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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644383/use-of-ultrasonication-technology-for-the-increased-production-of-plant-secondary-metabolites
#1
REVIEW
Md Mohidul Hasan, Tufail Bashir, Hanhong Bae
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) provide taste, color, odor, and resistance to plants, and they are also used to treat cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Synthesis of PSMs in plants is stimulated in response to different forms of external stress. Use of ultrasonication (US) to clean or decontaminate fruits and vegetables leads to physical stress that finally results in the accumulation of PSMs. US can stimulate accumulation of taxol, ginsenoside saponins, shikonin, and resveratrol, e.g., up to 319-fold increase of resveratrol synthesis has been observed in grape due to US...
June 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642095/ginsenoside-rg1-alleviates-corticosterone-induced-dysfunction-of-gap-junctions-in-astrocytes
#2
Cong-Yuan Xia, Shi-Feng Chu, Shuai Zhang, Yan Gao, Qian Ren, Yu-Xia Lou, Piao Luo, Man-Tong Tian, Zhi-Qi Wang, Guo-Hua Du, Yoshihisa Tomioka, Tohru Yamakuni, Yi Zhang, Zhen-Zhen Wang, Nai-Hong Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major bioactive ingredients of Panax Ginseng C. A. Mey, has neuroprotective effects in animal models of depression, but the mechanism underlying these effects is still largely unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) dysfunction is a potentially novel pathogenic mechanism for depression. Thus, we investigated that whether antidepressant-like effects of Rg1 were related to GJIC...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634392/the-traditional-chinese-medicine-achyranthes-bidentata-and-our-de-novo-conception-of-its-metastatic-chemoprevention-from-phytochemistry-to-pharmacology
#3
Zhou Jiang, Jun Qian, Haiyan Dong, Jingyi Yang, Xiaobo Yu, Jianzhong Chen, Hongning Chen, Qing Shi, Lee Jia
Our recent biosystems analysis revealed similarities between embryonic implantation and cancer cell adhesion, which suggests that abortifacients may be good for safe and effective metastatic chemoprevention targeting circulating tumor cells (CTC). Here we test the hypothesis by using the well-known abortion herb Achyranthes bidentata Blume (A. bidentata). Five compounds were separated from the herb root. Among them, ginsenoside Ro was the most potent in inhibiting embryonic implantation within non-cytotoxic concentrations...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633513/gram-scale-production-of-ginsenoside-f1-using-a-recombinant-bacterial-%C3%AE-glucosidase
#4
Dong-Shan An, Chang-Hao Cui, Muhammad Zubair Siddiqi, Hong Shan Yu, Feng-Xie Jin, Song-Gun Kim, Wan-Taek Im
Naturally occurring ginsenoside F1 (20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxatriol) is rare. Here, we produced gram-scale quantities of ginsenoside F1 from a crude protopanaxatriol saponin mixture comprised mainly of Re and Rg1 through enzyme-mediated biotransformation using recombinant β-glucosidase (BgpA) cloned from a soil bacterium, Terrabacter ginsenosidimutans Gsoil3082(T). In a systematic, step-by-step process, the concentrations of substrate, enzyme, and NaCl were determined for maximal production of F1...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620420/pharmacokinetic-comparison-of-20-r-and-20-s-ginsenoside-rh1-and-20-r-and-20-s-ginsenoside-rg3-in-rat-plasma-following-oral-administration-of-radix-ginseng-rubra-and-sheng-mai-san-extracts
#5
Xiaomei Fan, Yan Xu, Danni Zhu, Yibing Ji
Ginsenosides Rh1 and Rg3, as the main bioactive components from Ginseng, are effective for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sheng-Mai-San (SMS), a classical complex prescription of traditional Chinese medicines, is composed of Radix Ginseng Rubra, Fructus Schisandrae, and Radix Ophiopogonis. In this research, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for stereoselective determination and pharmacokinetic studies of 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1 and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 epimers in rat plasma after oral administration of Radix Ginseng Rubra or SMS extracts...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618657/antidepressive-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg1-via-regulation-of-hpa-and-hpg-axis
#6
Zheng Mou, Qian Huang, Shi-Feng Chu, Mei-Jin Zhang, Jin-Feng Hu, Nai-Hong Chen, Jun-Tian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity is a well-established pathological feature of major depression, accompanied by the persistent increase of glucocorticoid level and the dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is one of the most active ingredients of Panax ginseng, which has various biological activity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the antidepressive effects of Rg1 and elucidate its impact on neuroendocrine system...
