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Antifungal resistance in Candida spp.

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917162/activity-of-scorpion-venom-derived-antifungal-peptides-against-planktonic-cells-of-candida-spp-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-and-candida-albicans-biofilms
#1
Fernanda Guilhelmelli, Nathália Vilela, Karina S Smidt, Marco A de Oliveira, Alice da Cunha Morales Álvares, Maria C L Rigonatto, Pedro H da Silva Costa, Aldo H Tavares, Sônia M de Freitas, André M Nicola, Octávio L Franco, Lorena da Silveira Derengowski, Elisabeth F Schwartz, Márcia R Mortari, Anamélia L Bocca, Patrícia Albuquerque, Ildinete Silva-Pereira
The incidence of fungal infections has been increasing in the last decades, while the number of available antifungal classes remains the same. The natural and acquired resistance of some fungal species to available therapies, associated with the high toxicity of these drugs on the present scenario and makes an imperative of the search for new, more efficient and less toxic therapeutic choices. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a potential class of antimicrobial drugs consisting of evolutionarily conserved multifunctional molecules with both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties being part of the innate immune response of diverse organisms...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855078/echinocandin-resistance-in-candida-spp-isolated-from-liver-transplant-recipients
#2
Gwénolé Prigent, Nawel Aït-Ammar, Eric Levesque, Arnaud Fekkar, Jean-Marc Costa, Sarra El Anbassi, Françoise Foulet, Christophe Duvoux, Jean-Claude Merle, Eric Dannaoui, Françoise Botterel
Liver transplant recipients are at risk of invasive fungal infections, especially candidiasis. Echinocandin is recommended as prophylactic treatment but is increasingly associated with resistance. Our aim was to assess echinocandin drug resistance in Candida spp. isolated from liver transplant recipients treated with this antifungal class. For this, all liver-transplanted patients in a University Hospital (Créteil, France) between January and June of 2013 and 2015 were included. Susceptibilities of Candida isolates to echinocandins were tested by Etest® and EUCAST reference method...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842866/reviewing-the-importance-and-evolution-of-fungal-infections-and-potential-antifungal-resistance-in-haematological-patients
#3
REVIEW
Alessandro Busca, Anna Maria Tortorano, Livio Pagano
There is a growing body of evidence supporting the emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus and Candida spp. and this may be of particular concern due to the potential implications in the management of invasive fungal infections occurring in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of present review was to describe the magnitude of the problem, summarising the epidemiology and potential impact of yeast and mould antifungal resistance in patients with haematological malignancies. The first cases of triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates were reported in 1997 in patients receiving itraconazole...
December 2015: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816903/molecular-and-antifungal-susceptibility-study-on-trichosporonemia-and-emergence-of-trichosporon-mycotoxinivorans-as-a-bloodstream-pathogen
#4
Yubhisha Dabas, Immaculata Xess, Pratibha Kale
A total of 21 Trichosporon spp. isolates from blood over a period of 5 years (January 2009 to December 2013) were included in the study. The most common underlying diseases found were pancreatitis (33.3%) and cancer (33.3%). Trichosporon asahii (80.9%) was the commonest species followed by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (14.2%) and Trichosporon faecale (4.7%). On IGS1 region sequencing the most predominant T. asahii type in our region was genotype 1 (16/17 isolates; 94.1%) and one isolate belonged to genotype 4...
November 5, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713018/use-of-phylogenetical-analysis-to-predict-susceptibility-of-pathogenic-candida-spp-to-antifungal-drugs
#5
Andrée F Maheux, Adnane Sellam, Yves Piché, Maurice Boissinot, René Pelletier, Dominique K Boudreau, François J Picard, Hélène Trépanier, Marie-Josée Boily, Marc Ouellette, Paul H Roy, Michel G Bergeron
Successful treatment of a Candida infection relies on 1) an accurate identification of the pathogenic fungus and 2) on its susceptibility to antifungal drugs. In the present study we investigated the level of correlation between phylogenetical evolution and susceptibility of pathogenic Candida spp. to antifungal drugs. For this, we compared a phylogenetic tree, assembled with the concatenated sequences (2475-bp) of the ATP2, TEF1, and TUF1 genes from 20 representative Candida species, with published minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the four principal antifungal drug classes commonly used in the treatment of candidiasis: polyenes, triazoles, nucleoside analogues, and echinocandins...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667564/miltefosine-inhibits-candida-albicans-and-non-albicans-candida-spp-biofilms-and-impairs-the-dispersion-of-infectious-cells
#6
Taissa Vila, Kelly Ishida, Sergio Henrique Seabra, Sonia Rozental
Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms...
