retroperitoneum in 5, the posterior mediastinum in 9 and the neck in 1...
November 16, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Clare J Twist, Arlene Naranjo, Mary Lou Schmidt, Sheena C Tenney, Susan L Cohn, Holly J Meany, Peter Mattei, E Stanton Adkins, Hiroyuki Shimada, Wendy B London, Julie R Park, Katherine K Matthay, John M Maris
PURPOSE: Infants with stage 4S neuroblastoma usually have favorable outcomes with observation or minimal chemotherapy. However, young infants with symptoms secondary to massive hepatomegaly or with unfavorable tumor biology are at high risk of death. Our aim was to improve outcomes for patients with symptomatic and/or unfavorable biology 4S neuroblastoma with a uniform treatment approach using a biology- and response-based algorithm. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subset of patients with 4S disease with MYCN-not amplified tumors with impaired or impending organ dysfunction, or with unfavorable histology and/or diploid DNA index, were eligible...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
(no author information available yet)
The interaction between pituitary hormones, GH - PRL, and Growth Factors, GF, plays a fundamental role in the physiological and neoplastic mechanisms of growth, the latter using these factors to a much greater extent compared to the former, with a direct dose-dependent effect on the speed of local or metastatic expansion. In hormone-dependent tumours, the respective male and female sex hormones interact with GH - PRL - GF to sustain the expansion of the tumour. We carried out a review of the literature on the relationship between the expression of GH and GHR in tumour tissues compared to healthy tissues, and on the correlation between this expression and tumour aggressiveness...
September 15, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Holly L Pacenta, Margaret E Macy
RTK plays important roles in many cellular signaling processes involved in cancer growth and development. ALK, TRKA, TRKB, TRKC, and ROS1 are RTKs involved in several canonical pathways related to oncogenesis. These proteins can be genetically altered in malignancies, leading to receptor activation and constitutive signaling through their respective downstream pathways. Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, and despite intensive therapy, there is a high mortality rate in cases with a high-risk disease...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Viera Dobrotkova, Petr Chlapek, Pavel Mazanek, Jaroslav Sterba, Renata Veselska
For decades, retinoids and their synthetic derivatives have been well established anticancer treatments due to their ability to regulate cell growth and induce cell differentiation and apoptosis. Many studies have reported the promising role of retinoids in attaining better outcomes for adult or pediatric patients suffering from several types of cancer, especially acute myeloid leukemia and neuroblastoma. However, even this promising differentiation therapy has some limitations: retinoid toxicity and intrinsic or acquired resistance have been observed in many patients...
November 1, 2018: BMC Cancer
Douglas A Canning
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Urology
Saima Riaz, Humayun Bashir, Saadiya Javed Khan, Abid Qazi
Objective: I-131 mIBG scan semi-quantitative analysis with modified Curie and the International Society of Pediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma (SIOPEN) scoring systems is helpful in the evaluation of disease extent and has prognostic impact in stage 4 neuroblastoma. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of baseline I-131 mIBG scans in 21 patients with stage 4 or 4S neuroblastoma diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2015. All scans were assessed for Curie and SIOPEN scores...
October 9, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Rejin Kebudi, Begum Sirin Koc, Ferhan Akici, Fatma Betul Cakir, Omer Gorgun, Nur Olgun
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. Primary and secondary testicular involvement is extremely uncommon in neuroblastoma. PROCEDURE: All children with neuroblastoma treated with the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG)-Neuroblastoma (NB) Study and who had testis involvement either at diagnosis or at relapse were retrospectively evaluated. A review of all cases with neuroblastoma and testis involvement in the literature was done...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Tycho Jan Zuzak, Anja Wasmuth, Stefan Bernitzki, Melanie Schwermer, Alfred Längler
BACKGROUND: Long-term survival of children with cancer has reached rates of up to 80%. Nevertheless, continued research devoted to further improvement of survival rates especially for patients with high-risk illnesses is necessary. Recent studies have shown direct positive effects on tumor reduction through Viscum album (mistletoe) extracts in adults, mainly as a result of higher dosage treatment and intravenous or intratumoral application. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A retrospective analysis of data was carried out of all oncological, pediatric patients treated with intravenous high-dose mistletoe therapy for a period of two years (11/2013-11/2015)...