June 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611667/dammarane-sapogenins-ameliorates-neurocognitive-functional-impairment-induced-by-simulated-long-duration-spaceflight
#7
Xiaorui Wu, Dong Li, Junlian Liu, Lihong Diao, Shukuan Ling, Yuheng Li, Jianyi Gao, Quanchun Fan, Weijia Sun, Qi Li, Dingsheng Zhao, Guohui Zhong, Dengchao Cao, Min Liu, Jiaping Wang, Shuang Zhao, Yu Liu, Guie Bai, Hongzhi Shi, Zi Xu, Jing Wang, Chunmei Xue, Xiaoyan Jin, Xinxin Yuan, Hongxing Li, Caizhi Liu, Huiyuan Sun, Jianwei Li, Yongzhi Li, Yingxian Li
Increasing evidence indicates the occurrence of cognitive impairment in astronauts under spaceflight compound conditions, but the underlying mechanisms and countermeasures need to be explored. In this study, we found that learning and memory abilities were significantly reduced in rats under a simulated long-duration spaceflight environment (SLSE), which includes microgravity, isolation confinement, noises, and altered circadian rhythms. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), alkaline hydrolyzed products of ginsenosides, can enhance cognition function by regulating brain neurotransmitter levels and inhibiting SLSE-induced neuronal injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608834/multi-dimensional-spectrum-effect-relationship-of-the-impact-of-chinese-herbal-formula-lichong-shengsui-yin-on-ovarian-cancer
#8
Yanhong Wang, Yang Li, Yan Zhang, Guan Feng, Zhixin Yang, Qingxia Guan, Rui Wang, Fengjuan Han
Lichong Shengsui Yin (LCSSY) is an effective and classic compound prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) used for the treatment of ovarian cancer. To investigate its pharmacodynamic basis for treating ovarian cancer, the multi-dimensional spectrum-effect relationship was determined. Four compositions (I to IV) were obtained by extracting LCSSY successively with supercritical CO₂ fluid extraction, 75% ethanol reflux extraction, and the water extraction-ethanol precipitation method. Nine samples for pharmacological evaluation and fingerprint analysis were prepared by changing the content of the four compositions...
June 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605877/ginsenoside-rb2-inhibits-osteoclast-differentiation-through-nuclear-factor-kappab-and-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-protein-3-signaling-pathway
#9
Fei Cong, Jian Liu, Chunmei Wang, Zhi Yuan, Long Bi, Jidong Liang, Ke Su, Yucheng Qiu, Tao Song, Jinzhu Fan, Gao Chao
Ginsenoside-Rb2 (Rb2) is a 20(S)-protopanaxadiol glycoside extracted from ginseng possessing various bioactivities which has drawn considerable interest regarding the area of bone metabolism. However, the effect of Rb2 on osteoclast differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of Rb2 in regulating osteoclast differentiation and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by receptor activator nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in mouse RAW 264...
