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V C F Carvalho, E B Freitas, P J Silva, J C Fradinho, M A M Reis, A Oehmen
A novel Phototrophic - Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (Photo-EBPR) system, consisting of a consortium of photosynthetic organisms and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), was studied in this work. A sequencing batch reactor was fed with a mixture of acetate and propionate (75%-25%) and subjected to dark/light cycles in order to select a photo-EBPR system containing PAOs and photosynthetic organisms, the latter likely providers of oxygen to the system. The results from the selection period (stage 1) showed that the photo-EBPR culture was capable of performing P release in the dark and P uptake in the presence of light, under limited oxygen concentrations...
November 4, 2017: Water Research
P V Neethu, K Suthindhiran, M A Jayasri
Background: Leaves of Costus pictus D. Don, (insulin plant) are used as dietary supplement for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: The antidiabetic activity of this plant is well documented, but its activity on different cell types and mechanism remains unknown. Thus, the present study evaluates the cytotoxicity of C. pictus methanolic extract (CPME) against various cancer and normal cells. Materials and Methods: Dried leaves of C. pictus were extracted using methanol and were subjected to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition and toxicity studies...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Abdulkabir Oladele Oladimeji, Ibrahim Adebayo Oladosu, Almas Jabeen, Aisha Faheem, Mohammed Ahmed Mesaik, Muhammad Shaiq Ali
CONTEXT: Cussonia arborea Hochst. ex A. Rich (Araliaceae) is a folk medicine used to treat various diseases. However, there is no report of the root phytochemistry. OBJECTIVE: This study isolates and identifies the immunomodulatory compounds from root-bark of C. arborea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol extract (18 g) was subjected to repeated column chromatography resulting in isolation of five compounds (1-5). Structure determination was achieved by analysis of their 1 D and 2 D NMR, and mass spectroscopy...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
Liang Fang, Qing Liu, Pengfei He, Xinwen Wang, Ying Wang, Minghui Wei, Lihua Chen
BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the most common oral mucosal lesions affecting 0.5% to 2% of the adult population. It is difficult to distinguish between OLP and other oral mucosal diseases. Structural changes in the glycans of saliva proteins might be reliable indicators of OLP. However, little is known about the alteration of salivary glycopatterns during OLP. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the alterations of salivary protein glycosylation related to OLP...
November 13, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Sirisha Kusuma Boddu, Sheeja Madhavan
BACKGROUND: Salt wasting syndrome (hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, dehydration, metabolic acidosis) in early infancy could be caused by either mineralocorticoid deficiency as in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and adrenal insufficiency or mineralocorticoid resistance as in pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA). In salt wasting CAH, serum aldosterone and cortisol levels are expected to be low. Cross reactivity between high levels of adrenal steroid precursors and aldosterone has recently been reported resulting in elevated aldosterone levels in CAH, leading to difficulty in differentiating between CAH and PHA...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Jinping Du, Bernd H A Rehm
OBJECTIVES: To overcome laborious and costly procedures often associated with therapeutic protein production and purification, in vivo polyester immobilized sortase is explored for the production of human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and human interferon alpha 2b (IFNα2b) by Escherichia coli. RESULTS: Hybrid genes encoding PhaC-Sortase-TNFα or PhaC-Sortase-IFNα2b fusions (with a LPETG recognition signal immediately before TNFα or IFNα2b), mediated intracellular production of polyester (polyhydroxyalkanoate, PHA) beads in Escherichia coli...
November 9, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Jung-Ho Kim, Min-Sun Kim, Junyoung Kim, Ju Won Hong, Yoon Gi Hong, Hyun-Joong Kim, Jong-Min Jeon, Sang-Hyoun Kim, Jungoh Ahn, Hongweon Lee, Yung-Hun Yang
Polyhydroxyalkonate (PHA) is a type of polymer that has the potential to replace petro-based plastics. To make PHA production more economically feasible, there is a need to find a new carbon source and engineer microbes to produce a commercially valuable polymer. Coffee waste is an inexpensive raw material that contains fatty acids. It can act as a sustainable carbon source and seems quite promising with PHA production in Ralstonia eutropha, which is a well-known microbe for PHA accumulation, and has the potential to utilize fatty acids...
