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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087528/engineering-mycobacteria-for-the-production-of-self-assembling-biopolyesters-displaying-mycobacterial-antigens-for-use-as-tuberculosis-vaccine
#1
Jason W Lee, Natalie A Parlane, Bernd H A Rehm, Bryce M Buddle, Axel Heiser
: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis and still remains one of the world's biggest global health burdens. Recently, engineered polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biobeads produced in both E. coli and Lactococcus lactis displaying mycobacterial antigens were found to induce significant cell mediated immune responses in mice. We observed that such PHA beads contained host cell proteins as impurities which we hypothesized to have the potential to induce immunity...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077644/ultrasensitive-hiv-1-p24-detects-single-infected-cells-and-differences-in-reservoir-induction-by-latency-reversal-agents
#2
Caroline Pereira Bittencourt Passaes, Timothée Bruel, Jérémie Decalf, Annie David, Mathieu Angin, Valerie Monceaux, Michaela Muller-Trutwin, Nicolas Noel, Katia Bourdic, Olivier Lambotte, Matthew L Albert, Darragh Duffy, Olivier Schwartz, Asier Sáez-Cirión
: The existence of HIV reservoirs in infected individuals under cART represents a major obstacle towards cure. Viral reservoirs are assessed by quantification of HIV nucleic acids, which does not discriminate between infectious and defective viruses, or by viral outgrowth assays, which requires large number of cells and long-term cultures. Here, we used an ultrasensitive p24 digital assay, which we report to be 1000 fold more sensitive than classical ELISA in the quantification of HIV-1 Gag p24 production in HIV-infected individuals samples...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073833/exosomal-mir-142-3p-is-increased-during-cardiac-allograft-rejection-and-augments-vascular-permeability-through-down-regulation-of-endothelial-rab11fip2-expression
#3
Ihdina Sukma Dewi, Selvi Celik, Anna Karlsson, Zsuzsanna Hollander, Karen Lam, Janet-Wilson McManus, Scott Tebbutt, Raymond Ng, Paul Keown, Robert McMaster, Bruce McManus, Jenny Öhman, Olof Gidlöf
AIMS: Exosome-mediated microRNA transfer is a recently discovered mode of cell-to-cell communication, in which microRNAs act as paracrine molecules, exerting their regulatory effects in recipient cells. T cells and endothelial cells are two main players in the mechanism of acute cellular cardiac rejection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of exosomal microRNAs in the crosstalk between T cells and endothelial cells and its implications for the molecular mechanisms that drive acute cellular rejection in heart transplantation...
January 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073320/early-recovery-of-t-cell-function-predicts-improved-survival-after-t-cell-depleted-allogeneic-transplant
#4
Jenna D Goldberg, Junting Zheng, Ravin Ratan, Trudy N Small, Kuan-Chi Lai, Farid Boulad, Hugo Castro-Malaspina, Sergio A Giralt, Ann A Jakubowski, Nancy A Kernan, Richard J O'Reilly, Esperanza B Papadopoulos, James W Young, Marcel R M van den Brink, Glenn Heller, Miguel-Angel Perales
Infection, relapse, and GVHD can complicate allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Although the effect of poor immune recovery on infection risk is well-established, there are limited data on the effect of immune reconstitution on relapse and survival, especially following T-cell depletion (TCD). To characterize the pattern of immune reconstitution in the first year after transplant and its effects on survival and relapse, we performed a retrospective study in 375 recipients of a myeloablative TCD allo-HSCT for hematologic malignancies...
January 10, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065853/sitagliptin-inhibit-human-lymphocytes-proliferation-and-th1-th17-differentiation-in-vitro
#5
Marcelo Maia Pinheiro, Caroline Lais Stoppa, Claudete Justina Valduga, Cristina Eunice Okuyama, Renata Gorjão, Regina Mara Silva Pereira, Susana Nogueira Diniz
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic agents that are widely used in clinical practice to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 is also known as lymphocyte cell surface protein, CD26, and plays an important role in T-cell immunity. Recent studies suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors improve beta-cell function and attenuate autoimmunity in type 1 diabetic mouse models. To investigate the direct effect of DPP4 in immune response, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy volunteers were obtained by Ficoll gradient and cultivated in the absence (control) or presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), or stimulated with PHA and treated with sitagliptin...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063873/detection-of-phosphoglucomutase-3-pgm3-deficiency-by-lectin-based-flow-cytometry
#6
Ryan J Carlson, Michelle R Bond, Shermaine Hutchins, Yishai Brown, Lynne A Wolfe, Christina Lam, Celeste Nelson, Thomas DiMaggio, Nina Jones, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Kelly D Stone, Alexandra F Freeman, Steven M Holland, John A Hanover, Joshua D Milner, Jonathan J Lyons
Lectin-based flow cytometry using L-PHA provides a method to screen for PGM3 deficiency.
