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Cong Lu, Yan Wang, Jingwei Lv, Ning Jiang, Bei Fan, Lina Qu, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively caused cognitive deficit, which was associated with oxidative stress induced damage. Ginsenoside Rh2 had the ability to protect against damage caused by reactive oxygen species in vitro, showing antioxidant property. Therefore, it was hypothesized that Ginsenoside Rh2 could prevent SD-induced cognitive deficit via its antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of Ginsenoside Rh2 on memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation was investigated. The mice were sleep deprived continuously for 14 days using our self-made Sleep Interruption Apparatus (SIA)...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Tony Tong-Lin Wu, Yat-Ching Tong, I-Hung Chen, Ho-Shan Niu, Yingxiao Li, Juei-Tang Cheng
The therapeutic action of ginsenoside Rh2 on several cancer models has been reported. This study aimed to evaluate its apoptotic effect on prostate cancer and the underlying mechanism. Cultured DU145 cells were treated with Rh2 (5 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-4 M), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta) antagonist GSK0660 (1 × 10-6 to 5 × 10-6 M); or small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PPAR-delta. The treatment effects were evaluated with cell viability assay, life/death staining and flow cytometry for apoptosis...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Chao Liu, Quan Gong, Ting Chen, Juan Lv, Zhiping Feng, Pengjie Liu, Zhiyong Deng
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an obstacle for cancer chemotherapy. It was reported that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (hereafter Rg3) was able to regulate MDR in mouse leukemia cells. The present study investigated the effect of Rg3 on the MDR of A549 lung cancer cells. A cell viability assay revealed that Rg3 treatment increased cisplatin (DDP) cytotoxicity in DDP resistant A549 cells (A549/DDP). Furthermore, Rg3 increases the antitumor effect of DDP on A549/DDP xenograft mice. The expression of MDR-mediated proteins, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MPR1) and lung resistance protein 1 (LPR1), was detected in tumor tissue of A549/DDP xenograft mice...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Min Yang, Youcong Chuan, Cunwu Guo, Jingjing Liao, Yanguo Xu, Xinyue Mei, Yixiang Liu, Huichuan Huang, Xiahong He, Shusheng Zhu
Panax notoginseng is a highly valuable medicinal herb, but its culture is strongly hindered by replant failure, mainly due to autotoxicity. Deciphering the response mechanisms of plants to autotoxins is critical for overcoming the observed autotoxicity. Here, we elucidated the response of P. notoginseng to the autotoxic ginsenoside Rg1 via transcriptomic and cellular approaches. Cellular analyses demonstrated that Rg1 inhibited root growth by disrupting the cell membrane and wall. Transcriptomic analyses confirmed that genes related to the cell membrane, cell wall decomposition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism were up-regulated by Rg1 stress...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhao Xiaoxiong, Wang Junmei, Song Yujun, Xinhua Chen
A new methodology has been developed with conjugating nanoparticles (NPs) with an active ingredient of Chinese herbs for nanomedicines with auto-targeting and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for liver cancer therapy. Fe@Fe3 O4 NPs are first synthesized via the programmed microfluidic process, whose surfaces are first modified with -NH2 groups using a silane coupling technique that uses (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS) as the coupling reagent and are subsequently activated by the bifunctional amine-active cross-linker (e...
March 12, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Seungyeop Lee, Si-On Lee, Gyu-Lee Kim, Dong-Kwon Rhee
AIMS: Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in acute bacterial meningitis can lead to widespread brain damage and mortality. Inflammatory responses by immune cells in the brain are thought to determine the degree of brain injury. Yet, the mechanisms underlying host responses to pneumococcal meningitis are largely unknown. To explore host responses as a potential therapeutic target for preventing brain injury after pneumococcal meningitis. METHODS: We evaluated signaling mechanisms that minimize neuronal damage caused by pneumococcal infection; specifically, we assessed pathways related to neuronal survival after enhancing estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) expression using a natural therapeutic substance known as ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg3 enhanced ginseng...
