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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222027/vitamin-d-modulates-the-expression-of-hla-dr-and-cd38-after-in-vitro-activation-of-t-cells
#1
Simon Villegas-Ospina, Wbeimar Aguilar-Jimenez, Sandra M Gonzalez, María T Rugeles
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D (VitD) is an anti-inflammatory hormone; however, some evidence shows that VitD may induce the expression of activation markers, such as CD38 and HLA-DR. We explored its effect on the expression of these markers on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in vitro, and their potential correlations in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CD38 and HLA-DR expression was measured by flow cytometry in PHA/IL-2-activated mononuclear cells cultured under VitD precursors: three cholecalciferol (10-11M, 10-9M, 10-7M; n=11) and two calcidiol (40 ng/mL, 80 ng/mL; n=9) concentrations...
February 21, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218672/photodynamic-synergistic-effect-of-pheophorbide-a-and-doxorubicin-in-combined-treatment-against-tumoral-cells
#2
Rubén Ruiz-González, Paula Milán, Roger Bresolí-Obach, Juan Carlos Stockert, Angeles Villanueva, Magdalena Cañete, Santi Nonell
A combination of therapies to treat cancer malignancies is at the forefront of research with the aim to reduce drug doses (ultimately side effects) and diminish the possibility of resistance emergence given the multitarget strategy. With this goal in mind, in the present study, we report the combination between the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOXO) and the photosensitizing agent pheophorbide a (PhA) to inactivate HeLa cells. Photophysical studies revealed that DOXO can quench the excited states of PhA, detracting from its photosensitizing ability...
February 17, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218645/mediterranean-diet-and-phase-angle-in-a-sample-of-adult-population-results-of-a-pilot-study
#3
Luigi Barrea, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Paolo Emidio Macchia, Carolina Di Somma, Andrea Falco, Maria Cristina Savanelli, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
The Mediterranean diet is a healthy dietary pattern known to actively modulate the cell membrane properties. Phase angle (PhA) is a direct measure by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) used as marker of cell membrane integrity. Both food behaviour and PhA are influenced by age, sex and body weight. The aim of this study was to cross-sectionally evaluate the association between the adherence to Mediterranean diet and PhA in 1013 healthy adult patients stratified according to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI)...
February 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217912/cold-adaptation-of-the-antarctic-haloarchaea-halohasta-litchfieldiae-and-halorubrum-lacusprofundi
#4
Timothy J Williams, Yan Liao, Jun Ye, Rhiannon P Kuchel, Anne Poljak, Mark J Raftery, Ricardo Cavicchioli
Halohasta litchfieldiae represents ∼ 44% and Halorubrum lacusprofundi ∼ 10% of the hypersaline, perennially cold (≥ -20°C) Deep Lake community in Antarctica. We used proteomics and microscopy to define physiological responses of these haloarchaea to growth at high (30°C) and low (10 and 4°C) temperatures. The proteomic data indicate that both species responded to low temperature by modifying their cell envelope including protein N-glycosylation, maintaining osmotic balance and translation initiation, and modifying RNA turnover and tRNA modification...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204983/application-of-acetyl-coa-acetyltransferase-atoad-in-escherichia-coli-to-increase-3-hydroxyvalerate-fraction-in-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate
#5
Jong-Min Jeon, Hyun-Joong Kim, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Changmin Sung, Hyung-Min Seo, Jung-Ho Kim, Hyung-Yeon Park, Dahye Lee, Christopher J Brigham, Yung-Hun Yang
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a family of biodegradable polymers, and incorporation of different monomers can alter its physical properties. To produce the copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-3HV)) containing a high level of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) by altering acetyl-CoA pool levels, we overexpressed an acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (atoAD) in an engineered E. coli strain, YH090, carrying PHA synthetic genes bktB, phaB, and phaC. It was found that, with introduction of atoAD and with propionate as a co-substrate, 3HV fraction in PHA was increased up to 7...
February 16, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199124/tempo-spatial-activation-of-sequential-quadruple-stimuli-for-high-gene-expression-of-polymeric-gene-nanocomplexes
#6
Hana Cho, Young-Woo Cho, Sun-Woong Kang, Mi-Kyoung Kwak, Kang Moo Huh, You Han Bae, Han Chang Kang
The clinical application of intracellular gene delivery via nanosized carriers is hindered by intracellular multistep barriers that limit high levels of gene expression. To solve these issues, four different intracellular or external stimuli that can efficiently activate a gene carrier, a gene, or a photosensitizer (pheophorbide A [PhA]) were assessed in this study. The designed nanosized polymeric gene complexes were composed of PhA-loaded thiol-degradable polycation (PhA@RPC) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-equipped pDNA...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198913/body-composition-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#7
Ivi Ribeiro Back, Sonia Silva Marcon, Natalia Moreno Gaino, Daniela Salate Biagioni Vulcano, Mariana de Souza Dorna, Ligia Yukie Sassaki
BACKGROUND: The nutritional status of individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases is directly related to the severity of the disease and is associated with poor prognosis and the deterioration of immune competence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional status and the body composition of outpatients with inflammatory bowel diseases. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with clinical and nutritional assessment of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis...
