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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725042/global-deregulation-of-ginseng-products-may-be-a-safety-hazard-to-warfarin-takers-solid-evidence-of-ginseng-warfarin-interaction
#1
Haiyan Dong, Ji Ma, Tao Li, Yingying Xiao, Ning Zheng, Jian Liu, Yu Gao, Jingwei Shao, Lee Jia
Recent global deregulation of ginseng as the table food raises our concern about the possible ginseng-warfarin interaction that could be life-threatening to patients who take warfarin for preventing fatal strokes and thromboembolism while using ginseng products for bioenergy recovery. Here we show that quality-control ginsenosides, extracted from ginseng and containing its major active ingredients, produce dose- and time-dependent antagonism in rats against warfarin's anti-coagulation assessed by INR and rat thrombosis model...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714761/gamma-irradiation-of-medicinally-important-plants-and-the-enhancement-of-secondary-metabolite-production
#2
P Vivek Vardhan, Lata I Shukla
PURPOSE: The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713942/ginsenoside-rc-protects-against-uvb%C3%A2-induced-photooxidative-damage-in-epidermal-keratinocytes
#3
Yuri Oh, Hye-Won Lim, Kwang Hark Park, Yu-Hua Huang, Ji-Young Yoon, Kyunghoon Kim, Chang-Jin Lim
Ginsenoside Rc (Rc) is a major ginsenoside isolated from Panax ginseng, and has exhibited pharmacological effects on skin cells. The present study aimed to investigate the putative skin‑protective properties of Rc, including its anti‑photoaging and barrier function‑protective effects, in human HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to UVB radiation. The protective properties of Rc were evaluated through the assessment of keratinocyte viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, total glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, caspase‑14, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and ‑9 activity, and MMP‑2, MMP‑9 and filament aggregating protein (filaggrin) expression following UVB irradiation...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712035/ginsenoside-improves-physicochemical-properties-and-bioavailability-of-curcumin-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carrier
#4
Ajay Vijayakumar, Rengarajan Baskaran, Han-Joo Maeng, Bong Kyu Yoo
The aim of this study was to develop a ginsenoside-modified nanostructured lipid carrier (G-NLC) dispersion containing curcumin. The NLC was prepared by melt emulsification with slight modification process. Different G-NLC dispersion systems were prepared using lipid carrier matrix composed of ginsenoside, phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, and hydrogenated bean oil. TEM image of the nanoparticles in the NLC dispersion showed core/shell structure, and there was corona-like layer surrounding the particles in the G-NLC...
July 15, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709827/20-r-ginsenoside-rg3-protects-sh-sy5y-cells-against-apoptosis-induced-by-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion
#5
Bo He, Peng Chen, Yu Xie, Shude Li, Xiaochao Zhang, Renhua Yang, Guihua Wang, Zhiqiang Shen, Hui Wang
As shown in our previous studies, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 [20(R)-Rg3] exerts a neuroprotective effect on a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia, and the mechanism through which it decreases the mRNA expression of calpain I and caspase-3 has been delineated. However, researchers do not know whether 20(R)-Rg3 exhibits a neuroprotective effect following oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) injury in vitro. In the present study, 20(R)-Rg3 increased cell viability, decreased the LDH leakage rate, and inhibited the apoptosis rate in a concentration-dependent manner...
June 19, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705808/molecular-basis-of-altered-herg1-channel-gating-induced-by-ginsenoside-rg3
#6
Alison Gardner, Wei Wu, Steven Thomson, Eva-Maria Zangerl-Plessl, Anna Stary-Weinzinger, Michael Sanguinetti
Outward current conducted by human ether-a-g-go-related gene type 1 (hERG1) channels is a major determinant of action potential repolarization in the human ventricle. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 (Rg3), an alkaloid isolated from the root of Panax ginseng slows the rate of hERG1 deactivation, induces channels to open at more negative potentials than normal and increases current magnitude. The onset of Rg3 action is extremely fast, suggesting that it binds to an extracellular accessible site on the channel to alter its gating...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701886/overexpression-of-ginseng-ugt72al1-causes-organ-fusion-in-the-axillary-leaf-branch-of-arabidopsis
#7
Ngoc Quy Nguyen, Ok Ran Lee
BACKGROUND: Glycosylation of natural compounds increases the diversity of secondary metabolites. Glycosylation steps are implicated not only in plant growth and development, but also in plant defense responses. Although the activities of uridine-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) have long been recognized, and genes encoding them in several higher plants have been identified, the specific functions of UGTs in planta remain largely unknown. METHODS: Spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and GUS histochemical assay...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701883/20s-protopanaxadiol-an-aglycosylated-ginsenoside-metabolite-induces-hepatic-stellate-cell-apoptosis-through-liver-kinase-b1-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activation
#8
Sang Mi Park, Eun Hye Jung, Jae Kwang Kim, Kyung Hwan Jegal, Chung A Park, Il Je Cho, Sang Chan Kim
BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported that Korean Red Ginseng inhibited liver fibrosis in mice and reduced the expressions of fibrogenic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The present study was undertaken to identify the major ginsenoside responsible for reducing the numbers of HSCs and the underlying mechanism involved. METHODS: Using LX-2 cells (a human immortalized HSC line) and primary activated HSCs, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assays were conducted to examine the cytotoxic effects of ginsenosides...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701881/a-comparative-study-on-chemical-composition-of-total-saponins-extracted-from-fermented-and-white-ginseng-under-the-effect-of-macrophage-phagocytotic-function
#9
REVIEW
Dan Xiao, Yang Xiu, Hao Yue, Xiuli Sun, Huanxi Zhao, Shuying Liu
In this study, white ginseng was used as the raw material, which was fermented with Paecilomyces hepiali through solid culture medium, to produce ginsenosides with modified chemical composition. The characteristic chemical markers of the products thus produced were investigated using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-QTOF-MS). Chemical profiling data were obtained, which were then subjected to multivariate statistical analysis for the systematic comparison of active ingredients in white ginseng and fermented ginseng to understand the beneficial properties of ginsenoside metabolites...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701878/in-situ-analysis-of-chemical-components-induced-by-steaming-between-fresh-ginseng-steamed-ginseng-and-red-ginseng
#10
Gyo In, Nam-Geun Ahn, Bong-Seok Bae, Myoung-Woo Lee, Hee-Won Park, Kyoung Hwa Jang, Byung-Goo Cho, Chang Kyun Han, Chae Kyu Park, Yi-Seong Kwak
BACKGROUND: The chemical constituents of Panax ginseng are changed by processing methods such as steaming or sun drying. In the present study, the chemical change of Panax ginseng induced by steaming was monitored in situ. METHODS: Samples were separated from the same ginseng root by incision during the steaming process, for in situ monitoring. Sampling was sequentially performed in three stages; FG (fresh ginseng) → SG (steamed ginseng) → RG (red ginseng) and 60 samples were prepared and freeze dried...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701876/effects-of-panax-ginseng-extracts-prepared-at-different-steaming-times-on-thermogenesis-in-rats
#11
Hyung Taek Cho, Jun Ho Kim, Jin Hyup Lee, Young Jun Kim
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng (PG) has a long history of use in Asian medicine because of its multiple pharmacological activities. It has been considered that PG in a type of white ginseng may induce undesirable thermogenic effects, but not in a type of red ginseng. However, there is a lack of evidence about the correlation between ginsenoside and thermogenesis. METHODS: We investigated the effects of PG with different ginsenoside compositions on body temperature, blood pressure, and thermogenesis-related factors in rats...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701874/the-interaction-of-serum-albumin-with-ginsenoside-rh2-resulted-in-the-downregulation-of-ginsenoside-rh2-cytotoxicity
#12
Yingjia Lin, Yang Li, Zhi-Guang Song, Hongyan Zhu, Ying-Hua Jin
BACKGROUND: Ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) is a ginseng saponin that is widely investigated because of its remarkable antitumor activity. However, the molecular mechanism by which (20S) G-Rh2 triggers its functions and how target animals avoid its cytotoxic action remains largely unknown. METHODS: Phage display was used to screen the human targets of (20S) G-Rh2. Fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy were used to confirm the interaction of candidate target proteins and (20S) G-Rh2...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701870/nuclear-factor-kappa-b-and-activator-protein-1-mediated-immunostimulatory-activity-of-compound-k-in-monocytes-and-macrophages
#13
Woo Seok Yang, Young-Su Yi, Donghyun Kim, Min Ho Kim, Jae Gwang Park, Eunji Kim, Sang Yeol Lee, Keejung Yoon, Jong-Hoon Kim, Junseong Park, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Compound K (CK) is a bioactive derivative of ginsenoside Rb1 in Panax ginseng (Korean ginseng). Its biological and pharmacological activities have been studied in various disease conditions, although its immunomodulatory role in innate immunity mediated by monocytes/macrophages has been poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory role of CK on cellular events mediated by monocytes and macrophages in innate immune responses. METHODS: The immunomodulatory role of CK was explored by various immunoassays including cell-cell adhesion, fibronectin adhesion, cell migration, phagocytic uptake, costimulatory molecules, reactive oxygen species production, luciferase activity, and by the measurement of mRNA levels of proinflammatory genes...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701866/inhibitory-effects-of-ginsenosides-on-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-induced-melanocyte-proliferation
#14
Ji Eun Lee, Jong Il Park, Cheol Hwan Myung, Jae Sung Hwang
BACKGROUND: UV-B-exposed keratinocytes secrete various paracrine factors. Among these factors, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) stimulates the proliferation of melanocytes. Ginsenosides, the major active compounds of ginseng, are known to have broad pharmacological effects. In this study, we examined the antiproliferative effects of ginsenosides on bFGF-induced melanocyte proliferation. METHODS: We investigated the inhibitory effects of Korean Red Ginseng and ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on bFGF-induced proliferation of melan-a melanocytes...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701864/induction-of-forkhead-class-box-o3a-and-apoptosis-by-a-standardized-ginsenoside-formulation-kg-135-is-potentiated-by-autophagy-blockade-in-a549-human-lung-cancer-cells
