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Peptidoglycan recognition protein

Lingling Wang, Huan Zhang, Mengqiang Wang, Zhi Zhou, Weilin Wang, Rui Liu, Mengmeng Huang, Chuanyan Yang, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential in recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on microbes and triggering responses to eliminate the invading pathogens. Previous genomic studies have revealed a great number of PRR genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, a sessile and filter-feeder marine bivalve belonging to the phylum Mollusca. On the survey of PRRs in the assembly oyster reference genome version 9, a total of 1084 PRRs were identified, which were composed of at least 12 gene families...
October 1, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Erika Pellegrini, Ambroise Desfosses, Arndt Wallmann, Wiebke Manuela Schulze, Kristina Rehbein, Philippe Mas, Luca Signor, Stephanie Gaudon, Grasilda Zenkeviciute, Michael Hons, Helene Malet, Irina Gutsche, Carsten Sachse, Guy Schoehn, Hartmut Oschkinat, Stephen Cusack
Activation of the innate immune pattern recognition receptor NOD2 by the bacterial muramyl-dipeptide peptidoglycan fragment triggers recruitment of the downstream adaptor kinase RIP2, eventually leading to NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Here we show that full-length RIP2 can form long filaments mediated by its caspase recruitment domain (CARD), in common with other innate immune adaptor proteins. We further show that the NOD2 tandem CARDs bind to one end of the RIP2 CARD filament, suggesting a mechanism for polar filament nucleation by activated NOD2...
October 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Pei-Jin Yang, Ming-Yue Zhan, Li-Ling Yang, Qiong-Qiong Liu, Yang Xu, Yue-Min Pan, Xiang-Jun Rao
Peptidoglycan is the key component forming the backbone of bacterial cell wall. It can be recognized by a group of pattern recognition receptors, known as peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) in insects and higher animals. PGRPs may serve as immune receptors or N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidases (EC Here, we report the characterization of a short PGRP, PGRP-S1, from the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata. MsePGRP-S1 cDNA encodes a protein of 197 amino acids (aa) with a PGRP domain of about 150 aa...
September 15, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Lili Wang, Hongyan Zhao, Dongxu Wang
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection of bacteria, fungi and/or viruses in clinical patients. It is known that inflammatory cytokine levels have an essential role in the progression of sepsis. The present study investigated the role of inflammatory markers in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) of patients with sepsis at an intensive care unit. In addition, the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines were compared between sepsis patients and healthy individuals...
September 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Azucena López-Muñoz, Francisco E Nicolás, Diana García-Moreno, Ana B Pérez-Oliva, María I Navarro-Mendoza, Miguel A Hernández-Oñate, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Santiago Torres-Martínez, Rosa M Ruiz-Vázquez, Victoriano Garre, Victoriano Mulero
Mucormycosis is a life-threatening fungal infection caused by various ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Mucorales order, although Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. are the most prevalent causal agents. The limited therapeutic options available together with a rapid progression of the infection and a difficult early diagnosis produce high mortality. Here, we developed an adult zebrafish model of Mucor circinelloides infection which allowed us to confirm the link between sporangiospore size and virulence. Transcriptomic studies revealed a local, strong inflammatory response of the host elicited after sporangiospore germination and mycelial tissue invasion, while avirulent and UV-killed sporangiospores failed to induce inflammation and were rapidly cleared...
August 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Keke Han, Xuefeng Chen, Lei Wu, Zhuoxing Zhang, Futong Ma, Xin Huang, Yufei Zhang, Qian Ren
Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) are widely found in vertebrates and invertebrates, and they play crucial roles in innate immunity. Here, a new FREP named as MrFREP was identified from giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrFREP measures 1649 bp in length and consists of a 1086 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide composed of 361 amino acids. The MrFREP sequence has a signal peptide with 20 amino acids and a fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) with 223 amino acids...
November 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ke-Yi Zhang, Wen-Jie Yuan, Ji-Dong Xu, Jin-Xing Wang
The cation-dependent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) is a member of the P-type lectin family. As a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, it functions in the delivery of newly synthesized acid hydrolases from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes for their subsequent transfer to the lysosome by binding the mannose-6-phosphate receptor-recognition moieties in the hydrolases. However, the functions of CD-MPR in immune responses are seldom reported. In the present study, we identified a CD-MPR-like molecule in Marsupenaeus japonicus and designed it as MjCD-MPR...
