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Jia-Ning Xu, Li-Fang Chen, Jun Su, Zhi-Li Liu, Jie Chen, Qing-Fen Lin, Wei-Dong Mao, Dong Shen
The present study is to evaluate the anxiolytic-like activities underlying ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3). The anxiolytic-like activities were induced by GRg3 (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.g), evidenced by blocking the decreased time and entries in the open arms in elevated plus maze test and by reversing the increased latency to feed in novelty-suppressed feeding test. In addition, the decreased levels on progesterone, allopregnanolone, serotonin (5-HT) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) were blocked by GRg3 (20 and 40 mg/kg, i...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohamed Ben-Eltriki, Subrata Deb, Mohamed Hassona, Gray Meckling, Ladan Fazli, Mei Yieng Chin, Nada Lallous, Takeshi Yamazaki, William Jia, Paul S Rennie, Artem Cherkasov, Emma S Tomlinson Guns
We have explored the effects of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (aPPD), a naturally derived ginsenoside, against androgen receptor (AR) positive castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) xenograft tumors and have examined its interactions with AR. In silico docking studies for aPPD binding to AR, alongside transactivation bioassays and in vivo efficacy studies were carried out in the castration-resistant C4-2 xenograft model. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and Western blot analyses followed by evaluation of AR, apoptotic, cell cycle and proliferative markers in excised tumors was performed...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Litao Bai, Jialiang Gao, Fan Wei, Jing Zhao, Danwei Wang, Junping Wei
Ginseng, one of the oldest traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, has been used widely in China and Asia for thousands of years. Ginsenosides extracted from ginseng, which is derived from the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, have been used in China as an adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Owing to the technical complexity of ginsenoside production, the total ginsenosides are generally extracted. Accumulating evidence has shown that ginsenosides exert antidiabetic effects. In vivo and in vitro tests revealed the potential of ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3, Rg5, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, compound K, Rk1, Re, ginseng total saponins, malonyl ginsenosides, Rd, Rh2, F2, protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type saponins to treat diabetes and its complications, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic cognitive dysfunction, type 2 diabetes mellitus with fatty liver disease, diabetic cerebral infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and diabetic erectile dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wei Wang, Jiang-Jiang Qin, Xin Li, Guanyu Tao, Qiang Wang, Xuming Wu, Jianwei Zhou, Xiaolin Zi, Ruiwen Zhang
Prostate cancer remains a major health problem in the US and worldwide. There is an urgent need to develop novel approaches to preventing primary and metastatic prostate cancer. We have identified 25-OCH3-protopanaxadiol (GS25), the most active ginsenoside that has been identified so far; it has potent activity against human cancers, including prostate cancer. However, it has not been proven if GS25 could be a safe and effective agent for cancer prevention. In the present study, we used the TRAMP model and clearly demonstrated that GS25 inhibited prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis with minimal host toxicity...
May 12, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Xiaoyu Wei, Yatang Chen, Wenxiang Huang
Liver fibrosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a complicated etiology and notorious complications, but there is a lack of efficacious therapeutics. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a central role in the course of liver fibrosis, and thus, prevention of the development of EMT may control and even reverse liver fibrosis. This study aimed to examine the beneficial effect of ginsenoside Rg1, a phrenological active component isolated from Ginseng, and interrogate the mechanism in vitro and in vivo, with a focus on transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad and Nrf2-mediated signaling pathways...
May 15, 2018: BioFactors
Bing Zhang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Chun-Jie Gu, Ke Wu, Hui-Li Yang, Jie Mei, Jia-Jun Yu, Xiao-Fan Hou, Jian-Song Sun, Feng-Yuan Xu, Da-Jin Li, Li-Ping Jin, Ming-Qing Li
Endometriosis (EMS) is an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease with a low autophagy level of ectopic endometrial stromal cells (eESCs). Impaired NK cell cytotoxic activity is involved in the clearance obstruction of the ectopic endometrial tissue in the abdominopelvic cavity. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) are two metabolites of ginsenosides, which have profound biological functions, such as anti-cancer activities. However, the role and mechanism of ginsenosides and metabolites in endometriosis are completely unknown...