February 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195191/polymodal-responses-in-c-elegans-phasmid-neurons-rely-on-multiple-intracellular-and-intercellular-signaling-pathways
#8
Wenjuan Zou, Hankui Cheng, Shitian Li, Xiaomin Yue, Yadan Xue, Sixi Chen, Lijun Kang
Animals utilize specialized sensory neurons enabling the detection of a wide range of environmental stimuli from the presence of toxic chemicals to that of touch. However, how these neurons discriminate between different kinds of stimuli remains poorly understood. By combining in vivo calcium imaging and molecular genetic manipulation, here we investigate the response patterns and the underlying mechanisms of the C. elegans phasmid neurons PHA/PHB to a variety of sensory stimuli. Our observations demonstrate that PHA/PHB neurons are polymodal sensory neurons which sense harmful chemicals, hyperosmotic solutions and mechanical stimulation...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194047/progranulin-inhibits-human-t-lymphocyte-proliferation-by-inducing-the-formation-of-regulatory-t-lymphocytes
#9
Kyu Hwan Kwack, Hyeon-Woo Lee
We have examined the effect of progranulin (PGRN) on human T cell proliferation and its underlying mechanism. We show that PGRN inhibits the PHA-induced multiplication of T lymphocytes. It increases the number of iTregs when T lymphocytes are activated by PHA but does not do so in the absence of PHA. PGRN-mediated inhibition of T lymphocyte proliferation, as well as the induction of iTregs, was completely reversed by a TGF-β inhibitor or a Treg inhibitor. PGRN induced TGF-β secretion in the presence of PHA whereas it did not in the absence of PHA...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183066/the-link-of-feast-phase-dissolved-oxygen-do-with-substrate-competition-and-microbial-selection-in-pha-production
#10
Xiaofei Wang, Adrian Oehmen, Elisabete B Freitas, Gilda Carvalho, Maria A M Reis
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biobased and biodegradable polyesters with the potential to replace conventional plastics. Aeration requires large amounts of energy in PHA production by mixed microbial cultures (MMCs), particularly during the feast phase due to substrate uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of DO concentrations on microbial selection, substrate competition and PHA production performance by MMCs. This represents the first study investigating DO impact on PHA production while feeding the multiple volatile fatty acids (VFAs) typically encountered in real fermented feedstocks, as well as the substrate preferences at different DO levels...
February 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179191/photosensitizer-mediated-mitochondria-targeting-nanosized-drug-carriers-subcellular-targeting-therapeutic-and-imaging-potentials
#11
Yeon Su Choi, Kiyoon Kwon, Kwonhyeok Yoon, Kang Moo Huh, Han Chang Kang
Mitochondria-targeting drug carriers have considerable potential because of the presence of many molecular drug targets in the mitochondria and their pivotal roles in cellular viability, metabolism, maintenance, and death. To compare the mitochondria-targeting abilities of triphenylphosphonium (TPP) and pheophorbide a (PhA) in nanoparticles (NPs), this study prepared mitochondria-targeting NPs using mixtures of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-(SS-PhA)2 [mPEG-(SS-PhA)2 or PPA] and TPP-b-poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-TPP [TPP-b-PCL-b-TPP or TPCL], which were designated PPAn-TPCL4-n (0≤n≤4) NPs...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175936/chloroform-induces-outstanding-crystallization-of-poly-hydroxybutyrate-phb-vesicles-within-bacteria
#12
Rolando Rebois, Delphine Onidas, Curtis Marcott, Isao Noda, Alexandre Dazzi
Poly[(R)-3-hydroxyalkanoate]s or PHAs are aliphatic polyesters produced by numerous microorganisms. They are accumulated as energy and carbon reserve in the form of small intracellular vesicles. Poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and simplest PHA. An atomic force microscope coupled with a tunable infrared laser (AFM-IR) was used to record highly spatially resolved infrared spectra of commercial purified PHB and native PHB within bacteria. For the first time, the crystallinity degree of native PHB within vesicle has been directly evaluated in situ without alteration due to the measure or extraction and purification steps of the polymer: native PHB is in crystalline state at 15% whereas crystallinity degree reaches 57% in commercial PHB...
February 7, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174083/medium-chain-length-polyhydroxyalkanoates-biosynthesis-in-pseudomonas-putida-mt-2-is-enhanced-by-co-metabolism-of-glycerol-octanoate-or-fatty-acids-mixtures
#13
Paul Fontaine, Ridha Mosrati, David Corroler
The synthesis of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 was investigated under nitrogen-rich then deficient conditions with glycerol/octanoate or long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) as carbon sources. When mixed, glycerol and octanoate were co-assimilated regardless of nitrogen availability but provided that glycerol uptake has been already triggered under non-limiting nutrient conditions. This concomitant consumption allowed to enhance mcl-PHAs accumulation (up to 57% of cell dry weight (CDW)) under both non-limiting and nitrogen deficient conditions...