June 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605639/ginsenoside-rg1-attenuates-the-inflammatory-response-in-dss-induced-mice-colitis
#10
Guo Zhu, Huanan Wang, Tiancheng Wang, Fushan Shi
Ginsenoside Rg1 is a major active constituent of Panax ginseng and possesses anti-inflammatory effects. It has been reported to have therapeutic effects on various diseases. In the present study, we investigated the role of ginsenoside Rg1 in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis. Our results showed that ginsenoside Rg1 markedly reduces proinflammatory cytokines release upon DSS stimulation of mouse dendritic cells, that ginsenoside Rg1 suppresses IL-1β (Interleukin 1 beta) and TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor alpha) release via up-regulation of NLRP12 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 12) expression, and that ginsenoside Rg1 significantly decreases the inflammatory response to DSS-induced mouse colitis, as evidenced by increased body weight, reduced colonic damage scores and disease activity index (DAI), and lowered proinflammatory cytokines levels...
June 9, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603419/in-situ-preparation-of-water-soluble-ginsenoside-rh2-entrapped-bovine-serum-albumin-nanoparticles-in-vitro-cytocompatibility-studies
#11
Priyanka Singh, Yeon Ju Kim, Hina Singh, Sungeun Ahn, Verónica Castro-Aceituno, Deok Chun Yang
The present study investigates a simple and convenient one-step procedure for the preparation of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Rh2 nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature. In this work, ginsenoside Rh2 was entrapped within the BSA protein to form BSA-Rh2 NPs to enhance the aqueous solubility, stability, and therapeutic efficacy of Rh2. The physiochemical characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the prepared BSA-Rh2 NPs were spherical, highly monodispersed, and stable in aqueous systems...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597423/illumina-based-transcriptomic-profiling-of-panax-notoginseng-in-response-to-arsenic-stress
#12
Yanfang Liu, Yanhua Mi, Jianhua Zhang, Qiwan Li, Lu Chen
BACKGROUND: Panax notoginseng, a famous herbal medicine, has recently attracted great attention on its safety and quality since P. notoginseng can accumulate and tolerate As from growing environment. For the purpose of understanding As damage to the quality of P. notoginseng as well as corresponding tolerance mechanisms, genes involved in As stress response were identified using Illumina sequencing. RESULTS: Totally 91,979,946 clean reads were generated and were de novo assembled into 172,355 unigenes...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587128/yeast-extract-stimulates-ginsenoside-production-in-hairy-root-cultures-of-american-ginseng-cultivated-in-shake-flasks-and-nutrient-sprinkle-bioreactors
#13
Ewa Kochan, Piotr Szymczyk, Łukasz Kuźma, Anna Lipert, Grażyna Szymańska
One of the most effective strategies to enhance metabolite biosynthesis and accumulation in biotechnological systems is the use of elicitation processes. This study assesses the influence of different concentrations of yeast extract (YE) on ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks and in a nutrient sprinkle bioreactor after 3 and 7 days of elicitation. The saponin content was determined using HPLC. The maximum yield (20 mg g(-1) d.w.) of the sum of six examined ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1) in hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks was achieved after application of YE at 50 mg L(-1) concentration and 3 day exposure time...
May 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586505/cellular-stress-response-mechanisms-as-therapeutic-targets-of-ginsenosides
#14
REVIEW
Hong-Yi Qi, Li Li, Hui Ma
Ginseng, one of the most widely used traditional herbal medicines and dietary supplements, has historically been recognized as a tonic herb and adaptogen that can enhance the body's tolerance to various adversities. Ginsenosides are a diverse group of steroidal saponins that comprise the major secondary metabolites of ginseng and are responsible for its multiple pharmacological effects. Emerging evidence suggests that hormetic phytochemicals produced by environmentally stressed plants can activate the moderate cellular stress response mechanisms at a subtoxic level in humans, which may enhance tolerance against severe dysfunction or disease...
June 6, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581836/enhanced-antitumor-activity-in-a431-cells-via-encapsulation-of-20-r-ginsenoside-rg3-in-plga-nanoparticles
#15
Shaozhi Zhang, Jiwei Liu, Baojian Ge, Meiling Du, Li Fu, Yushan Fu, Qiu Yan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the encapsulation of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (20(R)-Rg3) using PLGA and promotion for its antitumor activity. SIGNIFICANCE: Preparation and evaluation of the antitumor efficacy of 20(R)-Rg3-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were the first reported. The data will be helpful to apply 20(R)-Rg3 efficiently and broadly in new drug form development and clinical cancer treatment. METHODS: The nanoparticles were prepared using emulsion and solvent evaporation methods...
