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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919584/reduced-ifn-%C3%AE-production-in-chronic-brucellosis-patients
#1
Ehsanollah Ghaznavi Rad, Khadijeh Khosravi, Nader Zarinfar, Ghasem Mosayebi
BACKGROUND: Brucella is a well-known intracellular bacterium entailing acute and chronic illnesses in humans and domestic animals. The infection chronicity may be affected by the cell-mediated immunity and cytokine patterns. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the patterns of T-helper cytokines in patients suffering from chronic and acute brucellosis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 22 individuals with acute brucellosis, 21 individuals with chronic brucellosis, and 21 healthy individuals with the same genetic background were recruited from October 2015 to April 2016...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918584/fed-batch-strategies-for-production-of-pha-using-a-native-isolate-of-halomonas-venusta-kt832796-strain
#2
Angelina Stanley, H N Punil Kumar, Sarma Mutturi, S V N Vijayendra
In this study, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) accumulation by Halomonas venusta KT832796, a moderate halophilic bacteria isolated from marine source was studied. Both nutritional requirements and process parameters for submerged cultivation of the organism in bioreactor have been standardized. From the shake flask studies, glucose and ammonium citrate as carbon and nitrogen source produced maximum PHA at a ratio 20 with 3.52 g/L of dry cell weight and 70.56% of PHA content. However, ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source was found to be more suitable for fed-batch cultivation...
September 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916461/metabolic-engineering-of-escherichia-coli-for-the-synthesis-of-the-quadripolymer-poly-glycolate-co-lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate-from-glucose
#3
Zheng-Jun Li, Kangjian Qiao, Xue-Mei Che, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Escherichia coli was metabolically engineered to effectively produce a series of biopolymers consisted of four types of monomers including glycolate, lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and 4-hydroxybutyrate from glucose as the carbon source. The biosynthetic route of novel quadripolymers was achieved by the overexpression of a range of homologous and heterologous enzymes including isocitrate lyase, isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase, glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase, propionyl-CoA transferase, β-ketothiolase, acetoacetyl-CoA reductase, succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 4-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, CoA transferase and PHA synthase...
September 12, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911644/nephroprotective-effect-of-paeonia-emodi-via-inhibition-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-oxidative-stress-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-diabetic-nephropathy
#4
Lalit Kishore, Navpreet Kaur, Randhir Singh
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of alcohol (PA) and hydroalcohol (PHA) extract of Paeonia emodi Royale roots in treatment of streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg intraperitoneally) 15 minutes after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) administration and diabetic nephropathy was assessed by measuring serum glucose, renal parameters (urea, uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen level) and lipid profile...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905518/production-of-a-novel-medium-chain-length-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate-using-unprocessed-biodiesel-waste-and-its-evaluation-as-a-tissue-engineering-scaffold
#5
Pooja Basnett, Barbara Lukasiewicz, Elena Marcello, Harpreet K Gura, Jonathan C Knowles, Ipsita Roy
This study demonstrated the utilization of unprocessed biodiesel waste as a carbon feedstock for Pseudomonas mendocinaCH50, for the production of PHAs. A PHA yield of 39.5% CDM was obtained using 5% (v/v) biodiesel waste substrate. Chemical analysis confirmed that the polymer produced was poly(3-hydroxyhexanoate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxydecanoate-co-3-hydroxydodecanoate) or P(3HHx-3HO-3HD-3HDD). P(3HHx-3HO-3HD-3HDD) was further characterized and evaluated for its use as a tissue engineering scaffold (TES)...
September 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904409/biomedical-applications-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates
#6
REVIEW
Subhasree Ray, Vipin Chandra Kalia
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are produced by a large number of microbes under stress conditions such as high carbon (C) availability and limitations of nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and oxygen. Here, microbes store C as granules of PHAs-energy reservoir. PHAs have properties, which are quite similar to those of synthetic plastics. The unique properties, which make them desirable materials for biomedical applications is their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901331/raw-bia-variables-are-predictors-of-muscle-strength-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
F de Blasio, M G Santaniello, F de Blasio, G Mazzarella, A Bianco, L Lionetti, F M E Franssen, L Scalfi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although loss of fat-free mass (FFM) and reduced muscle strength are highly prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), only few data are available on the relationships of handgrip strength (HGS) and respiratory muscle strength with body composition in such disease. In particular, we aimed to assess whether raw bioelectrical impedance (BIA) variables were independent predictors of muscle strength in COPD patients, possibly more significant than anthropometric variables and BIA-based estimates of FFM...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898647/genetics-master-regulator-or-master-of-disguise
#8
Michael Ailion, Harmit S Malik
The pha-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans was originally heralded as a master regulator of organ differentiation. A new study suggests instead that pha-1 actually serves no role in development and instead is a component of a selfish genetic element.
