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Antifungal resistance in Candida spp.

Ana S Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Gilbert G G Donders, Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
As an opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida spp. has the ability to form biofilms. The most prescribed drugs for Candida infections, azoles, have shown to be less effective when biofilms are present. In addition, increasing treatment costs and the fact that most prescribed antifungal drugs have only fungistatic activity justify the search for new treatment strategies. One promising approach is third generation antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), because of their proven antifungal activity against several Candida spp...
March 19, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
E Robledo-Leal, L G Rivera-Morales, M P Sangorrín, G M González, G Ramos-Alfano, J M Adame-Rodriguez, J M Alcocer-Gonzalez, E T Arechiga-Carvajal, C Rodriguez-Padilla
Although invasive infections and mortality caused by Candida species are increasing among compromised patients, resistance to common antifungal agents is also an increasing problem. We analyzed 60 yeasts isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis using a PCR/RFLP strategy based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region to identify different Candida pathogenic species. PCR analysis was performed from genomic DNA with a primer pair of the ITS2-5.8S rDNA region. PCR-positive samples were characterized by RFLP...
February 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Subramanian Muthamil, Vivekanandham Amsa Devi, Boopathi Balasubramaniam, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
Candida species are opportunistic fungal pathogens, which are known for their biofilm associated infections on implanted medical devices in clinical settings. Broad spectrum usage of azole groups and other antifungal agents leads to the occurrence of drug resistance among Candida species. Most of the antifungal agents have failed to treat the biofilm mediated Candida infections. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Dodonaea viscosa and Hyptis suoveolens methanolic leaf extracts and characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering, and Zeta potential analysis...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Dahmani Amani, Noumi Emira, Trabelsi Ismail, Eddouzi Jamel, Sanglard Dominique, Del Campo Rosa, Snoussi Mejdi
The virulence properties of Candida spp. presents in landfill leachate still unknown until today and they constitutes a serious source of potential danger for humans. We investigate the antifungal susceptibility, production of hydrolytic enzymes and biofilm formation on polystyrene as well as glass in Candida spp. strains isolated from a landfill leachate treatment station in Borj Chakir (Tunisia). 37 yeast strains were isolated belonging to the following species: C. robusta, C. lusitaniae, C. tropicalis, C...
January 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ilan S Schwartz, Thomas F Patterson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global emergence of antifungal resistance among Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. will disproportionately affect transplantation recipients, who are prone to invasive fungal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Invasive candidiasis is increasingly caused by non-albicans Candida species with reduced susceptibility to first-line antifungals. Echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata is increasing in some settings. Candida auris has rapidly emerged as a global concern due to multidrug resistance and efficient nosocomial spread in healthcare settings...
February 5, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Maria N Gamaletsou, Thomas J Walsh, Nikolaos V Sipsas
Invasive fungal infections caused by drug-resistant organisms, are an emerging threat to heavily immunosuppressed patients with haematological malignancies. Modern early antifungal treatment strategies, such as prophylaxis, empirical and pre-emptive therapy result in long term exposure to antifungal agents, which is a major driving force for the development of resistance. The extended use of central venous catheters, the non-linear pharmacokinetics of certain antifungal agents, neutropenia, other forms of intense immunosuppression, and drug toxicities are other contributing factors...
