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Peptidoglycan recognition protein

Ayman Hyder
Nutrients may modulate immunity through their transcription factors that act on both metabolic and immunity genes. It has been shown that the transcription factor of lipid ligands PPARγ physically binds the gene promoter of the peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGlyRP3), which showed anti-inflammatory action in vitro. It is hypothesized in the present work that olive oil feeding protects against toxicity of DSS-induced colitis via activation of the lipid transcription factor PPARγ that stimulates the anti-inflammatory PGlyRP3...
December 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Ying Huang, Jianlin Pan, Xuguang Li, Qian Ren, Zhe Zhao
Peptidoglycan (PGN) is an important target of recognition in invertebrate innate immunity. PGN recognition proteins (PGRPs) are responsible for PGN recognition. In this study, we cloned and functionally analyzed a short PGRP (HcPGRP2) from the triangle-shell pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii. The full-length cDNA sequence of HcPGRP2 gene was 1185 bp containing an open reading frame of 882 bp encoding a 293 amino acid protein. HcPGRP2 was predicted to have two SH3b domains and a conserved C-terminal PGRP domain...
December 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ciaran Skerry, William E Goldman, Nicholas H Carbonetti
Incidence of whooping cough (pertussis), a bacterial infection of the respiratory tract caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis , has reached levels not seen since the 1950s. Antibiotics fail to improve the course of disease unless administered early in infection. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of anti-pertussis therapeutics. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) agonists have been shown to reduce pulmonary inflammation during Bordetella pertussis infection in mouse models. However, the mechanisms by which S1PR agonists attenuate pertussis disease are unknown...
December 3, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Yanjie Liu, Xiaomeng Zhao, Jiaxing Huang, Minming Chen, Jiandong An
The peptidoglycan recognition protein SAs (PGRP-SAs) from Bombus ignitus (Bi-PGRP-SA), Apis mellifera (Am-PGRP-SA), and Megachile rotundata PGRP-SA (Mr-PGRP-SA) exhibit an intrinsic ability to preferentially bind to Dap-type peptidoglycan (PGN) from Bacillus subtilis rather than Lys-type PGN from Micrococcus luteus This ability is more analogous to the binding exhibited by PGRP-LCx and PGRP-SD than to that exhibited by PGRP-SA in Drosophila Moreover, Bi-PGRP-SA and Am-PGRP-SA share greater sequence identity with Drosophila PGRP-LCx than with PGRP-SD and retain several conserved contact residues, including His37 /His38 , His60 /His61 , Trp66 /Trp67 , Ala150 /Ala151 , and Thr151 /Thr152 However, the corresponding contact residue Arg85 is not a major anchor residue in bees (e...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Noriaki Aoi, Ichiro Morikura, Takafumi Fuchiwaki, Takaya Yamada, Emmanuel Prokopakis, Hideyuki Kawauchi
OK-432, a preparation of a low-virulence strain (Su) of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) killed by a penicillin and lyophilized, is a stiff inducer of Th1 cytokines, and exerts anti-cancer effects in tumor-bearing mice. OK-432 has been reported to consist of many bacterial components, such as peptidoglycan, M-protein, etc. However, it is yet to be ascertained which bacterial component induces T helper 1 (Th1) responses. For the last decade, Toll-like receptor (TLR) family proteins are well elucidated to play a role in recognizing bacterial components and inducing interleukin (IL)-12 from macrophages...
November 26, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Igor Iatsenko, Jean-Philippe Boquete, Bruno Lemaitre
Commensal microbes colonize the gut epithelia of virtually all animals and provide several benefits to their hosts. Changes in commensal populations can lead to dysbiosis, which is associated with numerous pathologies and decreased lifespan. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are important regulators of the commensal microbiota and intestinal homeostasis. Here, we found that a null mutation in Drosophila PGRP-SD was associated with overgrowth of Lactobacillus plantarum in the fly gut and a shortened lifespan...