January 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051930/ifn-%C3%AE-attenuates-spontaneous-lymphocyte-proliferation-by-fuelling-regulatory-t-cells-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#7
Velislava I Terzieva, Dora N Popova, Ivaylo I Elenkov
HIV infection is characterized by a high degree of immune activation. It has an impact on CD4 cell count and populations' distribution and function. T regulatory cells (Tregs) were found to play a controversial role in the course of infection because of their beneficial effect on the degree of immune activation and unfavorable influence on the antigen-specific responses. The goal of the present work was to study the relationship among interferon-γ (IFN-γ), spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation, and regulatory T cells in HIV patients receiving therapy...
January 4, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045034/premature-senescence-of-endothelial-cells-upon-chronic-exposure-to-tnf%C3%AE-can-be-prevented-by-n-acetyl-cysteine-and-plumericin
#8
Shafaat Y Khan, Ezzat M Awad, Andre Oszwald, Manuel Mayr, Xiaoke Yin, Birgit Waltenberger, Hermann Stuppner, Markus Lipovac, Pavel Uhrin, Johannes M Breuss
Cellular senescence is characterized by a permanent cell-cycle arrest and a pro-inflammatory secretory phenotype, and can be induced by a variety of stimuli, including ionizing radiation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In endothelial cells, this phenomenon might contribute to vascular disease. Plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) are increased in age-related and chronic conditions such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease. Although TNFα is a known activator of the central inflammatory mediator NF-κB, and can induce the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the question whether TNFα can induce senescence has not been answered conclusively...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039041/spinal-activation-of-alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-attenuates-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-related-chronic-pain-via-suppression-of-glial-activation
#9
Rao Sun, Wei Zhang, Jinhua Bo, Zuoxia Zhang, Yishan Lei, Wenwen Huo, Yue Liu, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
The high prevalence of chronic pain in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) individuals has been widely reported by clinical studies, which emphasized an urgent need to uncover the underlying mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic targets. Recent studies suggested that targeting activated glia and their pro-inflammatory products may provide a novel and effective therapy for the stress-related pain. In this study, we investigated whether activation of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), a novel anti-inflammatory target, could attenuate PTSD-related chronic pain...
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035583/specific-n-glycan-alterations-are-coupled-in-emt-induced-by-different-density-cultivation-of-mcf-10a-epithelial-cells
#10
Qingsong Xu, Xueming Niu, Wenjing Wang, Wen Yang, Yuguang Du, Jianguo Gu, Linsheng Song
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in tumor progression during which cancer cells undergo dramatic changes acquiring highly invasive properties. In a widespread adoption of TGF-β-induced EMT model, we have previously observed that expression of bisecting GlcNAc on N-glycans was dramatically decreased. Herein, we performed in vitro studies with the MCF10A cell line. In response to low cell density, MCF10A cells suffered spontaneously morphologic and phenotypic EMT-like changes, including elongated spindle shape, extended out from edge of the cell sheet, cytoskeleton reorganization, vimentin and fibronectin up-regulation, catenins redistribution, and cadherin switching...
December 29, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032398/cultivation-and-characterisation-of-the-surface-markers-and-carbohydrate-profile-of-human-corneal-endothelial-cells
#11
Richárd Nagymihály, Zoltán Veréb, Réka Albert, Laura Sidney, Harminder Dua, Andrew Hopkinson, Goran Petrovski
BACKGROUND: To characterise human corneal endothelial cell (HCEnC) cultures generated by the peel-and-digest method based on their surface protein/carbohydrate expression pattern. METHODS: QPCR was used to compare expression of Vimentin, CD90, Cytokeratin-19, ZO-1, Claudin 14 in cultured HCEnC and cell line B4G12 versus stromal cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to assess surface protein distribution of cultured and uncultured HCEnC. Distribution of surface proteins/ carbohydrates was visualised by immunofluorescent and lectin staining...
December 29, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029607/reported-prestroke-physical-activity-is-associated-with-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-expression-and-good-outcomes-after-stroke
#12
Elena López-Cancio, Ana Clara Ricciardi, Tomás Sobrino, Jordi Cortés, Natalia Pérez de la Ossa, Mónica Millán, María Hernández-Pérez, Meritxell Gomis, Laura Dorado, Lucía Muñoz-Narbona, Francisco Campos, Juan F Arenillas, Antoni Dávalos
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PhA) prior to stroke has been associated with good outcomes after the ischemic insult, but there is scarce data on the involved molecular mechanisms. METHODS: We studied consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to a single tertiary stroke center. Prestroke PhA was evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (metabolic equivalent of minutes/week). We studied several circulating angiogenic and neurogenic factors at different time points: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at admission, day 7, and at 3 months...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009010/structural-insights-on-pha-binding-protein-phap-from-aeromonas-hydrophila
#13
Hongyu Zhao, Hui Wei, Xi Liu, Zhenyu Yao, Manyu Xu, Daixu Wei, Jiawei Wang, Xinquan Wang, Guo-Qiang Chen
Phasins or PhaPs are a group of amphiphilic proteins that are found attached to the surface of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules. They have both structural and regulatory functions and can affect intracellular PHA accumulation and mediate protein folding. The molecular basis for the diverse functions of the PhaPs has not been fully understood due to the lack of the structural knowledge. Here we report the structural and biochemical studies of the PhaP cloned from Aeromonas hydrophila (PhaPAh), which is utilized in protein and tissue engineering...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005110/biomechanics-of-polyhydroxyalkanoate-mesh-augmented-single-row-rotator-cuff-repairs
#14
Robert Z Tashjian, Christopher W Kolz, Thomas Suter, Heath B Henninger
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) mesh is a bioresorbable scaffold used to reinforce the suture-tendon interface in rotator cuff repairs (RCRs). We conducted a study of cyclic and ultimate failure properties of PHA mesh-augmented single-row RCRs and nonaugmented RCRs. Eight pairs of fresh-frozen cadaver humeri (6 male, 2 female) were tested. Mean (SD) age was 61 (9) years. The supraspinatus tendon was resected and reattached in a single-row configuration using 2 triple-loaded suture anchors and 6 simple stitches. The opposite humerus underwent RCR augmented with 2 strips of 13-mm × 23-mm PHA mesh...
