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Yoshiko Matsuda, Ryoichi Imamura, Shiro Takahara
The recent attention given to diseases associated with memory B-cell (mBC)-produced antibodies (Abs) suggests the need for a similar in vitro assay to evaluate the functions of mBCs. Here, we cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the intent to collect mBC-derived Abs in vitro and maintain their cell-cell contact-dependent interactions with helper T-cells. PBMCs were cultured with interleukin (IL)-21, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and phytohemagglutinin/leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) in 24-well flat-bottom plates (5 × 10(5) cells/well)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Mineko Ogura, Songyan Deng, Paula Preston-Hurlburt, Hideki Ogura, Kunwar Shailubhai, Chantal Kuhn, Howard L Weiner, Kevan C Herold
Oral administration of biologics may be a feasible approach for immune therapy that improves drug safety and potentiates mechanisms of tolerance at mucosal barriers. We tested the ability of a fully human non-FcR binding anti-CD3 mAb, foralumab, to prevent skin xenograft rejection in mice with human immune systems. At an intragastric dose of 15μg, the drug could transit through the small bowel. Serum absorption and binding of lymphoid cells was seen and proliferative responses of splenic CD8+ T cells to mitogen were reduced...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Chad Nielsen, Asif Rahman, Asad Ur Rehman, Marie K Walsh, Charles D Miller
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolymers with desirable material properties similar to petrochemically derived plastics. PHAs are naturally produced by a wide range of microorganisms as a carbon storage mechanism and can accumulate to significantly high levels. PHAs are an environmentally friendly alternative to their petroleum counterparts because they can be easily degraded, potentially reducing the burden on municipal waste systems. Nevertheless, widespread use of PHAs is not currently realistic due to a variety of factors...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Tianhua Liu, Shuxin Shang, Wei Li, Xue Qin, Lu Sun, Shu Zhang, Yinkun Liu
Hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with high incidence of metastasis. Glycosylation is involved in fundamental molecular and cell biology process occurring in cancer including metastasis formation. In this study, lectin microarray, lectin blotting, lectin affinity chromatography and tandem (18)O stable isotope labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS) analysis were applied to quantify the changes in N-glycosite occupancy for HCC metastasis serum...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Jennifer Colvin, Vikram Krishnamurthy, Judy Jin, Joyce Shin, Allan Siperstein, Eren Berber
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, robotic approaches have been described for removing adrenal tumors. Although there are reports comparing robotic and laparoscopic techniques in general, there are limited data on outcomes in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA). The aim of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of robotic adrenalectomy (RA) versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for PHA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 20 patients who underwent RA for PHA were compared with 16 patients who underwent LA between 2000 and 2014...
July 19, 2017: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
Torsak Bunupuradah, Tanit Phupitakphol, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Suvaporn Anugulruengkitt, Watsamon Jantarabenjakul, Bunruan Sopa, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Ankanee Chanakul, Thanyawee Puthanakit
BACKGROUND: Persistent renal dysfunction (PRD) has been reported in up to 22% of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHA) in the US and Europe. There is limited data available on PRD among PHAs in resource-limited settings regarding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at more advanced HIV stages. METHODS: We retrospectively described the prevalence of PRD and associated factors in a Thai PHA cohort. Inclusion criteria were current age >10 years and at least 2 serum creatinine (Cr) measurements after ART initiation...
July 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
A Cherpinski, S Torres-Giner, L Cabedo, J M Lagaron
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are one of the most researched family of biodegradable polymers based on renewable materials due to their thermoplastic nature and moisture resistance. The present study was targeted to investigate the preparation and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) films obtained through the electrospinning technique. To convert them into continuous films, of interest in for instance packaging, the electrospun fiber mats were subsequently post-processed by different physical treatments to optimize their physical performance...
July 17, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Zhenming Wang, Zhanrong Jia, Yanan Jiang, Pengfei Li, Lu Han, Xiong Lu, Fuzeng Ren, Ke-Feng Wang, Huipin Yuan
The assembly of nano-building blocks is an effective way to produce artificial extracellular matrix microenvironments with hierarchical micro/nano structures. However, it is hard to assemble different types of nano-building blocks, to form composite coatings with multiple functions, by traditional layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly methods. Inspired by the mussel adhesion mechanism, we developed polydopamine (PDA)-decorated bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA-NPs) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA), and assembled them to form bioactive coatings with micro/nano structures encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)...
