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Antifungal resistance in Candida spp.

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766800/antifungal-activity-gas-chromatographic-mass-spectrometric-analysis-and-in-silico-study-of-punica-granatum-peel-extracts-against-fluconazole-resistant-strains-of-candida-species
#1
Sony Paul, M Kalyani, I Kannan
AIMS: Candida species is the common cause of opportunistic fungal infections all over the world with increased mortality and morbidity especially in immunosuppressed patients. Fluconazole is the first line therapy for candidiasis. The antifungal resistance pattern in high-risk patients is a major concern. The present study was aimed to assess the anticandidal activity of Punica granatum peel against fluconazole resistant Candida species isolated from HIV patients. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of the peel of P...
May 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749387/invasive-candidiasis
#2
REVIEW
Peter G Pappas, Michail S Lionakis, Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Bart Jan Kullberg
Invasive candidiasis is an important health-care-associated fungal infection that can be caused by several Candida spp.; the most common species is Candida albicans, but the prevalence of these organisms varies considerably depending on geographical location. The spectrum of disease of invasive candidiasis ranges from minimally symptomatic candidaemia to fulminant sepsis with an associated mortality exceeding 70%. Candida spp. are common commensal organisms in the skin and gut microbiota, and disruptions in the cutaneous and gastrointestinal barriers (for example, owing to gastrointestinal perforation) promote invasive disease...
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739588/chemical-composition-antifungal-activity-and-potential-anti-virulence-evaluation-of-the-eugenia-uniflora-essential-oil-against-candida-spp
#3
Joycy Francely Sampaio Dos Santos, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, Camila Fonseca Bezerra, Maria Karollyna do Nascimento Silva, Yedda Maria Lobo Soares de Matos, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Antonia Thassya Lucas Dos Santos, Rafael Pereira da Cruz, Antonio Júdson Targino Machado, Tigressa Helena Soares Rodrigues, Edy Sousa de Brito, Dédora Lima Sales, Waltécio de Oliveira Almeida, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais-Braga
The development of fungal resistance to antifungal drugs has been worsening over the years and as a result research on new antifungal agents derived from plants has intensified. Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga) has been studied for its various biological actions. In this study the chemical composition and antifungal effects of the E. uniflora essential oil (EULEO) were investigated against Candida albicans (CA), Candida krusei (CK) and Candida tropicalis (CT) standard strains. The essential oil obtained through hydro-distillation was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735833/echinocandins-their-role-in-the-management-of-candida-biofilms
#4
Subramanian Swaminathan, Shweta Kamat, Nalini Adele Pinto
The importance of antifungal agents and their clinical implications has received little attention in comparison to antibiotics, particularly in the health-care setting. However, apart from bacterial infections rising in hospitals, the incidences of fungal infections are growing with the development of resistance to conventional antifungal agents. Newer antifungal agents such as echinocandins (ECs) have been extensively studied over the past decade and are recognised as a superior treatment compared with prior antifungals as a first line of therapy in tertiary institutions...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729017/risk-assessment-for-the-spread-of-candida-sp-in-dental-chair-unit-waterlines-using-molecular-techniques
#5
Wissame Mazari, Zahia Boucherit-Otmani, Imad Abdelhamid El Haci, Amine Ilahi, Kebir Boucherit
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of yeasts in dental chair unit waterlines (DCUWLs) and to test their ability to form biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen dental waterlines were analysed by culture in liquid Sabouraud in order to allow the quantification and the purification of isolated yeasts from their internal surfaces. All isolates were identified by standard laboratory procedures, including CHROMagar Candida medium for orientation, commercial yeast identification system Api Candida, MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequencing...