October 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
K Menke, M Schwermer, J Felenda, C Beckmann, F Stintzing, A Schramm, T J Zuzak
OBJECTIVES: While Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) extracts showed antitumor effects on adult cancer cells, effects on pediatric tumor cells as a single agent or in combination with mistletoe extracts are hitherto unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The anti-proliferative effects of an aqueous fermented Taraxacum officinale extract (Taraxacum) on a pediatric cancer cell line panel were assessed by cell viability assays (MTT). In two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and Kelly, the effects on cell cycle distribution (PI staining), mitochondrial integrity (MitoTracker staining), invasion (Boyden chamber assay) and migration (Scratch-assay) as well as the synergistic effects of the co-treatment of Taraxacum and mistletoe preparations (Iscucin® Tiliae or Iscucin® Pini) were investigated...
October 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Masashi Koto, Yusuke Demizu, Jun-Ichi Saitoh, Hiroaki Suefuji, Hiroshi Tsuji, Tomoaki Okimoto, Tatsuya Ohno, Yoshiyuki Shioyama, Hiroaki Ikawa, Kenji Nemoto, Takashi Nakano, Tadashi Kamada
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of carbon-ion radiation therapy (C-ion RT) for locally advanced sinonasal malignant tumors in a multicenter retrospective study (J-CROS 1402 HN). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Clinical data were collected for patients who had sinonasal malignant tumors of stage N0-1M0 and received C-ion RT at 4 institutions in Japan between November 2003 and December 2014. Of the 458 patients, 393 had naïve tumors and 65 had recurrent tumors...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Alexander Stephan Kroiss
Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the detection of paraganglioma (PGL), pheochromocytoma (PCC), and neuroblastoma (NB). Anatomic imaging, for example CT or MRI, offers high sensitivity in these neuroendocrine tumors (NET) but only moderate specificity, often associated with difficulties in clearly distinguishing between NET and non-NET. Functional imaging, as in the use of different radioisotopes, is indispensable in oncological imaging. The introduction of PET and PET/CT, respectively, led to a dramatic improvement in both malignant and non-malignant PGL, PCC, and NB, assessing the exact tumor extent...
September 4, 2018: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Tal Schechter, Evelio Perez-Albuerne, Tiffany F Lin, Meredith S Irwin, Mohammed Essa, Ami V Desai, Haydar Frangoul, Gregory Yanik, L Lee Dupuis, David Jacobsohn, Morris Kletzel, Mark Ranalli, Sandeep Soni, Alix E Seif, Stephan Grupp, Christopher C Dvorak
Survival for high-risk neuroblastoma patients is still suboptimal. Although stem cell transplantation (SCT) is used, there is no consensus as to which conditioning regimen has the greatest efficacy and fewest toxicities. We assessed the incidence of and risk for hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) for neuroblastoma patients who underwent autologous SCT with busulfan and melphalan (BuMel) at eight centers following Children's Oncology Group (COG)-based induction chemotherapy. Data regarding the patients, SCT characteristics, busulfan steady-state concentrations, incidence of VOD, and survival were evaluated...
September 4, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Signe Buhl Gram, Christian Grønhøj, Henriette Mann, Kathrine Kronberg Jakobsen, Katalin Kiss, Anders Bilde, Christian von Buchwald
The aim of this study was to report incidence and patient characteristics of olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) at a tertiary cancer institution during a 16-year period. A retrospective review was conducted on patients with ONB treated at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from 2000 to 2016 covering Eastern Denmark. Patient demographics, symptoms, stage, pathology-reports, treatment, and outcome were extracted from the patient records and the Danish pathology register. The tumours were graded both histologically and clinically using Hyam's and Kadish classifications, respectively...
August 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Sidharth Totadri, Amita Trehan, Anish Bhattacharya, Deepak Bansal, Savita Verma Attri, Radhika Srinivasan
Chylothorax is an uncommon complication in children. Although surgery and trauma are the most common causes encountered, hematological as well as solid malignancies can present with chylothorax. This study aimed to describe the presentation and management of malignant chylothorax in children. This is a case series from a pediatric hematology-oncology unit. Chylothorax was diagnosed by demonstrating high triglyceride content in the pleural fluid and a low cholesterol concentration in relation to the serum cholesterol...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Stephan D Voss
Most pediatric malignancies require some form of cross-sectional imaging, either for staging or response assessment. The majority of these are solid tumors and this review addresses the role of MRI, as well as other cross-sectional and functional imaging techniques, for evaluating the most common pediatric solid tumors. The primary emphasis is on neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma and Wilms tumor, three of the most common non-central-nervous-system (CNS) pediatric solid tumors encountered in young children. The initial focus will be a review of the imaging techniques and approaches used for diagnosis, staging and early post-treatment response assessment, followed by a discussion of the role surveillance imaging plays in pediatric oncology and a brief review of other emerging imaging techniques...
August 2018: Pediatric Radiology
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