November 9, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Christian Damsgaard, Mikkel Thy Thomsen, Mark Bayley, Tobias Wang
It is well established that ectothermic vertebrates regulate a lower arterial pH when temperature increases. Typically, water-breathers reduce arterial pH by altering plasma [HCO3(-)], whilst air-breathers rely on ventilatory adjustments to modulate arterial PCO2. However, no studies have investigated whether the shift from water- to air-breathing within a species changes the mechanisms for temperature-induced pH regulation. Here, we used the striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus to examine how pH regulation is affected by water- versus air-breathing, since P...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Xiaona Zhao, Yuge Wang, Peng Yan, Guodong Cheng, Cheng Wang, Na Geng, Xuepeng Wang, Jianzhu Liu
The study is aimed at investigating the immunoenhancement activity of polysaccharides from Platycodon grandiflorum polysaccharides (PGPSs) in vitro. In this study, some research on lymphocyte proliferation, cell cycle, and the levels of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells were performed. Four different concentrations of PGPSs (PGPStc, PGPS60c, PGPS80c, and PGPStp) were harvested and added to peripheral blood T lymphocytes. We observed significant increases in T lymphocyte proliferation at PGPStc groups individually or synergistically with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at most concentrations, and their lymphocyte proliferation rates were the highest...
November 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anna Burniol-Figols, Cristiano Varrone, Anders Egede Daugaard, Simone Balzer Le, Ioannis V Skiadas, Hariklia N Gavala
Crude glycerol, a by-product from the biodiesel industry, can be converted by mixed microbial consortia into 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) and volatile fatty acids. In this study, further conversion of these main products into polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) was investigated with the focus on 1,3-PDO. Two different approaches for the enrichment of PHA accumulating microbial consortia using an aerobic dynamic feeding strategy were applied. With the first approach, where nitrogen was present during the whole cycle, no net production of PHA from 1,3-PDO was observed in the fermented effluent, not even in a nitrogen-limited PHA accumulation assay...
October 23, 2017: Water Research
Katherine J Park, Gaurav Sharma, Jeffrey D Kennedy, Masud Seyal
OBJECTIVE: To investigate potentially high-risk cardiac arrhythmias (PHAs) following focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCSs) and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) and to study the association of PHAs with seizure characteristics and the severity of associated ictal respiratory dysfunction. METHODS: Electrocardiographic (EKG) and pulse oximetry (SpO2 ) data were recorded concurrently with video-electroencephalographic telemetry in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU)...
November 3, 2017: Epilepsia
Benjamin A Peprah, Juliana A Ramsay, Bruce A Ramsay
The effects of carboxylation (via mercaptoundecanoic acid) on colloidal properties of medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (mcl-PHA) latexes were studied. Non-ionic surfactants tested at 0.4% solids of 11 mol% carboxylated mcl-PHA produced similar particle sizes and particle size distribution (PdI) with Triton X-100 giving the smallest size. When Triton X-100 was combined with an ionic surfactant, smaller nanoparticles (97.1±1.1 to 121.7±5.7nm) with narrower PdIs (0.21±0.001 to 0.25±0.003) were obtained...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Su Yean Ong, Hui-Pheng Kho, Sebastian L Riedel, Seok-Won Kim, Chee-Yuen Gan, Todd D Taylor, Kumar Sudesh
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are produced in microbes as a source of carbon and energy storage. They are biodegradable and have properties similar to synthetic plastics, which make them an interesting alternative to petroleum-based plastics. In this study, a refined method of recovering PHA from Cupriavidus necator biomass was proposed by incorporating the use of the yellow mealworm (the larval phase of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor) as partial purification machinery, followed by washing of the fecal pellets with distilled water and sodium hydroxide...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Martin Koller
This editorial paper provides a synopsis of the contributions to the Bioengineering special issue "Advances in Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production". It illustrates the embedding of the issue's individual research articles in the current global research and development landscape related to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). The article shows how these articles are interrelated to each other, reflecting the entire PHA process chain including strain selection, metabolic and genetic considerations, feedstock evaluation, fermentation regimes, process engineering, and polymer processing towards high-value marketable products...
