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Junyi Shen, Zhiming Zhao, Wei Shang, Chunli Liu, Beibei Zhang, Lingjie Zhao, Hui Cai
Diabetic cerebral infarction is with poorer prognosis and high rates of mortality. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has a wide variety of therapeutic values for central nervous system (CNS) diseases for the neuron protective effects. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts Rg1 in reaching the CNS. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of Rg1 nanoparticle (PHRO, fabricated with γ-PGA, L-PAE (H), Rg1, and OX26 antibody), targeting transferrin receptor, on the diabetes rats complicated with diabetic cerebral infarction in vitro and in vivo...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Xiao-Nan Chen, Dan-Qi Li, Meng-di Zhao, Gang-Yan Yu, Shou-Ying Du, Yang Lu, Jie Bai, Peng-Yue Li, Ya-Li Wu, Zhi-Hao Tian, Yan-Ying Zeng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fufang Danshen formula, a famous Chinese patent medicine containing Salvia miltiorrhiza, Panax notoginseng and borneol, has been widely used in the treatment of coronary heart disease. The application is restricted by low bioavailability partly due to Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) instability and low in vivo absorption. Thus, adhesive pellets were developed to improve bioavailability. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the adhesive preparation by describing PNS's plasma pharmacokinetics in vivo and compare adhesive micro pills with normal preparation...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Ick-Hyun Jo, Jinsu Lee, Chi Eun Hong, Dong Jin Lee, Wonsil Bae, Sin-Gi Park, Yong Ju Ahn, Young Chang Kim, Jang Uk Kim, Jung Woo Lee, Dong Yun Hyun, Sung-Keun Rhee, Chang Pyo Hong, Kyong Hwan Bang, Hojin Ryu
Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been widely used for medicinal purposes and contains potent plant secondary metabolites, including ginsenosides. To obtain transcriptomic data that offers a more comprehensive view of functional genomics in P. ginseng, we generated genome-wide transcriptome data from four different P. ginseng tissues using PacBio isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) technology. A total of 135,317 assembled transcripts were generated with an average length of 3.2 kb and high assembly completeness...
September 15, 2017: Genes
Leiming Zhang, Maojing Zhu, Minmin Li, Yuan Du, Sijin Duan, Yanan Huang, Yongying Lu, Jianqiao Zhang, Tian Wang, Fenghua Fu
Ginsenoside Rg1, the main active compound in Panax ginseng, has already been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of Rg1 on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Rg1 on adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. AIA rats were given Rg1 at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days to observe the anti-arthritic effects. The results showed that Rg1 significantly alleviated joint swelling and injuries...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Xiao-Jun Gou, Fang Cen, Zi-Quan Fan, Ying Xu, Hong-Yi Shen, Ming-Mei Zhou
Sleep loss or sleep deprivation (SD) refers to shorter sleep than average baseline need, and SD has been a serious problem of modern societies which affects health and well-being. Panax ginseng is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Our previous study has demonstrated that total ginsenosides (GS), the extracts from Panax ginseng, could effectively improve cognition and behavior on SD rats. However, little is known about its metabolomic study. In this study, serum and brain metabolomic method based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was employed to evaluate the efficacy and study the mechanism of GS on a rat model of SD...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
Jingang Hou, Sunchang Kim, Changkeun Sung, Chulhee Choi
Senescent astrocytes in aging brain express senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and link with increased brain aging and its related diseases. In order to determine whether ginsenosides ameliorate the astrocytic senescence in vitro, human astrocytic CRT cells and primary rat astrocytes were used in the present study. Ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1 and Rg3 (5 μg/mL) could effectively prevent the astrocytic senescence induced by H₂O₂ exposure. However, these ginsenosides did not reverse the astrocytic senescence...
September 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
B Dong, T-T Pang
20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is one of the most active components of red ginseng, possessing the beneficial effects in cancer prevention and metabolic diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms that contribute to Rh2-mediated bone formation remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the expression of 17 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in cultured MC3T3-E1 cells under Rh2 treatments. We found that lncRNA H19 was significantly increased in Rh2-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. Expression of lncRNA H19 was promoted in a dose- and time-dependent manner after Rh2 treatments...