November 20, 2018: Immunity
Kwang-Min Choi, Min-Soo Joo, Dong Hee Cho, Jin-Sol Bae, Ji-Min Jung, Jee Youn Hwang, Mun-Gyeong Kwon, Jung Soo Seo, Seong Don Hwang, Bo-Yeong Jee, Do-Hyung Kim, Chan-Il Park
Peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 (PGRP2) is a Zn2+ -dependent peptidase that plays important roles in binding to microbial components of the cell membrane, inducing phagocytosis and antimicrobial activity. Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) PGRP2 (RbPGRP2) was identified in the intestine by next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. The open reading frame (ORF) the RbPGRP2 cDNA (470 amino acid residues) contains a peptidoglycan recognition protein domain (residues 300 to 446). Alignment analysis revealed that RbPGRP2 shares 37...
November 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Qing Luo, Xue Li, Lu Zhang, Fangyi Yao, Zhen Deng, Cheng Qing, Rigu Su, Jianqing Xu, Yang Guo, Zikun Huang, Junming Li
Peptidoglycan recognition protein‑1 (PGLYRP‑1) is a part of the innate immune system. It is well‑known that dysregulation of innate immune responses is present in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the role of Pglyrp1/PGLYPR‑1 in RA is poorly understood. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the level of Pglyrp1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. An ELISA was used to measure the level of PGLYPR‑1 in the serum, and correlation analysis was performed to analyze the association between the level of PGLYPR‑1 in the serum and clinical characteristics...
November 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xue Kong, Helu Liu, Yanan Li, Haibin Zhang
Vesicomyidae clams are common species living in cold seeps, which incorporates symbiotic bacteria into their body maintaining endosymbiosis relationship. As members of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns and play an important role in innate immunity. In present study, two short PGRPs (ApPGRP-1 and -2) were first identified from Vesicomyidae clam Archivesica packardana . Sequences analysis showed that they have both conserved Zn2+ binding sites (H-H-C) and amidase catalytic sites (H-Y-H-T-C), and phylogenetic tree indicated that they clustered with short PGRPs of other molluscs...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yang Zhou, Yinyin Wang, Xiaofeng Li, Frank Addai Peprah, Xiaochen Wang, Haitao Liu, Feng Lin, Jie Gu, Feng Yu, Haifeng Shi
To investigate the biological processes affected by long-term iron supplementation, newly hatched silkworms were exposed to high iron mulberry diet (10 and 100 ppm) and its effect on silkworm transcriptom was determined. The results showed that the silkworm was responsive to iron by increasing iron concentration and ferritin levels in the hemolymph and by regulating the expression of many other genes. A total of 523 and 326 differentially expressed genes were identified in 10 and 100 ppm Fe group compared to the control, respectively...
October 31, 2018: Genomics
Yuqi Bai, Donghong Niu, Yan Li, Yulin Bai, Tianyi Lan, Maoxiao Peng, Zhiguo Dong, Fanyue Sun, Jiale Li
Galectins are lectins possessing an evolutionarily conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with affinity for β-galactoside. The key role played by innate immunity in invertebrates has recently become apparent. Herein, a full-length galectin (ScGal) was identified in razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta). The 528 bp open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 176 amino acids with a single CRD and no signal peptide. ScGal mRNA transcripts were mainly expressed in hemolymph and gill, and were significantly up-regulated following bacterial challenge...
October 30, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yanan Zong, Zhaoqun Liu, Zhaojun Wu, Zirong Han, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
The globular C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins are a family of versatile pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to bind various ligands by their globular C1q (gC1q) domain. In the present study, a novel globular C1qDC (CgC1qDC-7) was characterized from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The open reading frame of CgC1qDC-7 was of 555 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 185 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CgC1qDC-7 shared high homology with C1qDCs from Crassostrea virginica, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Mizuhopecten yessoensis...
October 29, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Lingling Wang, Huan Zhang, Mengqiang Wang, Zhi Zhou, Weilin Wang, Rui Liu, Mengmeng Huang, Chuanyan Yang, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential in recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on microbes and triggering responses to eliminate the invading pathogens. Previous genomic studies have revealed a great number of PRR genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, a sessile and filter-feeder marine bivalve belonging to the phylum Mollusca. On the survey of PRRs in the assembly oyster reference genome version 9, a total of 1084 PRRs were identified, which were composed of at least 12 gene families...