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895863/a-monoclonal-antibody-for-detection-of-intracellular-and-secreted-interleukin-2-in-horses
#9
Heather Freer, Julia M Hillegas, Christine Wimer, Cynthia Baldwin, Joanna LaBresh, Bettina Wagner
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a T cell growth factor and major modulator of T helper (Th) cell differentiation. Here, we have developed and characterized a monoclonal antibody to equine IL-2 (anti-IL-2 mAb, clone 158-1). The IL-2 mAb detected rIL-2 by ELISA, intracellular staining and flow cytometry analysis and Western blotting. The IL-2 mAb was also paired with a polyclonal IL-2 detection antibody in both ELISA and a fluorescent bead-based assay. When these two assays were compared using identical reagents there was an improved analytical sensitivity (46pg/ml) and wider linear quantification range (46-100,000pg/ml) of IL-2 quantification using the fluorescent bead assay...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895364/-development-of-tumor-targeting-phbhhx-nanoparticles-by-phap-mediated-immobilization-of-egfr-targeting-peptide
#10
Fan Fan, Jiangang Ma, Xiaoyun Lu, Teng Niu, Zhimin Wu
PHA granule binding protein phasin (PhaP) has a high affinity for hydrophobic materials and can bind to hydrophobic polymers via strong hydrophobic interaction. In this study, an EGFR-targeting peptide (ETP) was fused with PhaP and the fusion protein ETP-PhaP was produced in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) (pPI-ETP-P) and then purified by Ni affinity purification. The tumor targeting PHBHHx nanoparticles were developed based on PhaP mediated ETP immobilization and the cellular uptake of the ETP-PhaP modified PHBHHx NPs and none modified PHBHHx NPs by cervical cancer cell lines SiHa (EGFR over expressed) and CaSKi (EGFR low expressed) were analyzed...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895080/population-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-artemisinin-resistance-in-southeast-asia
#11
Jesmin Lohy Das, Arjen M Dondorp, Francois Nosten, Aung Pyae Phyo, Warunee Hanpithakpong, Pascal Ringwald, Pharath Lim, Nicholas J White, Mats O Karlsson, Martin Bergstrand, Joel Tarning
Orally administered artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line treatment against uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria worldwide. However, the increasing prevalence of artemisinin resistance is threatening efforts to treat and eliminate malaria in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to characterize the exposure-response relationship of artesunate in patients with artemisinin sensitive and resistant malaria infections. Patients were recruited in Pailin, Cambodia (n = 39), and Wang Pha, Thailand (n = 40), and received either 2 mg/kg/day of artesunate mono-therapy for 7 consecutive days or 4 mg/kg/day of artesunate monotherapy for 3 consecutive days followed by mefloquine 15 and 10 mg/kg for 2 consecutive days...
September 11, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894754/natural-modulators-of-endosomal-toll-like-receptor-mediated-psoriatic-skin-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Chao-Yang Lai, Yu-Wen Su, Kuo-I Lin, Li-Chung Hsu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that can be initiated by excessive activation of endosomal toll-like receptors (TLRs), particularly TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9. Therefore, inhibitors of endosomal TLR activation are being investigated for their ability to treat this disease. The currently approved biological drugs adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, ustekinumab, ixekizumab, and secukizumab are antibodies against effector cytokines that participate in the initiation and development of psoriasis...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890996/bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-at-birth-and-in-vitro-cytokine-responses-to-non-specific-stimulation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
T N Nissen, N M Birk, B A Blok, R J W Arts, A Andersen, J Kjærgaard, L M Thøstesen, T Hoffmann, D L Jeppesen, S D Nielsen, P-E Kofoed, L G Stensballe, P Aaby, M Ruhwald, M G Netea, C S Benn, O Pryds
Several studies have shown increased in vitro cytokine responses to non-related pathogens after Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. A total of 158 infants (80 BCG administered within 7 days of birth; 78 controls) were bled 4 days post-randomization, and at age 3 and 13 months. Geometric mean concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 (24 h stimulation) and IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17, IL-22 (96 h stimulation) in response to in vitro stimulation with RPMI, LPS, PHA, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Candida albicans and BCG were compared among BCG vaccinated children and controls...
September 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890870/treg-th17-cell-balance-and-phytohaemagglutinin-activation-of-t-lymphocytes-in-peripheral-blood-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients
#14
Ekaterina Krasimirova, Tsvetelina Velikova, Ekaterina Ivanova-Todorova, Kalina Tumangelova-Yuzeir, Desislava Kalinova, Vladimira Boyadzhieva, Nikolay Stoilov, Tsvetelina Yoneva, Rasho Rashkov, Dobroslav Kyurkchiev
AIM: To investigate T-cell activation, the percentage of peripheral T regulatory cells (Tregs), Th17 cells and the circulating cytokine profile in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: We enrolled a total of 24 SSc patients and 16 healthy controls in the study and divided the patients as having diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc, n = 13) or limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc, n = 11). We performed a further subdivision of the patients regarding the stage of the disease - early, intermediate or late...