May 4, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674635/design-synthesis-biological-activity-and-structure-activity-relationship-studies-of-chalcone-derivatives-as-potential-anti-candida-agents
#6
Jéssica T Andrade, Felipe R S Santos, William G Lima, Carla D F Sousa, Lohanna S F M Oliveira, Rosy I M A Ribeiro, Ana J P S Gomes, Marcelo G F Araújo, José A F P Villar, Jaqueline M S Ferreira
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) affects millions of women around the world every year. Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated pathogen in women and its rapid ability to develop resistance to first and second line therapies has boosted the search for new and effective antifungal agents. In this study, we show the in vitro anti-Candida activity of fifteen synthetic chalcone analogs and their antifungal potential in an in vivo model of VVC. Chalcone 12 showed potent antifungal effects, being able to inhibit the growth of Candida spp...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665644/biodistribution-of-free-and-encapsulated-99m-tc-fluconazole-in-an-infection-model-induced-by-candida-albicans
#7
Danielle Nogueira de Assis, Raquel Silva Araújo, Leonardo Lima Fuscaldi, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes, Vanessa Carla Furtado Mosqueira, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Candida spp is an etiologic agent of fungal infections in hospitals and resistance to treatment with antifungals has been extensively reported. Thus, it is very important to develop formulations that increase effectiveness with low toxicity. In this sense, nanocarriers have been investigated, once they modify drug biodistribution profile. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the biodistribution of free and encapsulated 99m Tc-fluconazole into nanocapsules (NCs) in an experimental immunosuppressed murine model of Candida albicans infection...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661606/potential-effect-of-2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol-thymol-alone-and-in-combination-with-fluconazole-against-clinical-isolates-of-candida-albicans-c-glabrata-and-c-krusei
#8
A Sharifzadeh, A R Khosravi, H Shokri, H Shirzadi
Limitations of antifungals used in the treatment of candidiasis, as the development of resistant strains, are known by the scientific community. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the activity of 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol (thymol) in combination with fluconazole (FLZ) against clinical Candida strains. The antifungal activity of thymol along with FLZ was evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A2 broth microdilution method. In addition, synergism was observed for clinical strains of Candida spp...
April 14, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628769/antifungal-susceptibility-testing-of-vulvovaginal-candida-species-among-women-attending-antenatal-clinic-in-tertiary-care-hospitals-of-peshawar
#9
Maria Khan, Jawad Ahmed, Amina Gul, Aamer Ikram, Farida Khurram Lalani
Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is considered as a pervasive gynecological problem among women worldwide. Owing to this fact, in the current study, we aimed at assessing the prevalence rate of Candida spp. causing VVC in symptomatic pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Methods: This study was carried out in the tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar during the period of July 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016. The study group included 450 pregnant women in the age group of 17-44 years with symptoms of excessive vaginal discharge, pain and pruritis...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615504/conservation-and-divergence-in-the-candida-species-biofilm-matrix-mannan-glucan-complex-structure-function-and-genetic-control
#10
Eddie Dominguez, Robert Zarnowski, Hiram Sanchez, Antonio S Covelli, William M Westler, Parastoo Azadi, Jeniel Nett, Aaron P Mitchell, David R Andes
Candida biofilms resist the effects of available antifungal therapies. Prior studies with Candida albicans biofilms show that an extracellular matrix mannan-glucan complex (MGCx) contributes to antifungal sequestration, leading to drug resistance. Here we implement biochemical, pharmacological, and genetic approaches to explore a similar mechanism of resistance for the three most common clinically encountered non- albicans Candida species (NAC). Our findings reveal that each Candida species biofilm synthesizes a mannan-glucan complex and that the antifungal-protective function of this complex is conserved...
April 3, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610196/fungicidal-potency-and-mechanisms-of-%C3%AE-defensins-against-multi-drug-resistant-candida-species
#11
Virginia Basso, Angie Garcia, Dat Q Tran, Justin B Schaal, Patti Tran, Diana Ngole, Younus Aqeel, Prasad Tongaonkar, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Systemic candidiasis is a growing health care concern becoming even more challenging due to the growing frequency of infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) Candida spp Thus there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches to candidiasis, including strategies bioinspired by insights into natural host defense against fungal pathogens. The antifungal properties of θ-defensins, macrocyclic peptides expressed in tissues of Old World monkeys, were investigated against a panel of drug sensitive and drug resistant clinical isolates of C...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605543/anti-candidal-activity-of-selected-analgesic-drugs-used-alone-and-in-combination-with-fluconazole-itraconazole-voriconazole-posaconazole-and-isavuconazole
#12
J Król, U Nawrot, M Bartoszewicz
BACKGROUND: The antifungal activity of some popular analgesic drugs was postulated by several authors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to verify the antifungal effectiveness of acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, metamizole, meloxicam and paracetamol against triazole-susceptible and triazole-resistant Candida spp isolates. METHODS: The minimal inhibitory concentration as well as fractional inhibitory concentration of selected analgesics and triazole on eighteen Candida spp isolates were determined by the standard microdilution method according to EUCAST...