June 5, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565878/ginsenoside-rb3-strengthens-the-hypoglycemic-effect-through-ampk-for-inhibition-of-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#16
Fanli Meng, Xiaotian Su, Wei Li, Yinan Zheng
Ginsenoside Rb3 is one of the major active components in protopanaxdiol type ginsenosides, and has demonstrated anti-diabetic activity. However, the mechanism of this action has yet to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rb3 on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) gluconeogenesis pathway. The present study involved the use of HepG2 cells and western blot analysis to systematically evaluate the effect of ginsenoside Rb3 on AMPK signaling proteins and key factors of gluconeogenesis [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase, forkhead transcription factor 1 (FOXO1) and hepatic nuclear receptor 4α (HNF4α)]...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561788/comprehensive-characterization-for-ginsenosides-biosynthesis-in-ginseng-root-by-integration-analysis-of-chemical-and-transcriptome
#17
Jing-Jing Zhang, He Su, Lei Zhang, Bao-Sheng Liao, Shui-Ming Xiao, Lin-Lin Dong, Zhi-Gang Hu, Ping Wang, Xi-Wen Li, Zhi-Hai Huang, Zhi-Ming Gao, Lian-Juan Zhang, Liang Shen, Rui-Yang Cheng, Jiang Xu, Shi-Lin Chen
Herbgenomics provides a global platform to explore the genetics and biology of herbs on the genome level. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is an important medicinal plant with numerous pharmaceutical effects. Previous reports mainly discussed the transcriptome of ginseng at the organ level. However, based on mass spectrometry imaging analyses, the ginsenosides varied among different tissues. In this work, ginseng root was separated into three tissues-periderm, cortex and stele-each for five duplicates. The chemical analysis and transcriptome analysis were conducted simultaneously...
May 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557007/simultaneous-determination-of-ginsenoside-rb1-ginsenoside-rg1-paeoniflorin-albiflorin-and-oxypaeoniflorin-in-rat-plasma-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study-of-wen-yang-huo-xue-soft-capsule
#18
Xiujun Wu, Yang You, Gonglin Qu, Ran Ma, Mingxue Zhang
A simple and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for simultaneous determination of ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated with protein precipitation using acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid). All analytes and digoxin (internal stand, IS) were quantitated through electrospray ionization in negative ion multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode...
May 30, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554304/ginsenoside-rb1-exerts-antidiabetic-action-on-c2c12-muscle-cells-by-leptin-receptor-signaling-pathway
#19
Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Maryam Hosseini
CONTEXT: Ginsenoside Rb1 improves insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in muscle cells via different signaling pathways; however, it is not clear that it has any effect on leptin signaling in skeletal muscle. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on leptin receptors expression and main signaling pathways of leptin (STAT3, PI3 kinase and ERK kinase) in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C2C12 myotubes were incubated with various concentrations of Rb1 (0...
August 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549492/ginsenoside-rb1-attenuates-isoflurane-surgery-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-via-inhibiting-neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#20
Hui Hui Miao, Ye Zhang, Guan Nan Ding, Fang Xiao Hong, Peng Dong, Ming Tian
OBJECTIVE: Anesthetic isoflurane plus surgery has been reported to induce cognitive impairment. The underlying mechanism and targeted intervention remain largely to be determined. Ginsenoside Rb1 was reported to be neuroprotective. We therefore set out to determine whether ginsenoside Rb1 can attenuate isoflurane/surgery-induced cognitive dysfunction via inhibiting neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. METHODS: Five-months-old C57BL/6J female mice were treated with 1...
May 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
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