May 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Daehyun Shin, Hee Won Moon, Yuri Oh, Kyunghoon Kim, Dae-Duk Kim, Chang-Jin Lim
Ginseng is now used worldwide as a traditional Oriental medicine. Ginsenosides, also known as ginseng saponins, are responsible for most pharmacological efficacies of ginseng. This work aimed to assess the novel skin anti-photoaging potential of ginsenoside Re (Re), a protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside, by analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS), pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2) and -9 (proMMP-9), total glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and cellular viability in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Bing-You Yang, Chun-Li Yang, Yan Liu, Hai-Xue Kuang
The chemical constituents from the n-butanol fraction of the 70% ethanol extract of Datura metel roots were separated by silica gel and ODS chromatogram columns as well as preparative HPLC. On the basis of spectral data analysis, their structures were elucidated. Twenty-one compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as citroside A (1), coniferin (2), paeoniflorin (3), (6R,7E,9R)-9-hydroxy-4,7-megastigmadien-3-one 9-O-[α-L-arabin-opyranosyl-(l→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside] (4), (1R,7R,10R,11R)-12-hydroxyl anhuienosol (5), kaurane acid glycoside A (6), ent-2-oxo-15,16-dihydroxypimar-8(14)-en-16-O-β-glucopyranoside (7), ginsenoside Rg₁(8), ginsenoside Re (9), notoginsenosides R₁(10), N-butyl-O-β-D-fructofuranoside (11), salidroside (12), hexyl β-sophoroside (13), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol 1-glucoside (14), benzyl-O-β-D-xylopyranoxyl(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (15), (Z)-3-hexenyl-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (16), N-[2-(3,4-dihydro-xyphenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]-3-(4-methoxyphenyl) prop-2-enamide (17), cannabisin D (18), cannabisin E (19), melongenamide B (20), paprazine (21)...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ni Li, Zhican Lin, Wei Chen, Yi Zheng, Yanlin Ming, Zhizhong Zheng, Wen Huang, Lianghua Chen, Jianbo Xiao, Hetong Lin
Corilagin content from different parts of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) was determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method. Additionally, the potential synergistic effects of corilagin + ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2), and corilagin + 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on ovarian cancer cells, and cancer-preventing activities, including inhibition of tyrosinase, properties of antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging, and blocking of nitrosamine synthesis were investigated. The results showed the content of corilagin from different parts of longan varied widely, while corilagin content in longan seed was high with a value of 542...
May 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yi Li, Jinying Lu, Furong Bai, Yanan Xiao, Yiran Guo, Ziming Dong
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone in children and the elderly. Recently, more and more researches have demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) is involved in chemotherapy resistance in many cancer, making it a promising Chinese herbal monomer for oncotherapy. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of Rg3 in human osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63, U-2OS, and SaOS-2). Cell proliferation was measured by CCK8 assay. The migration of cells was examined using the scratch assay method. Quantification of apoptosis was assessed further by flow cytometry...
2018: BioMed Research International
Lei Zhang, Fei Li, Wang-Jun Qin, Chao Fu, Xiang-Lin Zhang
Ginsenoside Re, an active ingredient in Panax ginseng, is widely used as a therapeutic and nutriment. Intestinal microbiota plays crucial roles in modulating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological actions of ginsenoside Re. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between bacterial community variety and the metabolic profiles of ginsenoside Re. We developed two models with intestinal dysbacteriosis: a pseudo-germ-free model induced by a non-absorbable antimicrobial mixture (ATM), and Qi-deficiency model established via over-fatigue and acute cold stress (OACS)...
