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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331734/in-vitro-assessment-of-silver-nanoparticles-immunotoxicity
#1
Valentina Galbiati, Laura Cornaghi, Elisabetta Gianazza, Marco A Potenza, Elena Donetti, Marina Marinovich, Emanuela Corsini
This study aimed to characterize unwanted immune effects of nanoparticles (NP) using THP-1 cells, human whole blood and enriched peripheral blood monocytes. Commercially available silver NP (AgNP < 100 nm, also confirmed by Single Particle Extinction and Scattering) were used as prototypical NP. Cells were treated with AgNP alone or in combination with classical immune stimuli (i.e. LPS, PHA, PWM) and cytokine assessed; in addition, CD54 and CD86 expression was evaluated in THP-1 cells. AgNP alone induced dose-related IL-8 production in all models, with higher response observed in THP-1 cells, possibly connected to different protein corona formation in bovine versus human serum...
January 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327786/differential-effects-of-experimental-hyperthyroidism-on-declined-immunity-of-broiler-chicken
#2
M S Khilji, M A Sandhu, M S Yousaf, A A Saeed, H U Rehman, H Zaneb, M A Rashid
Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the development of lymphoid organs and regulation of immune function in birds. However, their role as an immune-modulator in the hyperthyroid state is still debatable. To explore the interrelationship of thyroxine (T4 ) and the immune system, chicks were divided into three groups. Group I was comprised of control birds, who received the basal diet while group II and III were given diets supplemented with 5 μg and 10 μg thyroxine/kg feed, respectively, from 15 to 28 days of age...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327435/impact-of-dietary-induced-precocious-gut-maturation-on-cecal-microbiota-and-its-relation-to-the-blood-brain-barrier-during-the-postnatal-period-in-rats
#3
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323923/dynamic-changes-of-intracellular-monomer-levels-regulate-block-sequence-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-in-engineered-escherichia-coli
#4
Ken'ichiro Matsumoto, Chiaki Hori, Ryunosuke Fujii, Masahiro Takaya, Takashi Ooba, Toshihiko Ooi, Takuya Isono, Toshifumi Satoh, Seiichi Taguchi
Biological polymer synthetic systems, which utilize no template molecules, normally synthesize random copolymers. We report an exception, a synthesis of block polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in an engineered Escherichia coli. Using an engineered PHA synthase, block copolymers poly[(R)-2-hydroxybutyrate(2HB)-b-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate(3HB)] were produced in E. coli. The covalent linkage between P(2HB) and P(3HB) segments was verified with solvent fractionation and microphase separation. Notably, the block sequence was generated under the simultaneous consumption of two monomer precursors, indicating the existence of a rapid monomer switching mechanism during polymerization...
January 11, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318199/engineering-bacteria-for-enhanced-polyhydroxyalkanoates-pha-biosynthesis
#5
REVIEW
Guo-Qiang Chen, Xiao-Ran Jiang
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) have been produced by some bacteria as bioplastics for many years. Yet their commercialization is still on the way. A few issues are related to the difficulty of PHA commercialization: namely, high cost and instabilities on molecular weights (Mw) and structures, thus instability on thermo-mechanical properties. The high cost is the result of complicated bioprocessing associated with sterilization, low conversion of carbon substrates to PHA products, and slow growth of microorganisms as well as difficulty of downstream separation...