February 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Erika Pellegrini, Ambroise Desfosses, Arndt Wallmann, Wiebke Manuela Schulze, Kristina Rehbein, Philippe Mas, Luca Signor, Stephanie Gaudon, Grasilda Zenkeviciute, Michael Hons, Helene Malet, Irina Gutsche, Carsten Sachse, Guy Schoehn, Hartmut Oschkinat, Stephen Cusack
Activation of the innate immune pattern recognition receptor NOD2 by the bacterial muramyl-dipeptide peptidoglycan fragment triggers recruitment of the downstream adaptor kinase RIP2, eventually leading to NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Here we show that full-length RIP2 can form long filaments mediated by its caspase recruitment domain (CARD), in common with other innate immune adaptor proteins. We further show that the NOD2 tandem CARDs bind to one end of the RIP2 CARD filament, suggesting a mechanism for polar filament nucleation by activated NOD2...
October 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Pei-Jin Yang, Ming-Yue Zhan, Li-Ling Yang, Qiong-Qiong Liu, Yang Xu, Yue-Min Pan, Xiang-Jun Rao
Peptidoglycan is the key component forming the backbone of bacterial cell wall. It can be recognized by a group of pattern recognition receptors, known as peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) in insects and higher animals. PGRPs may serve as immune receptors or N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases (EC Here, we report the characterization of a short PGRP, PGRP-S1, from the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata. MsePGRP-S1 cDNA encodes a protein of 197 amino acids (aa) with a PGRP domain of about 150 aa...
January 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Lili Wang, Hongyan Zhao, Dongxu Wang
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection of bacteria, fungi and/or viruses in clinical patients. It is known that inflammatory cytokine levels have an essential role in the progression of sepsis. The present study investigated the role of inflammatory markers in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) of patients with sepsis at an intensive care unit. In addition, the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines were compared between sepsis patients and healthy individuals...
September 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Azucena López-Muñoz, Francisco E Nicolás, Diana García-Moreno, Ana B Pérez-Oliva, María I Navarro-Mendoza, Miguel A Hernández-Oñate, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Santiago Torres-Martínez, Rosa M Ruiz-Vázquez, Victoriano Garre, Victoriano Mulero
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal infection caused by various ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Mucorales order, although Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. are the most prevalent causal agents. The limited therapeutic options available together with a rapid progression of the infection and a difficult early diagnosis produce high mortality. Here, we developed an adult zebrafish model of Mucor circinelloides infection which allowed us to confirm the link between sporangiospore size and virulence. Transcriptomic studies revealed a local, strong inflammatory response of the host elicited after sporangiospore germination and mycelial tissue invasion, while avirulent and UV-killed sporangiospores failed to induce inflammation and were rapidly cleared...
August 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Keke Han, Xuefeng Chen, Lei Wu, Zhuoxing Zhang, Futong Ma, Xin Huang, Yufei Zhang, Qian Ren
Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) are widely found in vertebrates and invertebrates, and they play crucial roles in innate immunity. Here, a new FREP named as MrFREP was identified from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrFREP measures 1649 bp in length and consists of a 1086 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide composed of 361 amino acids. The MrFREP sequence has a signal peptide with 20 amino acids and a fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) with 223 amino acids...
November 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ke-Yi Zhang, Wen-Jie Yuan, Ji-Dong Xu, Jin-Xing Wang
The cation-dependent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) is a member of the P-type lectin family. As a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, it functions in the delivery of newly synthesized acid hydrolases from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes for their subsequent transfer to the lysosome by binding the mannose-6-phosphate receptor-recognition moieties in the hydrolases. However, the functions of CD-MPR in immune responses are seldom reported. In the present study, we identified a CD-MPR-like molecule in Marsupenaeus japonicus and designed it as MjCD-MPR...
December 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Mariela García-Ramos, Javier de la Mora, Teresa Ballado, Laura Camarena, Georges Dreyfus
In this work, we have characterized the soluble lytic transglycosylase (SltF) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides that interacts with the scaffolding protein FlgJ in the periplasm to open space at the cell wall peptidoglycan heteropolymer for the emerging rod. The characterization of the genetic context of flgJ and s ltF in alphaproteobacteria shows that these two separate genes coexist frequently in a flagellar gene cluster. Two domains of unknown function in SltF were studied, and the results show that the deletion of a 17-amino-acid segment near the N terminus does not show a recognizable phenotype, whereas the deletion of 47 and 95 amino acids of the C terminus of SltF disrupts the interaction with FlgJ without affecting the transglycosylase catalytic activity of SltF...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
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