November 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645246/the-celecoxib-derivative-ar-12-has-broad-spectrum-antifungal-activity-in-vitro-and-improves-the-activity-of-fluconazole-in-a-murine-model-of-cryptococcosis
#7
Kristy Koselny, Julianne Green, Louis DiDone, Justin P Halterman, Annette W Fothergill, Nathan P Wiederhold, Thomas F Patterson, Melanie T Cushion, Chad Rappelye, Melanie Wellington, Damian J Krysan
Only one new class of antifungal drugs has been introduced into clinical practice in the last 30 years, and thus the identification of small molecules with novel mechanisms of action is an important goal of current anti-infective research. Here, we describe the characterization of the spectrum of in vitro activity and in vivo activity of AR-12, a celecoxib derivative which has been tested in a phase I clinical trial as an anticancer agent. AR-12 inhibits fungal acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase in vitro and is fungicidal at concentrations similar to those achieved in human plasma...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587066/micafungin-treatment-and-eradication-of-candiduria-among-hospitalized-patients
#8
Steven Gabardi, Spencer Martin, Mihir Sura, Anisa Mohammed, Yoav Golan
PURPOSE: In high-risk patients, candiduria may be associated with the development of urinary tract infections (UTI) and invasive candidiasis. The triazole antifungals achieve good urine concentrations, but their use is limited by the emergence of non-albicans Candida spp. with low-triazole susceptibility. The echinocandins remain fungicidal against many azole-resistant Candida spp., but low urine concentrations limit their use. We examined the rates of candiduria elimination in micafungin-treated patients...
November 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576581/liquid-and-vapour-phase-antifungal-activities-of-essential-oils-against-candida-albicans-and-non-albicans-candida
#9
Narcisa Mandras, Antonia Nostro, Janira Roana, Daniela Scalas, Giuliana Banche, Valeria Ghisetti, Simonetta Del Re, Giacomo Fucale, Anna Maria Cuffini, Vivian Tullio
BACKGROUND: The management of Candida infections faces many problems, such as a limited number of antifungal drugs, toxicity, resistance of Candida to commonly antifungal drugs, relapse of Candida infections, and the high cost of antifungal drugs. Though azole antifungal agents and derivatives continue to dominate as drugs of choice against Candida infections, there are many available data referring to the anticandidal activity of essential oils. Since we have previous observed a good antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against filamentous fungi, the aim of this study was to extend the research to evaluate the activity of the same oils on Candida albicans, C...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547205/histone-deacetylases-and-their-inhibition-in-candida-species
#10
REVIEW
Cécile Garnaud, Morgane Champleboux, Danièle Maubon, Muriel Cornet, Jérôme Govin
Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Current treatment for these infections is based on only four available drug classes. This limited therapeutic arsenal and the emergence of drug-resistant strains are a matter of concern due to the growing number of patients to be treated, and new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543657/in-vitro-activity-of-anidulafungin-in-combination-with-amphotericin-b-or-voriconazole-against-biofilms-of-five-candida-species
#11
A Valentín, E Cantón, J Pemán, M E Fernandez-Rivero, M A Tormo-Mas, J P Martínez
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of anidulafungin combined with amphotericin B or voriconazole against Candida spp. biofilms. METHODS: Four Candida albicans, four Candida tropicalis, four Candida glabrata, two Candida parapsilosis and two Candida orthopsilosis blood isolates were tested by the microdilution chequerboard method combined with the XTT metabolic assay. Biofilm MIC was defined as the lowest concentration producing 50% metabolic inhibition with respect to control (BMIC50)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538491/role-of-non-albicans-candida-spp-and-biofilm-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#12
Shagun Goel, Seema Mittal
BACKGROUND: Candida spp. remains the fungal species most commonly associated with biofilm formation. Increase in Candida infections in last decades has almost paralleled the increase and wide spread use of a broad range of medical implant devices mainly in population with impaired host defences. One of the most important characteristics of biofilms is their high level of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to know the prevalence of different Candida spp...