August 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Thu-Hien Thi Tu, Naveen Sharma, Eun-Joo Shin, Hai-Quyen Tran, Yu Jeung Lee, Ji Hoon Jeong, Jung Hwan Jeong, Seung Yeol Nah, Hoang-Yen Phi Tran, Jae Kyung Byun, Sung Kwon Ko, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Ginseng (Panax ginseng), an herbal medicine, has been used to prevent neurodegenerative disorders. Ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, or Rg1) were obtained from Korean mountain cultivated ginseng. The anticonvulsant activity of ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg/day × 3) against trimethyltin (TMT) insult was the most pronounced out of ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, and Rg1). Re itself did not significantly alter tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-ϒ (IFN-ϒ), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression, however, it significantly increases the interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression...
September 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
Jie Li, Jiaojiao Lu, Zhongxue Ye, Xi Han, Xia Zheng, Huilian Hou, Wei Chen, Xu Li, Le Zhao
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the key mechanisms mediating cancer progression. MicroRNAs (miRs) are essential regulators of gene expression by suppressing translation or causing degradation of target mRNA. Growing evidence illustrates the crucial roles of miRs dysregulation in cancer development and progression. Here, we have found for the first time that the ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, a pharmacologically active component of Panax ginseng, potently increases miR-145 expression by downregulating methyltransferase DNMT3A to attenuate the hypermethylation of the promoter region in the miR-145 precursor gene...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Peihe Zheng, Yinbin Chen, Yangyang Fu, Hecheng Wang, Jia Wang, Siwen Zheng, Shengyuan Xiao, Yingping Wang
After cultivation of ginseng, ginsenosides, which are the major active ingredients of gingeng, were approved for use by the food industry, and began to be used as added functional ingredients to try to improve the quality and price of functional foods. However, the interaction between different types of ginsenosides and nutrients needs further study. We investigated the effect of B-complex vitamins (which are essential nutrients) on the pharmacokinetics of the ginsenosides protopanaxatriol-type saponin Rg1, protopanaxadiol-type saponin Rb1, and oleanolic acid-type saponin Ro after oral administration...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
K T Liu, C W Lee
We report a case of symptomatic bradycardia caused by consumption of a Chinese herbal medicine which was initially undisclosed to the attending emergency physician. The scientific name of the herb is Panax japonicus. Electrocardiogram revealed sinus bradycardia. Laboratory tests were normal except for the detection of a high serum digoxin level. Further interrogation of the patient eventually disclosed ingestion of the herb which, however, did not contain any digoxin. Other active ingredients in the herb include various types of ginsenoside...
August 2017: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
Soon Shik Shin, Michung Yoon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Araliaceae) has been historically used as a traditional drug for the prevention and treatment of most ageing-related diseases, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Elderly men with testosterone deficiency are strongly associated with many of the aforementioned metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ginseng on obesity and lipid metabolism in a mouse model of testosterone deficiency (castrated C57BL/6J mice)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
E González-Burgos, Carlos Fernández-Moriano, R Lozano, I Iglesias, M P Gómez-Serranillos
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play key roles in Parkinson's disease (PD) initiation and progression. Ginsenosides are major compounds of Ginseng species and they are responsible for pharmacological activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects and mechanism of the major ginsenosides Rd and Re in rotenone-induced oxidative stress model in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Co-treatments with both ginsenosides inhibited the increased intracellular ROS production and by-products lipid peroxidation accumulation caused by rotenone...
August 23, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ying Ren, Jin-Liang Wang, Xiang Zhang, Hao Wang, Ying Ye, Lu Song, Ying-Jie Wang, Meng-Jue Tu, Wei-Wei Wang, Lan Yang, Bo Jiang
Major depression is a common neuropsychiatric disease with high lifetime prevalence and high incidence of suicide. This study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of ginsenoside Rg2 in mice, and the possible mechanism was also determined. A single injection of both Rg2 (10 and 20mg/kg) and fluoxetine (positive control, 20mg/kg) induced notable antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test and tail suspension test without affecting the locomotor activity of mice, and the tests were done 30min after the injection...