#15
Chih-Jung Yao, Jyh-Ming Chow, Shuang-En Chuang, Chia-Lun Chang, Ming-De Yan, Hsin-Lun Lee, I-Chun Lai, Pei-Chun Lin, Gi-Ming Lai
BACKGROUND: KG-135, a standardized formulation enriched with Rk1, Rg3, and Rg5 ginsenosides, has been shown to inhibit various types of cancer cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we explored its effects in A549 human lung cancer cells to investigate the induction of Forkhead Class box O3a (FOXO3a) and autophagy. METHODS: Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine B staining. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were analyzed using flow cytometry...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701862/protective-effect-of-ginsenosides-rk3-and-rh4-on-cisplatin-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#16
Seung-Hoon Baek, Byong-Kyu Shin, Nam Jae Kim, Sun-Young Chang, Jeong Hill Park
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity is the major side effect in cisplatin chemotherapy. Previously, we reported that the ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 reduced cisplatin toxicity on porcine renal proximal epithelial tubular cells (LLC-PK1). Here, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 on kidney function and elucidate their antioxidant effect using in vitro and in vivo models of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. METHODS: An enriched mixture of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 (KG-KH; 49...
July 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699506/natural-or-plant-products-for-the-treatment-of-neurological-disorders-current-knowledge
#17
Mohammad Khalid Parvez
In recent decades, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become very popular in the treatment of several chronic diseases. Natural products as one of the CAM modalities offer potential opportunities to discover lead compounds for novel drug development. The use of CAM or natural products in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases is comparatively a newer area. Natural therapeutics with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory salutations evidently plays a crucial role in protecting neurons. Of these, the most promising are caffeine, trigonelline, shogaol, curcumin, resveratrol, baicalein, wogonin, ginsenosides, tanshinones, withanolides, picrosides, parthenolide, cannabinoids, Devil's claw and white willow bark, including Chinese formulations Renshen Shouwu and Shengmai San...
July 10, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698996/genome-sequencing-of-strain-cellulosimicrobium-sp-th-20-with-ginseng-biotransformation-ability
#18
REVIEW
Fei Zheng, Wei Zhang, Xiaodan Chu, Yulin Dai, Jing Li, Huanxi Zhao, Liankui Wen, Hao Yue, Shanshan Yu
Biotransformation for increasing the pharmaceutical effect of ginsenosides is getting more and more attractions. Strain Cellulosimicrobium sp. TH-20 isolated from ginseng soil samples was identified to produce enzymes contributing to its excellent biotransformation activity against ginsenosides, the main active components of ginseng. Based on phylogenetic tree and homology analysis, the strain can be designated as Cellulosimicrobium sp. Genome sequencing was performed using the Illumina Miseq to explore the functional genes involved in ginsenoside transformation...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698154/panax-ginseng-and-panax-quinquefolius-from-pharmacology-to-toxicology
#19
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
The use of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius in traditional Chinese medicine dates back to about 5000 years ago thanks to its several beneficial and healing properties. Over the past few years, extensive preclinical and clinical evidence in the scientific literature worldwide has supported the beneficial effects of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius in significant central nervous system, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic diseases. There has been growing research on ginseng because of its favorable pharmacokinetics, including the intestinal biotransformation which is responsible for the processing of ginsenosides - contained in the roots or extracts of ginseng - into metabolites with high pharmacological activity and how such principles act on numerous cell targets...
July 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697660/neuroprotective-effects-of-a-biodegradable-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-ginsenoside-rg3-nanoformulation-a-potential-nanotherapy-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Hilliard L Kutscher, Ajay Singh, Katherine Cwiklinski, Noor Khechen, Stanley A Schwartz, Paras N Prasad, Supriya D Mahajan
It is well established that overproduction and accumulation of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)) is a trigger of the pathological cascade in Alzheimer's disease (AD) that manifests as cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg3 is an important constituent of ginseng, plays an essential role in memory and improved cognition, and is known to produce antioxidant effects via the reduction of free radicals. Therefore, ginsenoside Rg3 may be a promising candidate as a neuroprotective agent for the treatment of AD...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
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