August 18, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514952/identification-antifungal-resistance-profile-in-vitro-biofilm-formation-and-ultrastructural-characteristics-of-candida-species-isolated-from-diabetic-foot-patients-in-northern-india
#13
D Kumar, T Banerjee, J Chakravarty, S K Singh, A Dwivedi, R Tilak
PURPOSE: Diabetic foot ulcers are a serious cause of diagnostic and therapeutic concern. The following study was undertaken to determine the fungal causes of diabetic foot ulcers, with their phenotypic and genotypic characterisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 155 diabetic foot ulcers were studied for 1 year. Deep tissue specimen was collected from the wounds, and crushed samples were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (0.05 g). Identification was done by growth on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and urease test...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478638/total-protein-profile-and-drug-resistance-in-candida-albicans-isolated-from-clinical-samples
#14
Kamal Uddin Zaidi, Abin Mani, Vijay Thawani, Arti Mehra
This study was done to assess the antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to evaluate its total protein profile based on morphological difference on drug resistance. Hundred and twenty clinical isolates of C. albicans from various clinical specimens were tested for susceptibility against four antifungal agents, namely, fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole. A significant increase of drug resistance in clinical isolates of C. albicans was observed. The study showed 50% fluconazole and itraconazole resistance at 32 μg mL(-1) with a MIC50 and MIC90 values at 34 and 47 and 36 and 49 μg mL(-1), respectively...
2016: Molecular Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455180/use-of-scw4-gene-primers-in-pcr-methods-for-the-identification-of-six-medically-important-aspergillus-species
#15
Silvia Arancia, Silvia Sandini, Antonietta Vella, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Sandro Norelli, Flavia De Bernardis
Aspergillus species are the cause of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients: Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. terreus account for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA). As certain species are associated with higher mortality and vary in their resistance to antifungal therapy, diagnosis requires increasingly rapid molecular methods that enable sensitive detection and species discrimination. We have developed PCR and Multiplex PCR assays for the detection of six medically important Aspergillus spp...
July 25, 2016: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452427/antifungal-susceptibilities-of-candida-species-isolated-from-urine-culture
#16
Türkan Toka Özer, Süleyman Durmaz, Erkan Yula
Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed...
September 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379047/a-prospective-surveillance-study-of-candidaemia-epidemiology-risk-factors-antifungal-treatment-and-outcome-in-hospitalized-patients
#17
Ranjith Rajendran, Leighann Sherry, Ashutosh Deshpande, Elizabeth M Johnson, Mary F Hanson, Craig Williams, Carol A Munro, Brian L Jones, Gordon Ramage
This study provide an up-to-date overview of the epidemiology and risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection in Scotland in 2012/2013, and the antifungal susceptibility of isolates from blood cultures from 11 National Health Service boards within Scotland. Candida isolates were identified by chromogenic agar and confirmed by MALDI-TOF methods. Survival and associated risk factors for patients stratified as albicans and non-albicans cases were assessed. Information on the spectrum of antifungals used was collected and summarized...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296911/the-role-of-epidemiological-cutoff-values-ecvs-ecoffs-in-antifungal-susceptibility-testing-and-interpretation-for-uncommon-yeasts-and-moulds
#18
Ana Espinel-Ingroff, John Turnidge
The role of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is to aid in selecting the best agent for the treatment of bacterial and fungal diseases. This has been best achieved by the setting of breakpoints by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) for prevalent Candida spp. versus anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) also has set breakpoints for prevalent and common Candida and Aspergillus species versus amphotericin B, itraconazole, and posaconazole...
April 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27286334/vapour-and-liquid-phase-artemisia-annua-essential-oil-activities-against-several-clinical-strains-of-candida
#19
Francesca Santomauro, Rosa Donato, Cristiana Sacco, Gabriella Pini, Guido Flamini, Anna Rita Bilia
Candida spp. are often the cause of infection in immune-compromised individuals. They are characterized by a strong resistance to antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants. The activity of Artemisia annua essential oil against Candida spp. was determined by vapour contact and microdilution assay. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes (more than 75 % of the constituents), mainly represented by the irregular monoterpene artemisia ketone (ca. 22 %), and the widespread monoterpenes 1,8 cineole (ca...
July 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282005/etiologic-agents-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-oral-candidosis-from-romanian-patients-with-hiv-infection-or-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Bogdan Minea, Valentin Nastasa, Anna Kolecka, Magdalena Mares, Narcisa Marangoci, Irina Rosca, Mariana Pinteala, Monica Hancianu, Mihai Mares
This is the first Romanian investigation of oral candidosis in patients suffering of HIV-infection or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Candida albicans was the dominant species in both types of isolates: n = 14 (46.7%) in T1DM, n = 60 (69.8%) in HIV. The most frequent non-albicans Candida spp. were Candida kefyr (n = 6; 20%) in T1DM and Candida dubliniensis (n = 8; 9.3%) in HIV. Resistance to fluconazole was detected only in the HIV non-albicans Candida group (n = 8; 9.3%). All isolates were susceptible to VOR...
2016: Polish Journal of Microbiology
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