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Zebrafish hsc

Yimei Dai, Lu Zhu, Zhibin Huang, Minyu Zhou, Wan Jin, Wei Liu, Mengchang Xu, Tao Yu, Yiyue Zhang, Zilong Wen, Wangjun Liao, Wenqing Zhang
In vertebrates, myeloid cells arise from multiple waves of development: the first or embryonic wave of myelopoiesis initiates early from non-hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) precursors and gives rise to myeloid cells transiently during early development; whereas the second or adult wave of myelopoiesis emerges later from HSCs and produces myeloid cells continually during fetal and adult life. In the past decades, a great deal has been learnt about the development of myeloid cells from adult myelopoiesis, yet the genetic network governing embryonic myelopoiesis remains poorly defined...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Martina Konantz, Elisa Alghisi, Joëlle S Müller, Anna Lenard, Virginie Esain, Kelli J Carroll, Lothar Kanz, Trista E North, Claudia Lengerke
During development, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge from aortic endothelial cells (ECs) through an intermediate stage called hemogenic endothelium by a process known as endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). While Notch signaling, including its upstream regulator Vegf, is known to regulate this process, the precise molecular control and temporal specificity of Notch activity remain unclear. Here, we identify the zebrafish transcriptional regulator evi1 as critically required for Notch-mediated EHT In vivo live imaging studies indicate that evi1 suppression impairs EC progression to hematopoietic fate and therefore HSC emergence...
September 16, 2016: EMBO Journal
Qiwen Yang, Xiuli Liu, Ting Zhou, Jennifer Cook, Kim Nguyen, Xiaoying Bai
The promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) plays a critical role in regulating metazoan gene transcription. Despite the prevalence of Pol II pausing across the metazoan genomes, little is known about the in vivo effect of Pol II pausing on vertebrate development. We use the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in zebrafish embryos as a model to investigate the role of Pol II pausing in vertebrate organogenesis. Disrupting Pol II pausing machinery causes a severe reduction of HSC specification, a defect that can be effectively rescued by inhibiting Pol II elongation...
September 29, 2016: Blood
Adriana De La Garza, Arpan Sinha, Teresa V Bowman
: : Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have extensive regenerative capacity to replace all blood cell types, an ability that is harnessed in the clinic for bone marrow transplantation. Finding appropriate donors remains a major limitation to more extensive usage of HSC-based therapies. Derivation of patient-specific HSCs from pluripotent stem cells offers great promise to remedy this problem if scientists could crack the code on how to make robust, transplantable HSCs in a dish. Studies delving into the native origins of HSC production during embryonic development should supply the necessary playbook...
August 2, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
C Li, T Evans, M G Goll
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are multipotent self-renewing precursors with the capacity to differentiate into all adult blood cell lineages. HSC development is a highly orchestrated process regulated by multiple transcription factors and signaling pathways. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation is an additional essential component of HSC development. Powerful genetic and imaging approaches, combined with conservation of mammalian programs, have made zebrafish a prominent model for the study of HSC production...
2016: Methods in Cell Biology
Anne von Mässenhausen, Christine Sanders, Johannes Brägelmann, Martina Konantz, Angela Queisser, Wenzel Vogel, Glen Kristiansen, Stefan Duensing, Andreas Schröck, Friedrich Bootz, Peter Brossart, Jutta Kirfel, Claudia Lengerke, Sven Perner
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the tenth most common tumor entity in men worldwide. Nevertheless therapeutic options are mostly limited to surgery and radio-chemotherapy resulting in 5-year survival rates of around 50%. Therefore new therapeutic options are urgently needed. During the last years, targeting of receptor tyrosine kinases has emerged as a promising strategy that can complement standard therapeutical approaches. Here, we aimed at investigating if the receptor tyrosine kinase DDR2 is a targetable structure in HNSCC...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Christopher B Mahony, Richard J Fish, Corentin Pasche, Julien Y Bertrand
In mammals, embryonic hematopoiesis occurs in successive waves, culminating with the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the aorta. HSCs first migrate to the fetal liver (FL), where they expand, before they seed the bone marrow niche, where they will sustain hematopoiesis throughout adulthood. In zebrafish, HSCs emerge from the dorsal aorta and colonize the caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT). Recent studies showed that they interact with endothelial cells (ECs), where they expand, before they reach their ultimate niche, the kidney marrow...