March 9, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Jianjian Zhuang, Juxin Yin, Chaojian Xu, Ying Mu, Shaowu Lv
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are common leukemia in adults. 20(S)-GRh2 is an important bioactive substance that is present in Panax ginseng. However, there are no investigations that deal with the comparison of apoptosis, the occurrence of autophagy, and the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy after being treated with 20(S)-GRh2 in AML and CML. In this study, we explored the effect of 20(S)-GRh2 on the AML and CML (U937 and K562). Fluorescence microscopy, CCK-8, Quantitative realtime PCR, Western blot, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and flow cytometric analysis were used to detect the occurrence of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and autophagy...
March 8, 2018: Nutrients
Manman Li, Yanping Chen, Pengfei Zhang, Ling Zhang, Ri Zhou, Yan Xu, Hongda Ding, Qiujing Wang, Zhicai Wang
Tweleve pseudo-ginsensides were synthesized under a mild condition, via a simple three-step called acetylation, elimination-addition and saponification. The inhibitory effects of these tweleve pseudo-ginsenosides were screened on the hemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes caused by 2,2' -azobis (2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH). It was found that the IC50 values followed the sequence of (20Z) pseudo-protopanaxatriol (pseudo-PPT) < (20Z) pseudo-protopanaxadiol (pseudo-PPD) < (20Z) pseudo-Rh2 < (20E) pseudo-PPT< (20E) pseudo-PPD < (20E) pseudo-Rh2 < (20Z) pseudo-Rg2 < (20E) pseudo-Rg2 < Rb1 < (20Z) pseudo-Rh1 < Rg2 < (20E) pseudo-Rh1...
March 7, 2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Jin-Bo Li, Rui Zhang, Xiao Han, Chun-Li Piao
Obesity and its consequent type 2 diabetes are significant threats to global health. Emerging evidence indicates that ginsenosides from ginseng (Panax ginseng) have anti-diabetic activity. We hypothesized that ginsenosides Rg1 could suppress dietary-induced obesity and improve obesity-related glucose metabolic disorders. Our results showed that ginsenoside Rg1 attenuated dietary-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in white adipocyte tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, we found that ginsenosides Rg1 not only decreased fasting glucose concentration and the 2-h postprandial glucose concentration, but also improved insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in those mice...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Zi-Ling Wang, Lin-Bo Chen, Zhu Qiu, Xiong-Bin Chen, Ying Liu, Jing Li, Lu Wang, Ya-Ping Wang
With the growing population, aging, extended lifespans and anti-aging have become popular areas of research in the life and social sciences. With increasing age, the structure and function of the testes, the spermatogenetic and androgen‑producing organ in the male reproductive system, gradually declines. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an extract of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine. The extract facilitates anti‑aging through its anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, it has not been reported whether ginsenoside Rg1 delays testicular aging...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mengyao Tang, Wenbo Wang, Liying Cheng, Rong Jin, Lu Zhang, Weiwei Bian, Yuguang Zhang
Objectives: Therapeutic effect of many selectable methods applied in clinical practice for treating hypertrophic scar (HS) is not still so satisfactory. Meanwhile, a few medicines may lead to several undesirable complications. The traditional Chinese medicine, Rg3 , has been reported for multiple antitumor effects previously. We have conducted series of animal experiments and confirmed the inhibitory effect of Rg3 in HS before. The aim of this study was to further verify the conclusions of previous studies and reveal the specific functional mechanisms of Rg3 ...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Jin-Ling Yang, Zong-Feng Hu, Ting-Ting Zhang, An-Di Gu, Ting Gong, Ping Zhu
As the main bioactive constituents of Panax species, ginsenosides possess a wide range of notable medicinal effects such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, antiaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective activities. However, the increasing medical demand for ginsenosides cannot be met due to the limited resource of Panax species and the low contents of ginsenosides. In recent years, biotechnological approaches have been utilized to increase the production of ginsenosides by regulating the key enzymes of ginsenoside biosynthesis, while synthetic biology strategies have been adopted to produce ginsenosides by introducing these genes into yeast...
March 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yu-Shi Wang, He Li, Yang Li, Hongyan Zhu, Ying-Hua Jin
Annexin A2, a multifunctional tumor associated protein, promotes nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation by interacting with NF-κB p50 subunit and facilitating its nuclear translocation. Here we demonstrated that two ginsenosides Rg5 (G-Rg5) and Rk1 (G-Rk1), with similar structure, directly bound to Annexin A2 by molecular docking and cellular thermal shift assay. Both Rg5 and Rk1 inhibited the interaction between Annexin A2 and NF-κB p50 subunit, their translocation to nuclear and NF-κB activation. Inhibition of NF-κB by these two ginsenosides decreased the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), leading to caspase activation and apoptosis...