July 14, 2017: Biofabrication
Min Fey Chek, Sun-Yong Kim, Tomoyuki Mori, Hasni Arsad, Mohammed Razip Samian, Kumar Sudesh, Toshio Hakoshima
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative bioplastic to replace petroleum-based plastics. Our understanding of PHA synthase PhaC is poor due to the paucity of available three-dimensional structural information. Here we present a high-resolution crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PhaC from Chromobacterium sp. USM2, PhaC Cs -CAT. The structure shows that PhaC Cs -CAT forms an α/β hydrolase fold comprising α/β core and CAP subdomains. The active site containing Cys291, Asp447 and His477 is located at the bottom of the cavity, which is filled with water molecules and is covered by the partly disordered CAP subdomain...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kohei Umezu, Yuuki Hiradate, Takashi Numabe, Kenshiro Hara, Kentaro Tanemura
Sperm sorting by flow cytometry is a useful technology in the bovine industry, but the conception rates after artificial insemination using sex-sorted sperm are lower than when using the un-sorted sperm. In this study, we have investigated the causes for these low conception rates. We have focused on changes caused by flow cytometry to the glycocalyx, which forms the outermost surface of the sperm membrane. We have also evaluated the effects of capacitation on the glycocalyx since capacitation involves a redistribution of the sperm membrane that is vital for successful fertilization and conception...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Linyong Du, Hong Zhou, Lei Qin, He Wei, Anying Zhang, Kun Yang, Xinyan Wang
A STAT family member, STAT3, becomes activated as a DNA binding protein in response to cytokines and growth factors. In teleost, STAT3 cDNA has been cloned and identified in a few species, but only a single STAT3 transcript is revealed in these studies. In the present study, two variants of STAT3 gene generated by alternative splicing were isolated from grass carp and nominated as STAT3α1 and STAT3α2 based on the homology with their mammalian orthologs. In particular, the homologs of STAT3α1/2 were also found in various fish species, including zebrafish, takifugu, tilapia, medaka and goldfish...
July 8, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Kyle Rowe, Fredy Nehme, Jacob Wallace, Travis McKenzie, Akash Joshi, William Salyers
Primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA), a rare and aggressive malignancy, has rarely been reported to present with disseminated intravascular coagulation with liver hemorrhage. Incidence is estimated at 0.5-2.5 cases per 10,000,000. To our knowledge, it has not been reported to mimic liver abscess with a septic presentation. Advanced imaging techniques may aid in the diagnosis, though biopsy with microscopy and immunohistochemistry is the mainstay. Prognosis is very poor, with a 5-year survival rate estimated at 6...
May 30, 2017: Curēus
Alireza Zamani, Iraj Salehi, Mahdi Alahgholi-Hajibehzad
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of two months moderate exercise on levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-6 and IL-4 in serum and supernatants of in vitro mitogen-activated (PHA for 48 h) whole blood (WB) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Sixteen healthy males participated in running program (30 min/day, 5 days/week). Blood samples were collected in three stages; 24 h before to start exercise, 48 h and two months after the last session of the exercise. The samples were analyzed for the cytokines by ELISA...
June 2017: Immune Network
Hema Negi, Shilpi Khare Saikia, Rakesh Pandey
Species from lower invertebrates to a spectrum of mammals show anti-aging health benefits of phytochemical(s). Here, we explored the pro-longevity effects of a natural triterpenoid, ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid; UA) in Caenorhabditis elegans with maximal lifespan being evident at 25µM UA. Similar to eat-2 mutants, UA uptake by worm results in reduced fat storage and attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), independent of superoxide dismutase(s) activation. The genetic requirements for UA mediated longevity are quite similar to dietary restriction (DR) achieved through SKN-1/ NRF-2 exhibiting up regulation of downstream target genes gcs-1 and daf-9...