December 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Mariela García-Ramos, Javier de la Mora, Teresa Ballado, Laura Camarena, Georges Dreyfus
In this work, we have characterized the soluble lytic transglycosylase (SltF) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides that interacts with the scaffolding protein FlgJ in the periplasm to open space at the cell wall peptidoglycan heteropolymer for the emerging rod. The characterization of the genetic context of flgJ and s ltF in alphaproteobacteria shows that these two separate genes coexist frequently in a flagellar gene cluster. Two domains of unknown function in SltF were studied, and the results show that the deletion of a 17-amino-acid segment near the N terminus does not show a recognizable phenotype, whereas the deletion of 47 and 95 amino acids of the C terminus of SltF disrupts the interaction with FlgJ without affecting the transglycosylase catalytic activity of SltF...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Hui Yang, Xixi Li, Weijia Song, Jiaojun Ji, Fenggang Li, Yingying Zhang, Xiaojun Zhang, Lixin Wang
PGRPs (Peptidoglycan recognition proteins) could recognize peptidoglycan and play vital roles in innate immunity among different animals. Till present, the functions of PGRP have been studied in various animals, but few reports have studied the amphibian PGRPs. In the current research, a short type PGRP was identified from Chinese giant salamander and its involvement in the innate immunity was studied. The ORF of AdPGRP-SC2 cDNA was 573 bp, which encoded 190 amino acids, and contained a PGRP and an amidase_2 domain...
November 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ruo-Nan Zhang, Fei-Fei Ren, Cheng-Bo Zhou, Jun-Feng Xu, Hui-Yu Yi, Ming-Qiang Ye, Xiao-Juan Deng, Yang Cao, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Wan-Ying Yang
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a common component of the outermost cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria. In mammals, LPS serves as an endotoxin that can be recognized by a receptor complex of TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) and MD-2 (myeloid differentiation-2) and subsequently induce a strong immune response to signal the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In Drosophila melanogaster, no receptors for LPS have been identified, and LPS cannot activate immune responses. Here, we report a protein, BmEsr16, which contains an ML (MD-2-related lipid-recognition) domain, may function as an LPS receptor in the silkworm Bombyx mori...
November 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Maarten G K Ghequire, Başak Öztürk
Pyocins are bacteriocins secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and they assist in the colonization of different niches. A major subset of these antibacterial proteins adopt a modular organization characteristic of polymorphic toxins. They include a receptor-binding domain, a segment enabling membrane passage, and a toxin module at the carboxy terminus, which eventually kills the target cells. To protect themselves from their own products, bacteriocin-producing strains express an immunity gene concomitantly with the bacteriocin...
September 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jun Li, Yang Zhang, Yuehuan Zhang, Fan Mao, Shu Xiao, Zhiming Xiang, Haitao Ma, Ziniu Yu
Lysin motif (LysM)-containing proteins are a family of carbohydrate-binding modules and are generally regarded as chitin- and peptidoglycan-binding proteins. In the present study, a novel LysM-containing protein, designated as ChLysM, was cloned and identified in a marine mollusk, Crassostrea hongkongensis. The full-length cDNA of ChLysM consists of 1129 bp, with an open reading frame of 861 bp encoding a 286 amino acid polypeptide. The deduced protein had a calculated molecular mass of 32.66 kDa and a pI of 8...
October 20, 2018: Gene
Lok-To Sham, Sanduo Zheng, Anastasiya A Yakhnina, Andrew C Kruse, Thomas G Bernhardt
Bacteria produce a variety of surface-exposed polysaccharides important for cell integrity, biofilm formation and evasion of the host immune response. Synthesis of these polymers often involves the assembly of monomer oligosaccharide units on the lipid carrier undecaprenyl-phosphate at the inner face of the cytoplasmic membrane. For many polymers, including cell wall peptidoglycan, the lipid-linked precursors must be transported across the membrane by flippases to facilitate polymerization at the membrane surface...