August 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Ding Qu, Mengfei Guo, Yue Qin, Lixiang Wang, Bing Zong, Yunyan Chen, Yan Chen
Previously, we have developed a multicomponent-based microemulsion composed of etoposide, coix seed oil, and ginsenoside Rh2 (ECG-MEs). In this study, our goal was to validate the feasibility of ECG-MEs in lung cancer treatment and explore the mechanism underling the enhanced antitumor efficacy. The optimal weight ratio of ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) in ECG-MEs was determined as 3% (wt%), that was capable of forming the microemulsion readily with small particle size and high drug encapsulation efficiency. In cellular studies, the intracellular fluorescence of human non-small cell lung cancer (A549) cells treated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled ECG-MEs (FITC/ECG-MEs) was significantly higher than that of various controls, leading to the obviously synergistic anticancer activities in cytotoxicity and in vitro cell apoptosis induction...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
Juan Liu, Rui-Feng Ji, Tong Chen, Yuan Yuan, Juan Guo, Ying-Ping Wang, Wen-Yuan Gao, Lu-Qi Huang
The study is aimed to characterize the tissue expression of 10 key ginsenoside biosynthetic genes using bioinformatics method and real-time quantitative PCR. Heatmap and cluster analysis of 10 ginsenoside biosynthetic genes were performed in four-year-old Jilin ginseng. Using real-time quantitative PCR, the expression correlation of 10 key genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis was analyzed in different organs of four-year-old Jilin ginseng including, tissue culture seedling and adventitious root. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the relation between those 10 key genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis...
July 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yajun Wu, Jingjing Liu, Su Gu, Li Lin, Yingzhuang Chen, Ming Ma, Bo Chen
Ginsenosides have been widely conceded as having various biological activities and are considered to be the active ingredient of Ginseng. Nowadays, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography is considered to be a highly efficient method for ginseng saponins purification and preparation. However, in the process of practical application, due to the complex and varied composition of natural products and relatively simple pretreatment process, it is easy to block the chromatographic column, affect the separation efficiency and its service life...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Min Zhao, Dan-Dan Wang, Yuan Che, Meng-Qiu Wu, Qing-Ran Li, Chang Shao, Yun Wang, Li-Juan Cao, Guang-Ji Wang, Hai-Ping Hao
The use of ginseng extract as an adjuvant for cancer treatment has been reported in both animal models and clinical applications, but its molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Mitomycin C (MMC), an anticancer antibiotic used as a first- or second-line regimen in the treatment for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), causes serious adverse reactions when used alone. Here, by using both in vitro and in vivo experiments, we provide evidence for an optimal therapy for NSCLC with total ginsenosides extract (TGS), which significantly enhanced the MMC-induced cytotoxicity against NSCLC A549 and PC-9 cells in vitro when used in combination with relatively low concentrations of MMC...
August 24, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Jin-Yi Wan, Wei-Hua Huang, Wei Zheng, Chan Woong Park, Su Hwan Kim, Dae Bang Seo, Kwang-Soon Shin, Jinxiang Zeng, Haiqiang Yao, Clara Sava-Segal, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan
The root of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used for centuries in Oriental medicine to improve general well-being and to relieve various medical conditions. It is commonly understood that ginsenosides are responsible for the pharmacological activities of ginseng. Compared to the root of ginseng, studies on the berry are considerably limited. In this study, we evaluated the effects of polysaccharides from Asian ginseng berries on plasma lipid levels, chemically-induced enteric inflammation and neoplasm, and cancer chemoprevention in different experimental models...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Joonwoo Park, Phuong T C Bui, Heewon Song, Si-Kwan Kim, Dong-Kwon Rhee, Eun-Young Kim, Mee-Ra Rhyu, Myeong Soo Lee, Young Joo Lee
The first record of ginseng use dates back over two millennia, and ginseng is now popular in more than 35 countries. Ginsenosides are the pharmacological constituents responsible for the beneficial effects of ginseng. There is increasing evidence that ginseng and its bioactive ingredients are involved in the regulation of nuclear receptors, molecules that act in response to the specific binding of hormones, which link to a diverse array of signaling pathways, such as the ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. Knowledge of the mechanism of how ginseng mediates these complexes is essential for the development of multi-target phytomedicine as possible therapy for different diseases...
August 22, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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