June 30, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jie Song, Ya Gao, Wei-Bin Zhou, Chun-Yan Yang, Ying Xu, Bao-Hong Ping, Hai-Tao Sun
OBJECTIVE: To compare the immunomodulatory effects of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cell (hAMSCs) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) on peripheral blood T lymphocytes in an in vitro co-culture system. METHODS: hAMSCs and hBMSCs isolated using enzymatic digestion and Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation, respectively, were culture-expanded in vitro to obtain the 4th-generation cells. The two MSCs were co-cultured separately with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA-PBMSC) to investigate the changes in T lymphocyte subsets using flow cytomety and the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-10 by the T lymphocytes using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
June 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Ji-Hong Lin, Ming-Chieh Lee, You-Sheng Sue, Yung-Chuan Liu, Si-Yu Li
PHB biosynthesis pathway, consisting of three open reading frames (ORFs) that encode for β-ketothiolase (phaA Cma , 1179 bp), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB Cma , 738 bp), and PHA synthase (phaC Cma , 1694 bp), of Caldimonas manganoxidans was identified. The functions of PhaA, PhaB, and PhaC were demonstrated by successfully reconstructing PHB biosynthesis pathway of C. manganoxidans in Escherichia coli, where PHB production was confirmed by OD600, gas chromatography, Nile blue stain, and transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
June 30, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
José Manuel Borrero-de Acuña, Cristian Hidalgo-Dumont, Nicolás Pacheco, Alex Cabrera, Ignacio Poblete-Castro
Cell lysis is crucial for the microbial production of industrial fatty acids, proteins, biofuels, and biopolymers. In this work, we developed a novel programmable lysis system based on the heterologous expression of lysozyme. The inducible lytic system was tested in two Gram-negative bacterial strains, namely Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Before induction, the lytic system did not significantly arrest essential physiological parameters in the recombinant E. coli (ECPi) and P. putida (JBOi) strain such as specific growth rate and biomass yield under standard growth conditions...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Karol Jędrzejczak, Paweł Hrynczyszyn, Małgorzata Szczesio, Jolanta Artym, Tomasz Jastrząbek, Maja Kocięba, Marek Główka, Krzysztof Huben, Iwona Kochanowska, Michał Zimecki, Janusz Zabrocki, Stefan Jankowski, Beata Kolesińska
Cyclolinopeptide A (CLA), an immunosuppressive nonapeptide derived from linen seeds, was modified with S or R-γ(4)-bis(homo-phenylalanine) in positions 3 or 4, or both 3 and 4. These modifications changed the flexibility of new analogues and distribution of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Analogues 11 c(Pro(1)-Pro(2)-Phe(3)-S-γ(4)-hhPhe(4)-Leu(5)-Ile(6)-Ile(7)-Leu(8)-Val(9)), 13 c(Pro(1)-Pro(2)-S-γ(4)-hhPhe(3)-R-γ(4)-hhPhe(4)-Leu(5)-Ile(6)-Ile(7)-Leu(8)-Val(9)) and 15 c(Pro(1)-Pro(2)-R-γ(4)-hhPhe(3)-Phe(4)-Leu(5)-Ile(6)-Ile(7)-Leu(8)-Val(9)) existed as a mixture of stable cis/trans isomers of Pro-Pro peptide bond...
June 2, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Gurusamy Kutralam-Muniasamy, Juan Corona-Hernandez, Ravi-Kumar Narayanasamy, Rodolfo Marsch, Fermín Pérez-Guevara
Many polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) system genes, such as phaC, phaA, phaB, phaR, phaP, and phaZ, are often found to be organized in the form of operon-like clusters. In this study, a genome survey was performed to identify such clustered PHA systems among 256 prokaryotic organisms. These data were then used to generate a comprehensive 16S rRNA species tree depicting the phylogenetic distribution of the observed clusters with diverse gene arrangements. In addition, the gene occurrences and physical linkages between PHA system genes were quantitatively estimated...
June 26, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Mauricio A Porras, Marcelo A Villar, María A Cubitto
Classical techniques employed to determine the amount of extractable poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s (PHAs) from cells, are laborious and destructive. Sudan black staining is commonly used in the laboratory to investigate the presence of intracellular PHA. The aim of the present study was to develop a low-cost alternative technique to achieve a quick determination of extractable intracellular PHA. This methodology employs a basic laboratory spectroscopy equipment and Sudan black dye for spectra determination. The correlation between the content of PHA in cell samples taken directly from the culture flask and its spectra was determined using partial least square regression analysis and simple linear regression analysis...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
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