September 8, 2016: Blood
R Grant Rowe, Joseph Mandelbaum, Leonard I Zon, George Q Daley
Cell engineering has brought us tantalizingly close to the goal of deriving patient-specific hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). While directed differentiation and transcription factor-mediated conversion strategies have generated progenitor cells with multilineage potential, to date, therapy-grade engineered HSCs remain elusive due to insufficient long-term self-renewal and inadequate differentiated progeny functionality. A cross-species approach involving zebrafish and mammalian systems offers complementary methodologies to improve understanding of native HSCs...
June 2, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Jingying Chen, Jianbo He, Li Li, Deqin Yang, Lingfei Luo
Definitive haematopoiesis occurs during the lifetime of an individual, which continuously replenishes all blood and immune cells. During embryonic development, haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) formation is tightly controlled by growth factors, signalling molecules and transcription factors. But little is known about roles of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 family member in the haematopoiesis. Here we report characterization and functional studies of Cyp2aa9, a novel zebrafish Cyp2 family member. And demonstrate that the cyp2aa9 is required for the HSC formation and homeostasis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dirk Kanz, Martina Konantz, Elisa Alghisi, Trista E North, Claudia Lengerke
During development, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are formed in a temporally and spatially restricted manner, arising from specialized endothelial cells (ECs) in the ventral wall of the dorsal aorta within the evolutionary conserved aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. Our understanding of the processes regulating the birth of HSCs from ECs has been recently advanced by comprehensive molecular analyses of developing murine hematopoietic cell populations complemented by studies in the zebrafish model, with the latter offering unique advantages for genetic studies and direct in vivo visualization of HSC emergence...
April 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Xin Gao, Tongyu Wu, Kirby D Johnson, Jamie L Lahvic, Erik A Ranheim, Leonard I Zon, Emery H Bresnick
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) originate from hemogenic endothelium within the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region of the mammalian embryo. The relationship between genetic circuits controlling stem cell genesis and multi-potency is not understood. A Gata2 cis element (+9.5) enhances Gata2 expression in the AGM and induces the endothelial to HSC transition. We demonstrated that GATA-2 rescued hematopoiesis in +9.5(-/-) AGMs. As G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most common targets for FDA-approved drugs, we analyzed the GPCR gene ensemble to identify GATA-2-regulated GPCRs...
March 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Isao Kobayashi, Fumihiko Katakura, Tadaaki Moritomo
Despite 400 million years of evolutionary divergence, hematopoiesis is highly conserved between mammals and teleost fish. All types of mature blood cells including the erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid lineages show a high degree of similarity to their mammalian counterparts at the morphological and molecular level. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are cells that are capable of self-renewal and differentiating into all hematopoietic lineages over the lifetime of an organism. The study of HSCs has been facilitated through bone marrow transplantation experiments developed in the mouse model...
May 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Heidi Anderson, Taylor C Patch, Pavankumar N G Reddy, Elliott J Hagedorn, Peter G Kim, Kathleen A Soltis, Michael J Chen, Owen J Tamplin, Maike Frye, Glenn A MacLean, Kathleen Hübner, Daniel E Bauer, John P Kanki, Guillaume Vogin, Nicholas C Huston, Minh Nguyen, Yuko Fujiwara, Barry H Paw, Dietmar Vestweber, Leonard I Zon, Stuart H Orkin, George Q Daley, Dhvanit I Shah
Rare endothelial cells in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) transition into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during embryonic development. Lineage tracing experiments indicate that HSCs emerge from cadherin 5 (Cdh5; vascular endothelial-cadherin)(+) endothelial precursors, and isolated populations of Cdh5(+) cells from mouse embryos and embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into hematopoietic cells. Cdh5 has also been widely implicated as a marker of AGM-derived hemogenic endothelial cells. Because Cdh5(-/-) mice embryos die before the first HSCs emerge, it is unknown whether Cdh5 has a direct role in HSC emergence...