November 2, 2017: Bioengineering
Jinping Du, Bernd H A Rehm
BACKGROUND: Recombinant protein production and purification from Escherichia coli is often accompanied with expensive and complicated procedures, especially for therapeutic proteins. Here it was demonstrated that, by using an intein cleavable polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase fusion, recombinant proteins can be first produced and sequestered on a natural resin, the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) inclusions, then separated from contaminating host proteins via simple PHA bead isolation steps, and finally purified by specific release into the soluble fraction induced by a pH reduction...
November 2, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Prasun Kumar, Hang-Bae Jun, Beom Soo Kim
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have emerged as a potential alternative to synthetic plastics, although its large-scale production is limited by the expenditure incurred in feed materials. Co-production of various valuable bioproducts along with PHA has been proposed to alleviate the overall production cost. Here, high-yield co-production of PHA and carotenoids was achieved in single step fermentation by Paracoccus sp. LL1. The halophilic bacterial strain could metabolize a wide range of substrates including methanol, lactose, galactose, glycerol, fructose, mannitol, etc...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Paul Sternberg, Margaret Ho, Porfirio Quintero-Cadena
Deep sequencing of size-selected DNase I-treated chromatin (DNase-seq) allows high resolution measurement of chromatin accessibility to DNase I cleavage, permitting identification of de novo active cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) and individual transcription factor (TF) binding sites. We adapted DNase-seq to nuclei isolated from C. elegans embryos and L1 arrest larvae to generate high-resolution maps of TF binding. Over half of embryonic DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) were annotated as noncoding, with 24% in intergenic, 12% in promoters and 28% in introns, with similar statistics observed in L1 arrest larvae...
October 26, 2017: Genome Research
Ru-Gang Zhang, Xiu-Li Zhang, Yun-Sheng Yang
Pyogenic hepatic abscess (PHA) is a rare, but potentially serious disease. At present, ultrasound-guided or computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle aspiration or catheter drainage is appropriate as a first-line treatment. However, it is difficult to aspirate or drain pus and to select the appropriate antibiotic therapy if the abscess consists of thick pus and polymicrobial confections, or its pathogenic bacterium is multidrug resistant and cryptogenic. Case studies of alcoholization provide a novel method to manage PHA...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Guo-Qiang Chen, Xiao-Ran Jiang, Yingying Guo
Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been produced as bioplastics for various purposes. Under the support of China National Basic Research 973 Project, we developed synthetic biology methods to diversify the PHA structures into homo-, random, block polymers with improved properties to better meet various application requirements. At the same time, various pathways were assembled to produce various PHA from glucose as a simple carbon source. At the end, Halomonas bacteria were reconstructed to produce PHA in changing morphology for low cost production under unsterile and continuous conditions...
December 2016: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Barbara Oliva-Arancibia, Nicolás Órdenes-Aenishanslins, Nicolas Bruna, Paula S Ibarra, Flavia C Zacconi, José M Pérez-Donoso, Ignacio Poblete-Castro
Microbial polymers and nanomaterials production is a promising alternative for sustainable bioeconomics. To this end, we used Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a cell factory in batch cultures to coproduce two important nanotechnology materials- medium-chain-length (MCL)-polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and CdS fluorescent nanoparticles (i.e. quantum dots [QDots]). Due to high cadmium resistance, biomass and PHA yields were almost unaffected by coproduction conditions. Fluorescent nanocrystal biosynthesis was possible only in presence of cysteine...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
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