February 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170444/impaired-toll-like-receptor-7-and-9-induced-immune-activation-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injured-patients-contributes-to-immune-dysfunction
#14
Gozde Gucluler, Emre Adiguzel, Bilgi Gungor, Tamer Kahraman, Mayda Gursel, Bilge Yilmaz, Ihsan Gursel
Reduced immune activation or immunosuppression is seen in patients withneurological diseases. Urinary and respiratory infections mainly manifested as septicemia and pneumonia are the most frequent complications following spinal cord injuries and they account for the majority of deaths. The underlying reason of these losses is believed to arise due to impaired immune responses to pathogens. Here, we hypothesized that susceptibility to infections of chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) patients might be due to impairment in recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns and subsequently declining innate and adaptive immune responses that lead to immune dysfunction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168727/comparison-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-of-non-healing-and-healing-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#15
Mohammad Moafi, Hossein Rezvan, Roya Sherkat, Roya Taleban, Ali Asilian, Sayyed Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Fariba Jaffary, Marjan Mansourian, Fatemeh Sokhanvari, Nazli Ansari
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) heals spontaneously within several weeks or months, but, in rare cases, CL active lesions last for many years. In the current study, we assessed cell-mediated immunity in non-healing CL through the measurement of three pro-inflammatory cytokines: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-17a, and CXCL-11. For this, 32 patients afflicted with healing or non-healing CL were recruited in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of every patient were treated with three antigens: purified protein derivative (PPD), soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), and Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)...
February 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167112/combining-molecular-and-bioprocess-techniques-to-produce-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate-with-controlled-monomer-composition-by-burkholderia-sacchari
#16
Thatiane T Mendonça, Rafaela R Tavares, Lucas G Cespedes, Ruben J Sánchez-Rodriguez, Jan Schripsema, Marilda K Taciro, José G C Gomez, Luiziana F Silva
Biopolymers as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) composed by different co-monomers 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] has attracted interest since its properties are similar to low density polyethylene. Burkholderia sacchari produces this copolymer with a very low 3HHx molar fraction, about 2 mol%. B. sacchari mutant (unable to produce polymer) was engineered to host PHA biosynthesis genes (phaPCJ) from Aeromonas sp. In addition, a two-step bioprocess to increase biopolymer production was developed...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166978/growth-performance-parameters-bone-calcification-and-immune-response-of-in-ovo-injection-of-25-hydroxycholecalciferol-and-vitamin-k3-in-male-ross-308-broilers
#17
Tahereh Abbasi, Malak Shakeri, Mojtaba Zaghari, Hamid Kohram
This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of in ovo injection of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) and Vitamin K3 on growth performance, bone calcification and immune system responses in male Ross 308 broilers. Twelve treatment groups with a total number of 768 experimental hatching eggs, four replications and 16 eggs in each replication were selected to form a completely randomized design of factorial arrangement. Treatments included: (1) distilled water, (2) 0.4 μg D3, (3) 0.4 μg D3 + 2 μg K3, (4) 0...
March 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164466/food-restriction-affects-inflammatory-response-and-nutritional-state-in-tuco-tucos-ctenomys-talarum
#18
Julieta Leticia Merlo, Ana Paula Cutrera, Roxana Rita Zenuto
Insufficient or unbalanced food intake typically has a negative impact on immune responses. The understanding of this effect is, however, hampered by the effect that food has on general condition, which, in turn, affects immunity, and the interaction among general condition, immunocompetence, and concurrent infections. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of food restriction and methionine supplementation on immunity in tuco-tucos (Ctenomys talarum). Effects of diet manipulations on nutritional state, inflammatory response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and other immune parameters (bacterial killing capacity, natural antibodies, and leukocyte profile) were evaluated...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155149/lectin-histochemistry-for-metastasizing-and-non-metastasizing-cancer-cells
#19
Gerrit Wolters-Eisfeld, Udo Schumacher
Changes in glycosylation of the cancer cell glycocalyx are a hallmark of metastasizing cancers and critically contribute to distant metastasis. In this chapter we concentrate on two lectins capable of specifically binding tumor-associated glycans in cryostat or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections derived from primary clinical material, genetically engineered mouse models with endogenous cancer formation or xenograft mouse models. The snail lectin of Helix pomatia (HPA) binds N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) that is expressed among others as Tn antigen (O-linked GalNAc) in primary tumors and metastases in several human adenocarcinomas...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150705/bioengineering-a-bacterial-pathogen-to-assemble-its-own-particulate-vaccine-capable-of-inducing-cellular-immunity
#20
Jason W Lee, Natalie A Parlane, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
Many bacterial pathogens naturally form cellular inclusions. Here the immunogenicity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) inclusions and their use as particulate vaccines delivering a range of host derived antigens was assessed. Our study showed that PHA inclusions of pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa are immunogenic mediating a specific cell-mediated immune response. Protein engineering of the PHA inclusion forming enzyme by translational fusion of epitopes from vaccine candidates outer membrane proteins OprI, OprF, and AlgE mediated self-assembly of PHA inclusions coated by these selected antigens...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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