August 20, 2017: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884324/natural-and-engineered-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-synthase-key-enzyme-in-biopolyester-production
#15
REVIEW
Huibin Zou, Mengxun Shi, Tongtong Zhang, Lei Li, Liangzhi Li, Mo Xian
With the finite supply of petroleum and increasing concern with environmental issues associated with their harvest and processing, the development of more eco-friendly, sustainable alternative biopolymers that can effectively fill the role of petro-polymers has become a major focus. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) can be naturally produced by many species of bacteria and the PHA synthase is believed to be key enzyme in this natural pathway. Natural PHA synthases are diverse and can affect the properties of the produced PHAs, such as monomer composition, molecular weights, and material properties...
September 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882853/neuronal-inhibition-of-the-autophagy-nucleation-complex-extends-life-span-in-post-reproductive-c-elegans
#16
Thomas Wilhelm, Jonathan Byrne, Rebeca Medina, Ena Kolundžić, Johannes Geisinger, Martina Hajduskova, Baris Tursun, Holger Richly
Autophagy is a ubiquitous catabolic process that causes cellular bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components and is generally associated with positive effects on health and longevity. Inactivation of autophagy has been linked with detrimental effects on cells and organisms. The antagonistic pleiotropy theory postulates that some fitness-promoting genes during youth are harmful during aging. On this basis, we examined genes mediating post-reproductive longevity using an RNAi screen. From this screen, we identified 30 novel regulators of post-reproductive longevity, including pha-4 Through downstream analysis of pha-4, we identified that the inactivation of genes governing the early stages of autophagy up until the stage of vesicle nucleation, such as bec-1, strongly extend both life span and health span...
September 7, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875213/mass-spectrometry-based-identification-of-galectin-3-interacting-proteins-potentially-involved-in-lung-melanoma-metastasis
#17
Manohar C Dange, Hemangi S Bhonsle, Rashmi K Godbole, Shyam K More, Sanjay M Bane, Mahesh J Kulkarni, Rajiv D Kalraiya
Adhesive interactions between molecules on tumor cells and those on target organs play a key role in organ specific metastasis. Poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (polyLacNAc) substituted N-oligosaccharides on melanoma cell surface glycoproteins promote lung specific metastasis via galectin-3 by facilitating their arrest and extravasation. This study reports the identification and characterization of galectin-3 interacting proteins using a combination of galectin-3 sepharose affinity and leucoagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (L-PHA) columns...
September 6, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871230/comparative-analysis-for-glycopatterns-and-complex-type-n-glycans-of-glycoprotein-in-sera-from-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-infected-patients
#18
Xinmin Qin, Yonghong Guo, Haoqi Du, Yaogang Zhong, Jiaxu Zhang, Xuetian Li, Hanjie Yu, Zhiwei Zhang, Zhansheng Jia, Zheng Li
Background: Chronic infection with HBV (CHB) or HCV (CHC) is the most common chronic viral hepatitis that can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans, their infections have distinct pathogenic processes, however, little is known about the difference of glycoprotein glycopatterns in serum between hepatitis B virus (HBV)- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Methods: A method combining the lectin microarrays, letin-mediated affinity capture glycoproteins, and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was employed to analyze serum protein glycopatterns and identify the glycan structures from patients with CHB (n = 54) or CHC(n = 47), and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 35)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865061/severe-enteropathy-and-hypogammaglobulinemia-complicating-refractory-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-disseminated-disease-in-a-child-with-il-12r%C3%AE-1-deficiency
#19
Andrés Augusto Arias, Carlos M Perez-Velez, Julio César Orrego, Marcela Moncada-Velez, Jessica Lineth Rojas, Alejandra Wilches, Andrea Restrepo, Mónica Trujillo, Carlos Garcés, Catalina Arango-Ferreira, Natalia González, Carmen Oleaga-Quintas, Diana Fernández, Johana Marcela Isaza-Correa, Diego Eduardo Gongóra, Daniel Gonzalez-Loaiza, Juan Esteban Sierra, Jean Laurent Casanova, Jacinta Bustamante, José Luis Franco
PURPOSE: Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare clinical condition characterized by a predisposition to infectious diseases caused by poorly virulent mycobacteria. Other infections such as salmonellosis and candidiasis are also reported. The purpose of this article is to describe a young boy affected with various infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Salmonella sp, Klebsiella pneumonie, Citrobacter sp., and Candida sp, complicated with severe enteropathy and transient hypogammaglobulinemia...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862377/biosynthesis-of-2-hydroxyacid-containing-polyhydroxyalkanoates-by-employing-butyryl-coa-transferases-in-metabolically-engineered-escherichia-coli
#20
Yokimiko David, Jeong Chan Joo, Jung Eun Yang, Young Hoon Oh, Sang Yup Lee, Si Jae Park
We previously reported the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) containing 2-hydroxyacid monomers by expressing evolved Pseudomonas sp. 6-19 PHA synthase and Clostridium propionicum propionyl-CoA transferase in engineered microorganisms. Here, we examined four butyryl-CoA transferases from Roseburia sp., Eubacterium hallii, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Anaerostipes caccae as potential CoA-transferases to support synthesis of polymers having 2HA monomer. In vitro activity analyses of the four butyryl-CoA transferases suggested that each butyryl-CoA transferase has different activities towards 2-hydroxybutyrate (2HB), 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), and lactate (LA)...
September 1, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
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