September 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Ping Zhao, Fei Xia, Liang Jiang, Huizhen Guo, Guowen Xu, Qiang Sun, Bingbing Wang, Yumei Wang, Zhongyan Lu, Qingyou Xia
In insect innate immunity, peptidoglycan recognition proteins act as pattern recognition receptors, helping hosts combat invasive microorganisms. Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) is the main silkworm pathogen that invades the midgut columnar cell layer. We previously reported that B. mori peptidoglycan recognition protein S2 (BmPGRP-S2) was upregulated in silkworm larvae after BmCPV infection. Here, we constructed a transgenic vector overexpressing BmPGRP-S2 under the control of a midgut-specific promoter...
October 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Lian-Qin Chai, Jing-Hui Meng, Jie Gao, Yi-Hui Xu, Xian-Wei Wang
Prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system is an important immune response for arthropods. β-1, 3-glucanase related protein (previously named as lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) in crustaceans) is a typical pattern recognition receptor family involved in the proPO activation by recognizing the invading microbes. In this study, we pay special attention to a bacteria-induced β-1,3-glucanase related protein from red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii, an important aquaculture specie in China...
September 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rolf Grempler, Michael Wolff, Eric Simon, Ramona Schmid, Claudia Eisele, Kathrin Rieber, Elke Fischer, Sonja Mettel, Ogsen Gabrielyan, Denis Delic, Gerd Luippold, Norbert Redeman
BACKGROUND: Activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an attractive approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. AMPK activation reduces glucose levels in animal models of type 2 diabetes by increasing glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and reducing hepatic glucose production. Furthermore, AMPK activation ameliorates hepatic steatosis in animal models. For the clinical development of AMPK activators it is essential to have a reliable target engagement marker for appropriate dose finding and to support proof of clinical principle...
2018: PloS One
Matthew R Alexander, Allison E Norlander, Fernando Elijovich, Ravi V Atreya, Amadou Gaye, Juan S Gnecco, Cheryl L Laffer, Cristi L Galindo, Meena S Madhur
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Monocytes play a critical role in hypertension. The purpose of our study was to use an unbiased approach to determine whether hypertensive individuals on conventional therapy exhibit an altered monocyte gene expression profile and to perform validation studies of selected genes to identify novel therapeutic targets for hypertension. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Next generation RNA sequencing identified differentially expressed genes in a small discovery cohort of normotensive and hypertensive individuals...
May 18, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Hui Wang, Zhuang Xue, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Feifei Wang, Ying Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
C-type lectins (CTLs) are Ca2+ dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins that share structural homology in their carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, a novel CTL was identified from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (named as AjCTL-2). The deduced amino acid sequence of AjCTL-2 was homologous to CTLs from other animals with the identities ranging from 33% to 40%. It contained a canonical signal peptide at the N-terminus, a low density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa), a C1r/C1s/Uegf/bone morphogenetic protein 1 (CUB), and a CRD with two motifs Glu-Pro-Asn (EPN) and Trp-Asn-Asp (WND) in Ca2+ binding site 2...
August 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Dongyang Liu, Qilin Yi, Yichen Wu, Guangxia Lu, Changhao Gong, Xiaorui Song, Jiejie Sun, Chen Qu, Conghui Liu, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), an extensive collection of proteins possessing at least one immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain, performs a wide range of functions in recognition, binding or adhesion process of cells. In the present study, a cysteine-rich motif associated immunoglobulin domain containing protein (designated CgCAICP-1) was identified in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The deduced protein sequence of CgCAICP-1 contained 534 amino acidresidues, with three Ig domains which were designated as IG1, IG2 and IG3, and a cysteine-rich motif between the first and second Ig domain...
September 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Siqi Zhao, Xialu Wang, Siyu Cai, Siqiang Zhang, Hao Luo, Chunfu Wu, Rong Zhang, Jinghai Zhang
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are employed in insects to defend against infectious pathogens by triggering various immune responses. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), a vital family of PRRs, are widely distributed and highly conserved from vertebrates to invertebrates. To date, five PGRP genes have been identified in Antheraea pernyi, but their biochemical roles still remain unknown. In this study, we focused on the immune functions of PGRP-SA in A. pernyi (ApPGRP-SA), which was confirmed to be immune-related according to its significantly up-regulated expression level post microbial injection...
September 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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