February 2, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Karine Mattos, Luana Carbonera Rodrigues, Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira, Pedro Fernando Diniz, Luiza Inahê Marques, Adriana Almeida Araujo, Marilene Rodrigues Chang
INTRODUCTION: Incidence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. from two teaching public hospitals are described. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute broth microdilution and genomic differentiation using PCR. RESULTS: Of 221 Candida isolates, 50.2% were obtained from intensive care unit patients; 71.5% were recovered from urine and 9...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Aline Luiza Duarte de Freitas, Vanessa Kaplum, Diego Conrado Pereira Rossi, Leandro Buffoni Roque da Silva, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Kelly Ishida
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The stem bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville is popularly used as anti-inflammatory, astringent and in the treatment of wounds and vaginal infections. Several pharmacological activities have been scientifically proven by "in vitro" and "in vivo" experimental assays for antibacterial, antiviral, antiprotozoan, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether proanthocyanidin polymeric tannins from the Stryphnodendron adstringens steam bark with antifungal activity against Candida albicans in vitro are also active against planktonic and biofilm cells of Candida non-albicans (CNA, including fluconazole-resistant isolates) and are capable of controlling Candida vaginitis in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Federico Pea, Russell E Lewis
In the past, most antifungal therapy dosing recommendations for invasive candidiasis followed a 'one-size fits all' approach with recommendations for lowering maintenance dosages for some antifungals in the setting of renal or hepatic impairment. A growing body of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic research, however now points to a widespread 'silent epidemic' of antifungal underdosing for invasive candidiasis, especially among critically ill patients or special populations who have altered volume of distribution, protein binding and drug clearance...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Frederic Lamoth, Shawn R Lockhart, Elizabeth L Berkow, Thierry Calandra
The epidemiology of invasive candidiasis has evolved in recent years, warranting a review of the changes and the implications for current and future diagnosis and treatment. The overall burden of invasive candidiasis remains high, particularly in the expanding populations of patients at risk of opportunistic infection, such as the elderly or immunosuppressed. Progressive shifts from Candida albicans to non-albicans Candida spp. have been observed globally. The recent emergence of novel, multiresistant species, such as Candida auris, amplifies the call for vigilance in detection and advances in treatment...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Anran Qian, Yazhou Zheng, Ruilian Wang, Jianhai Wei, Yongmei Cui, Xufeng Cao, Yushe Yang
In this letter, we report our efforts to design, synthesize and evaluate biological activities of a series of novel hybridized compounds containing 1-tetrazole and 4-pyridinyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-one. An analysis of structure-activity data indicates that the target compounds with bulky and hydrophobic side chains exhibited stronger activities against the Candida spp and Cryptococcus neoformans tested than those of fluconazole and racemic VT-1161. Furthermore, 13k and 13ad were active against Microsporum gypseum, which was resistant to racemic VT-1161...
December 20, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Nuanyi Liang, Pengfei Cai, Datong Wu, Yuanjiang Pan, Jonathan M Curtis, Michael G Gänzle
Hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) can function as antifungal agents. To investigate the antifungal spectrum, that is, the scope of the in vitro fungal-inhibition activities of HUFA and their potential applications, three HUFA were produced by microbial transformation or extracted from plant-seed oils; these compounds included coriolic acid (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid) from Coriaria seed oil, 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid from cultures of Lactobacillus hammesii, and 13-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid from cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Antonella Marangoni, Claudio Foschi, Matteo Micucci, Rogers Alberto Nahui Palomino, Tullia Gallina Toschi, Beatrice Vitali, Luca Camarda, Mara Mandrioli, Marta De Giorgio, Rita Aldini, Ivan Corazza, Alberto Chiarini, Roberto Cevenini, Roberta Budriesi
The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated...
2017: PloS One
Indira Berrio, Natalia Maldonado, Catalina De Bedout, Karen Arango, Luz Elena Cano, Yorlady Valencia, Cristina Jiménez-Ortigosa, David S Perlin, Beatriz L Gómez, Carlos Robledo, Jaime Robledo
INTRODUCTION: Invasive candidiasis has high impact on morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Accurate and timely methods for identification of Candida species and determination of equinocandins susceptibility become a priority for laboratories of clinical microbiology. METHODS: A study was performed to compare MALDI-TOF MS identification to sequencing of D1/D2 region of rRNA gene complex 28 subunit, in 147 isolates obtained from patients with candidemia...