December 24, 2015: Blood
Cheng Li, Yahui Lan, Lianna Schwartz-Orbach, Evgenia Korol, Mamta Tahiliani, Todd Evans, Mary G Goll
The Tet family of methylcytosine dioxygenases (Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3) convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. To date, functional overlap among Tet family members has not been examined systematically in the context of embryonic development. To clarify the potential for overlap among Tet enzymes during development, we mutated the zebrafish orthologs of Tet1, Tet2, and Tet3 and examined single-, double-, and triple-mutant genotypes. Here, we identify Tet2 and Tet3 as the major 5-methylcytosine dioxygenases in the zebrafish embryo and uncover a combined requirement for Tet2 and Tet3 in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) emergence...
August 18, 2015: Cell Reports
Virginie Esain, Wanda Kwan, Kelli J Carroll, Mauricio Cortes, Sarah Y Liu, Gregory M Frechette, Lea M V Sheward, Sahar Nissim, Wolfram Goessling, Trista E North
Cannabinoids (CB) modulate adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPCs) function, however, impact on the production, expansion, or migration of embryonic HSCs is currently uncharacterized. Here, using chemical and genetic approaches targeting CB-signaling in zebrafish, we show that CB receptor (CNR) 2, but not CNR1, regulates embryonic HSC development. During HSC specification in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, CNR2 stimulation by AM1241 increased runx1;cmyb(+) HSPCs, through heightened proliferation, whereas CNR2 antagonism decreased HSPC number; FACS analysis and absolute HSC counts confirmed and quantified these effects...
August 2015: Stem Cells
Manali Dimri, Jayadev Joshi, Nitisha Shrivastava, Subhajit Ghosh, Rina Chakraborti, Prem Kumar Indracanti
Drug repositioning is an approach of significant translatability, and the present study was undertaken to screen a collection of FDA approved small-molecule clinical compounds for identification of novel radioprotective agents. Screening of JHCCL (Johns Hopkins Clinical Compound Library), a collection of 1,400 FDA approved small molecules, lead to identification of prilocaine hydrochloride, a local anesthetic used widely during dental procedures, as a potential radioprotector. Prilocaine, at a concentration of 20 µM, protected zebrafish from radiation induced (20 Gy) pericardial edema (PE), microphthalmia and rendered 60 % survival advantage over radiation exposed controls...
April 2015: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
Emerald Butko, Martin Distel, Claire Pouget, Bart Weijts, Isao Kobayashi, Kevin Ng, Christian Mosimann, Fabienne E Poulain, Adam McPherson, Chih-Wen Ni, David L Stachura, Natasha Del Cid, Raquel Espín-Palazón, Nathan D Lawson, Richard Dorsky, Wilson K Clements, David Traver
The adult blood system is established by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which arise during development from an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition of cells comprising the floor of the dorsal aorta. Expression of aortic runx1 has served as an early marker of HSC commitment in the zebrafish embryo, but recent studies have suggested that HSC specification begins during the convergence of posterior lateral plate mesoderm (PLM), well before aorta formation and runx1 transcription. Further understanding of the earliest stages of HSC specification necessitates an earlier marker of hemogenic endothelium...
March 15, 2015: Development
Manali Dimri, Jayadev Joshi, Rina Chakrabarti, Neeta Sehgal, Angara Sureshbabu, Indracanti Prem Kumar
The Johns Hopkins Clinical Compound Library (JHCCL), a collection of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved small molecules (1400), was screened in silico for identification of novel β2AR blockers and tested for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion and radioprotection in zebrafish embryos. Docking studies, followed by the capacity to hasten erythropoiesis, identified todralazine (Binding energy, -8.4 kcal/mol) as a potential HSC-modulating agent. Todralazine (5 μM) significantly increased erythropoiesis in caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT) in wild-type and anemic zebrafish embryos (2...
February 2015: Zebrafish
Suphansa Sawamiphak, Zacharias Kontarakis, Didier Y R Stainier
Vertebrate hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region from "hemogenic" endothelium. Here we show that the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and its receptor Crfb17 positively regulate HSC development in zebrafish. This regulation does not appear to modulate the proliferation or survival of HSCs or endothelial cells, but rather the endothelial-to-HSC transition. Notch signaling and blood flow positively regulate the expression of ifng and crfb17 in the AGM...
December 8, 2014: Developmental Cell
Matthew B Veldman, Shuo Lin
Inflammatory pathways protect the body from infection and promote healing following injury. Recent reports demonstrate the surprising involvement of these pathways during hematopoietic stem cell emergence from the hemogenic endothelium in both zebrafish and mice.
December 8, 2014: Developmental Cell
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