March 28, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564402/novel-antifungal-compounds-discovered-in-medicines-for-malaria-venture-s-malaria-box
#13
Eric H Jung, David J Meyers, Jürgen Bosch, Arturo Casadevall
Similarities in fungal and animal cells make antifungal discovery efforts more difficult than those for other classes of antimicrobial drugs. Currently, there are only three major classes of antifungal drugs used for the treatment of systemic fungal diseases: polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. Even in situations where the offending fungal organism is susceptible to the available drugs, treatment courses can be lengthy and unsatisfactory, since eradication of infection is often very difficult, especially in individuals with impaired immunity...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563903/anti-candidal-activity-and-functional-mapping-of-recombinant-and-synthetic-neosartorya-fischeri-antifungal-protein-2-nfap2
#14
Liliána Tóth, Györgyi Váradi, Attila Borics, Gyula Batta, Zoltán Kele, Ákos Vendrinszky, Roberta Tóth, Hargita Ficze, Gábor K Tóth, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Florentine Marx, László Galgóczy
The increasing number of life-threatening Candida infections caused by antifungal drug-resistant strains urges the development of new therapeutic strategies. The small, cysteine-rich, and cationic Neosartorya fischeri antifungal protein 2 (NFAP2) effectively inhibits the growth of Candida spp. Limiting factors of its future application, are the low-yield production by the native producer, unavailable information about potential clinical application, and the unsolved relationship between the structure and function...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556778/anti-candida-activity-of-antidepressants-sertraline-and-fluoxetine-effect-upon-pre-formed-biofilms
#15
Ana S Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Gilbert G G Donders, Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
As an opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida spp. has the ability to form biofilms. The most prescribed drugs for Candida infections, azoles, have shown to be less effective when biofilms are present. In addition, increasing treatment costs and the fact that most prescribed antifungal drugs have only fungistatic activity justify the search for new treatment strategies. One promising approach is third generation antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), because of their proven antifungal activity against several Candida spp...
March 19, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412252/identification-and-susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-candida-spp-to-killer-toxins
#16
E Robledo-Leal, L G Rivera-Morales, M P Sangorrín, G M González, G Ramos-Alfano, J M Adame-Rodriguez, J M Alcocer-Gonzalez, E T Arechiga-Carvajal, C Rodriguez-Padilla
Although invasive infections and mortality caused by Candida species are increasing among compromised patients, resistance to common antifungal agents is also an increasing problem. We analyzed 60 yeasts isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis using a PCR/RFLP strategy based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region to identify different Candida pathogenic species. PCR analysis was performed from genomic DNA with a primer pair of the ITS2-5.8S rDNA region. PCR-positive samples were characterized by RFLP...
February 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411881/green-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles-demonstrating-enhanced-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antibiofilm-activity-against-candida-spp
#17
Subramanian Muthamil, Vivekanandham Amsa Devi, Boopathi Balasubramaniam, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
Candida species are opportunistic fungal pathogens, which are known for their biofilm associated infections on implanted medical devices in clinical settings. Broad spectrum usage of azole groups and other antifungal agents leads to the occurrence of drug resistance among Candida species. Most of the antifungal agents have failed to treat the biofilm mediated Candida infections. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Dodonaea viscosa and Hyptis suoveolens methanolic leaf extracts and characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering, and Zeta potential analysis...
April 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407237/extracellular-enzymes-and-adhesive-properties-of-medically-important-candida-spp-strains-from-landfill-leachate
#18
Dahmani Amani, Noumi Emira, Trabelsi Ismail, Eddouzi Jamel, Sanglard Dominique, Del Campo Rosa, Snoussi Mejdi
The virulence properties of Candida spp. presents in landfill leachate still unknown until today and they constitutes a serious source of potential danger for humans. We investigate the antifungal susceptibility, production of hydrolytic enzymes and biofilm formation on polystyrene as well as glass in Candida spp. strains isolated from a landfill leachate treatment station in Borj Chakir (Tunisia). 37 yeast strains were isolated belonging to the following species: C. robusta, C. lusitaniae, C. tropicalis, C...
March 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404711/the-emerging-threat-of-antifungal-resistance-in-transplant-infectious-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Ilan S Schwartz, Thomas F Patterson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global emergence of antifungal resistance among Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. will disproportionately affect transplantation recipients, who are prone to invasive fungal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Invasive candidiasis is increasingly caused by non-albicans Candida species with reduced susceptibility to first-line antifungals. Echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata is increasing in some settings. Candida auris has rapidly emerged as a global concern due to multidrug resistance and efficient nosocomial spread in healthcare settings...
February 5, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391334/invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-emergence-of-resistant-pathogens-and-new-antifungal-therapies
#20
Maria N Gamaletsou, Thomas J Walsh, Nikolaos V Sipsas
Invasive fungal infections caused by drug-resistant organisms are an emerging threat to heavily immunosuppressed patients with hematological malignancies. Modern early antifungal treatment strategies, such as prophylaxis and empirical and preemptive therapy, result in long-term exposure to antifungal agents, which is a major driving force for the development of resistance. The extended use of central venous catheters, the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of certain antifungal agents, neutropenia, other forms of intense immunosuppression, and drug toxicities are other contributing factors...
March 1, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
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