November 26, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Amanda Peracini, Ingrid Machado Andrade, Viviane Cássia Oliveira, Ana Paula Macedo, Claudia Helena Silva-Lovato, Valéria Oliveira Pagnano, Evandro Watanabe, Helena de Freitas Oliveira Paranhos
PURPOSE: To evaluate two denture cleansers for overnight soaking (0.5% sodium hypochlorite and peroxide alkaline) regarding efficacy against Candida spp. biofilms (randomized clinical trial) and their effects on the physical properties of a denture base acrylic resin simulating a period of 5 years of use (laboratory study). The Candida spp. were identified and their resistance to main antifungal agents was evaluated. METHODS: 32 complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (≥8 hours) in: control - water (C); alkaline peroxide (AP); or 0...
April 2017: American Journal of Dentistry
Susana A Zacchino, Estefanía Butassi, Estefanía Cordisco, Laura A Svetaz
BACKGROUND: Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many chronic and difficult-to eradicate infections whose treatment is complicated due to the intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics. As a consequence, there is an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. The combination therapy comprising an antimicrobial drug with a low molecular weight (MW) natural product and an antimicrobial drug (antifungal or antibacterial) appeared as a good alternative to eradicate biofilms...
December 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Agustina Postigo, Matías Funes, Elisa Petenatti, Hebe Bottai, Adriana Pacciaroni, Maximiliano Sortino
We report Porophyllum obscurum as a source of new photosensitizers with potential use in Photodynamic Therapy as an alternative for oropharyngeal candidiasis treatment. The antifungal photosensitive activity of different extracts from P. obscurum was evaluated by using microdilution and bioautographic assays. The Minimum Fungicidal Concentration for hexanic extract under UV-A irradiation was 0.98μg/mL, but it was inactive in experiments without irradiation. The bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of four thiophenes responsible for the photosensitive activity: 2,2':5'2″terthiophene, 5-(3-buten-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene, 5-(4-acetoxy-1-butenyl)-2,2'- bithiophene and 5-(4-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-2,2'- bithiophene, with Minimum Fungicidal Concentrations ranging 0...
December 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Virginia Fuochi, Giovanni Li Volti, Giuseppina Camiolo, Francesco Tiralongo, Cesarina Giallongo, Alfio Distefano, Giulio Petronio Petronio, Ignazio Barbagallo, Maria Viola, Pio Maria Furneri, Michelino Di Rosa, Roberto Avola, Daniele Tibullo
Resistance to chemotherapy occurs in various diseases (i.e., cancer and infection), and for this reason, both are very difficult to treat. Therefore, novel antimicrobial and chemotherapic drugs are needed for effective antibiotic therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative effects of skin mucus derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758). Our results showed that skin mucus exhibited a significant and specific antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria but not against Gram-positive bacteria...
November 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
Jawad Behbehani, Sheikh Shreaz, Mohammad Irshad, Maribassapa Karched
The incidence of oral candidosis has increased in recent years due to the escalation in HIV-infection, cancer treatments, organ transplantation, and diabetes. In addition, corticosteroid use, dentures, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use have also contributed to the problem. Treatment of oral candidosis has continued to be problematic because of the potential toxicity of antifungals in clinical use, and, above all, development of drug resistance among patients. In this study, the antifungal effect of magnolol was investigated against 64 strains of Candida spp...
December 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Karina Mayumi Sakita, Daniella Renata Faria, Eliane Martins da Silva, Flávia Kelly Tobaldini-Valério, Erika Seki Kioshima, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski, Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça
BACKGROUND: Although the majority of Candida infections are thought to come from endogenous sources, the healthcare workers' (HCWs) hands are being increasingly reported as vehicles for the transmission of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the susceptibility of yeast isolated from the HCWs' hands and ICU (Intensive Care Unit) surfaces to antifungal agents and to determine the virulence potential and the genetic similarity between the same. METHODS: The susceptibility of yeasts from the HCWs' hands (n = 57) and ICU surfaces (n = 98) to conventional antifungals (fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and micafungin) was evaluated using the broth microdilution assay accordance with CLSI M27-A3...
December 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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