May 10, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Li Xu, Su-Wan Chen, Xiao-Yan Qi, Xin-Xin Li, Yuan-Bo Sun
Connexin 31 (Cx31) is considered a suppressor for many tumors. Ginsenoside (Rg1) is a traditional Chinese herb that is widely acknowledged due to its anti-tumor characteristics. However, limited studies have focused on the role of Rg1 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells. In the current study, we found that the expression of Cx31 in thyroid cancer tissues and thyroid cancer cell lines was significantly lower than that in normal thyroid epithelial tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of Cx31 reduced thyroid cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion...
June 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Taiguo Liu, Lina Duo, Ping Duan
Background: Radiation therapy is an important mode of colorectal cancer treatment. However, most people die of local recurrence after tumors become resistant to radiotherapy, and little progress has been made in treating radiotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer. Hence, novel agents that are nontoxic and can sensitize colorectal cancer to radiotherapy are urgently needed. Ginsenoside Rg3, a saponin extracted from ginseng, shows cytotoxicity against a variety of cancer cells through suppression of pathways linked to oncogenesis, including cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Lei Yang, Zhen-Hai Zhang, Xiao-Bin Jia
Traditional Chinese medicine combined with anticancer drugs is a new direction of clinical cancer therapy in recent years. In this study, the optimal ratio of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel was optimized by MTT method, and the proliferative, apoptotic and anti-tumor effects of lung cancer A549 cells were investigated. It was found that the inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells was the same as that on paclitaxel when the ratio of rare ginseng rare ginsenoside components to paclitaxel was 4∶6...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Li-Li Guo, Shuai Guo, Lin-Lin Dong, Liang Shen, Xi-Wen Li, Jiang Xu, Shi-Lin Chen
Planting pollution-free farmland is the main mode of industrialization of ginseng cultivation, fine management of nitrogen fertilizer ginseng pollution-free farmland cultivation technology system is one of the key factors. In order to investigate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on the accumulation of ginseng biomass and saponins synthesis in vegetative growth stage, two-years-old ginsengs were used as test materials in this study. The test materials were cultivated by Hoagland medium with different nitrogen concentration (0,10,20,40 mg·L⁻¹) for 40 days...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Sen Li, Shi-Huan Tang, Jin-Ling Liu, Jin Su, Fu-Yuan He
The ancient dragon Materia Medica, Compendium of Materia Medica and other works recorded that the main effect of ginseng is tonifying qi. It is reported that the main active ingredient of ginseng is ginsenoside. Modern studies have found that ginseng mono saponins are effective for cardiovascular related diseases. This paper preliminary clarified the efficacy of traditional ginseng-nourishing qi and cardiovascular disease through the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary platform and integration platform of association of pharmacology...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yu-Zhu Wang, Qing Xu, Wei Wu, Ying Liu, Ying Jiang, Qing-Qing Cai, Qian-Zhou Lv, Xiao-Yu Li
Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1 ) has been demonstrated its protection for central nervous system and is apparently highly distributed to the brain. The objective of this study was to characterize Rb1 transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) using primary cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMEC), an in vitro BBB model. The initial uptake velocity of Rb1 in rBMEC was temperature- and concentration-dependent, and was significantly reduced by phloretin, an inhibitor of GLUT1 transporter, but was independent of metabolic inhibitor...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jai-Sung Lee, Inhyu Bae
Effects of quality, physicochemical properties and antioxidants in Camembert cheese added with red ginseng powder (RGP) were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% RGP. and then monitored during ripening at 14°C for 28 d. The pH of the RGP amended treatment groups increased during the ripening period relative to the control ( p <0.05). Moreover, the 1,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) was highest in the 0.15% RGP group from 21 d to 28 d. ABTS+ radical scavenging activity was increased just like DPPH as the ripening period passed, 0...
February 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Seo-Yun Choi, Kui-Jin Kim, Ji-Hyeon Song, Boo-Yong Lee
Our results suggested that thermal stress can lead to activation of hippocampal cell damage and reduction of memory-associated molecules in HT22 cells. These findings also provide a part of molecular rationale for the role of ginsenoside Rg5 as a potent cognitive impairment preventive compound in blocking the initiation of hippocampal damage.
April 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
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