November 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002514/lectin-purification-from-carp-roe-cyprinus-carpio-l-investigation-of-its-carbohydrate-specificity-and-application-in-histochemistry
#15
Rostyslav Antonyuk, Alexander Lutsyk, Volodymyr Antonyuk
A method of lectin purification from carp roe (CCRA) was elaborated, which includes affinity chromatography on cross-linked ovomucoid and copolymers of polyvinyl alcohol and blood group-specific substances. That allowed obtaining lectin with electrophoretic purity and yielding of ˜ 42 mg÷kg roe. Electrophoresis in 15% polyacrylamide gel in the presence of β-mercaptoethanol showed one band with molecular mass ˜ 15 kDa, whereas in the absence of β-mercaptoethanol, CCRA exposed band with molecular mass ˜ 60 kDa...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999238/the-effect-of-safranal-on-th1-th2-cytokine-balance
#16
Reza Feyzi, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhosseini Tamijani, Houshang Rafatpanah, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Several biological and medical benefits of Saffron, Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), have been demonstrated. However, mechanisms of actions for purified constituents are greatly unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of Safranal, a main constituent of Saffron stigma, on cell viability and cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were examined. METHODS: Effects of Safranal at 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM concentrations were evaluated on cell viability and production of interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) from non-stimulated and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated PBMCs, compared to 0...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987498/-role-of-galectin-1-in-regulation-of-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-t-cells-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
L Sun, Z An, C H Li, R Liu, J X Zhao, X Y Liu
OBJECTIVE: The therapeutic potential of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has attracted more and more attention, because of it can suppress the various inflammatory effects of T cells. Galectin-1 is highly expressed in UC-MSCs, as the first lectin mediating the immunomodulatory effect of MSCs. Our study will investigate the effects of galectin-1 in regulation of UC-MSCs on rheumatoid arthritis T cells. METHODS: Lentivirus transfected shRNA technique was used to knock down the expression of galectin-1 in UC-MSCs to construct UC-MSCs(Gal-1(-))...
December 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981427/the-enrichment-of-microbial-community-for-accumulating-polyhydroxyalkanoates-using-propionate-rich-waste
#18
Bo Wu, Dan Zheng, Zheng Zhou, Jing-Li Wang, Xiao-Lan He, Zheng-Wei Li, Hong-Nan Yang, Han Qin, Min Zhang, Guo-Quan Hu, Ming-Xiong He
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are promising alternatives to plastics since they have similar properties to polyolefin but are biodegradable and biocompatible. Recently, the conversion of propionate wastewater to PHAs by undefined mixed microbial cultures becomes attractive. However, how microbial community changes remains unclear during the enrichment step, which is critical for a robust PHA-producing system. In this study, PHA-accumulating cultures were enriched under feast/famine condition using propionate-rich substrates...
December 15, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956167/photoperiod-and-temperature-differently-affect-immune-function-in-striped-hamsters-cricetulus-barabensis
#19
De-Li Xu, Xiao-Kai Hu
Small mammals generally use short day length to elevate immune function to counteract the immunosuppressive effect of low temperature in winter in light of the winter immunoenhancement hypothesis. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis in striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis). We expected that immune responses would be increased by short photoperiod but suppressed by low temperature. Thirty-four adult female hamsters were randomly divided into the long day (16L:8D) and short day (8L:16D) groups, which were further assigned into the warm (23±1°C) and the cold (5±1°C) groups, respectively...
February 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919815/chemical-modification-of-functionalized-polyhydroxyalkanoates-via-click-chemistry-a-proof-of-concept
#20
Samuel Nkrumah-Agyeefi, Carmen Scholz
A novel approach to the post-biosynthetic chemical modification of bromo and alkyne functionalized poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), (PHAs), via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and strain promoted azide alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) is reported. Optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of the PHA copolymers, poly(3-hydroxynonanoate-co-3-hydroxy-11-bromoundecanoate) (PHNUBr) and poly(3-hydroxynonanoate-co-3-hydroxy-10-undecynoate) (PHNUD), using Pseudomonas oleovorans as cell factories were 20h of fermentation time and a total carbon substrate concentration of 40mM...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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