March 5, 2018: Protein & Cell
Ying Peng, Su-Ning Li, Xuexue Pei, Kun Hao
Amultivariate regression statisticstrategy was developed to clarify multi-components content-effect correlation ofpanaxginseng saponins extract and predict the pharmacological effect by components content. In example 1, firstly, we compared pharmacological effects between panax ginseng saponins extract and individual saponin combinations. Secondly, we examined the anti-platelet aggregation effect in seven different saponin combinations of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1, Rh, Rd, Ra3 and notoginsenoside R1. Finally, the correlation between anti-platelet aggregation and the content of multiple components was analyzed by a partial least squares algorithm...
March 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ai-Hua Zhang, Feng-Jie Lei, Jun-Fan Fu, Ru-Jun Zhou, Lian-Xue Zhang
Ginsenosides are the main active ingredient and allelochemicals of Panax ginseng, and they play an important role in ginseng growth and in ecological adaptation. To study the influence of ginsenosides on soil microbial communities, the method of given exogenous total ginsenosides of different concentrations were used to study the influence of ginsenosides on new forest soil microbial community, evaluate the change of metabolic activity of microbial community and investigate the ecological effect of ginsenosides on soil microbial community...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Longhai Dai, Can Liu, Jiao Li, Caixia Dong, Jiangang Yang, Zhubo Dai, Xueli Zhang, Yuanxia Sun
Ginsenosides, the major effective ingredients of Panax ginseng, exhibit various biological properties. UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated glycosylation is the last biosynthetic step of ginsenosides and contributes to their immense structural and functional diversity. In this study, UGT Bs-YjiC from Bacillus subtilis 168 was demonstrated can transfer a glucosyl moiety to the free C3-OH and C12-OH of protopanaxadiol (PPD) and PPD-type ginsenosides to synthesize natural and unnatural ginsenosides. In vitro assays showed that unnatural ginsenoside F12 (3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-12-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol) exhibited remarkable activity against diverse human cancer cell lines...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Da-Lun Lv, Lei Chen, Wei Ding, Wei Zhang, He-Li Wang, Shuai Wang, Wen-Bei Liu
Background: Melanoma is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and SMI-4a and G-Rh2 exert anti-tumor activity in multiple cancer. However, SMI-4a as well as a synergistic relationship between SMI-4a and G-Rh2 in anti-melanoma capacity are still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SMI-4a and combined SMI-4a with G-Rh2 on the viability, apoptosis and autophagy of melanoma, and to preliminarily explore the underlying mechanism of SMI-4a and combined SMI-4a with G-Rh2 in inhibiting tumor growth...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Lin Dai, Weiyan Zhu, Chuanling Si, Jiandu Lei
Panax ginseng has high medicinal and health values. However, the various and complex components of ginseng may interact with each other, thus reducing and even reversing therapeutic effects. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel "nano-ginseng" with definite ingredients, ginsenoside Rb1/protopanaxadiol nanoparticles (Rb1/PPD NPs), completely based on the protopanaxadiol-type extracts. The optimized nano-formulations demonstrated an appropriate size (~110 nm), high drug loading efficiency (~96...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kyung-Chul Shin, Tae-Hun Kim, Ji-Hyeon Choi, Deok-Kun Oh
The ginsenoside 20-O-β-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, compound K, has attracted much attention in functional food, traditional medicine, and cosmetic industries because of diverse pharmaceutical activities. The effective production of compound K from ginseng extracts has been required. However, an enzyme capable of completely converting all protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides to compound K has not been reported until now. In this study, unlike other enzymes, β-glucosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii was able to hydrolyze sugar moieties such as L-arabinofuranose as well as D-glucose and L-arabinopyranose as the C-20 outer sugar in ginsenosides...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Cong Lu, Jingwei Lv, Liming Dong, Ning Jiang, Yan Wang, Qiong Wang, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), one of the ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects and to improve memory. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of PPT on scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were pretreated with 2 different doses of PPT (20 and 40 μmol/kg) for 27 days by intraperitoneal injection, and scopolamine (0.75 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 9 days to induce memory impairment...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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