September 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314110/polyhydroxyalkanoates-pha-production-in-bacterial-co-culture-using-glucose-and-volatile-fatty-acids-as-carbon-source
#6
Sajida Munir, Nazia Jamil
Mixed bacterial cultures are increasingly being used in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as they have the potential to be more cost effective than axenic pure cultures. The purpose of this study was to use pure cultures in combination to identify their potential of PHA production. In this work we used volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and glucose as carbon source to check the ability of selected strains ST2 (Pseudomonas sp.) and CS8 (Bacillus sp.) as co-culture. The production of PHA in pure co-cultures of bacteria was therefore investigated in order to understand the effect of combining cultures on PHA production parameters and material properties...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311546/one-step-fermentative-production-of-aromatic-polyesters-from-glucose-by-metabolically-engineered-escherichia-coli-strains
#7
Jung Eun Yang, Si Jae Park, Won Jun Kim, Hyeong Jun Kim, Bumjoon J Kim, Hyuk Lee, Jihoon Shin, Sang Yup Lee
Aromatic polyesters are widely used plastics currently produced from petroleum. Here we engineer Escherichia coli strains for the production of aromatic polyesters from glucose by one-step fermentation. When the Clostridium difficile isocaprenoyl-CoA:2-hydroxyisocaproate CoA-transferase (HadA) and evolved polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase genes are overexpressed in a D-phenyllactate-producing strain, poly(52.3 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB)-co-47.7 mol% D-phenyllactate) can be produced from glucose and sodium 3HB...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305323/polyhydroxyalkanoates-pha-production-from-phenol-in-an-acclimated-consortium-batch-study-and-impacts-of-operational-conditions
#8
Yi Zhang, Apiredan Wusiman, Xiang Liu, Chunli Wan, Duu-Jong Lee, JooHwa Tay
Microbial intracellular biopolymer PHA was synthesized from toxic pollutant phenol by an acclimated consortium. Various operational conditions were experimented for their effects on biomass growth and PHA accumulation. Carbon to nitrogen ratios from 5 to 40 (w/w) showed little impact, as did the levels of Fe, Ca and Mg in a short term. Acidic pH inhibited both growth and PHA synthesis, and an optimal dissolved oxygen level of 1-4 mg L-1 was identified. Low temperature (7 °C) significantly slowed but did not totally repress microbial activities...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304133/development-and-testing-of-species-specific-elisa-assays-to-measure-ifn-%C3%AE-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#9
Kirsten C Eberle, Stephanie K Venn-Watson, Eric D Jensen, Joanna LaBresh, Yvonne Sullivan, Laura Kakach, Randy E Sacco
Monitoring the immune status of cetaceans is important for a variety of health conditions. Assays to quantify cytokines, especially pro-inflammatory cytokines, could be employed, in addition to currently available diagnostic assays, to screen for alterations in the health status of an animal. Though a number of immunological assays are readily available for humans and mice, specific assays for many veterinary species, including cetaceans such as bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), are more limited. Herein, we describe the development of IFN-gamma (IFN-γ) and TNF-alpha (TNF-α) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) specific to bottlenose dolphins...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297798/evaluation-of-blood-gas-values-in-anesthetized-southern-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum-ventilated-with-a-novel-demand-ventilator-in-a-zoological-park-setting
#10
Mark Jeon, Khursheed R Mama, Jeffrey R Zuba, Nadine Lamberski, James E Oosterhuis, Meredith M Clancy, Katie W Delk, Matthew E Kinney, Patrick J Morris, Francisco Olea-Popelka
Rhinoceros conservation efforts are essential to the survival of the species. One such effort is focused on using advanced reproductive technologies to produce viable northern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum cottoni) embryos for implantation into southern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum simum) surrogates. Anesthesia may be required to facilitate necessary procedures in these surrogate rhinoceros, but commonly reported side effects including hypercapnia and hypoxemia limit anesthetic recumbency time due to animal safety concerns...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297149/repurposing-of-the-cdk-inhibitor-pha-767491-as-a-nrf2-inhibitor-drug-candidate-for-cancer-therapy-via-redox-modulation
#11
Hsiu-Yu Liu, Andrea Z Tuckett, Myles Fennell, Ralph Garippa, Johannes L Zakrzewski
Oxidative stress and cellular response mechanisms such as NRF2-mediated antioxidant responses play differential roles in healthy and diseased cells. Constant generation and elimination of high levels of reactive oxygen species is a hallmark of many cancer cell types; this phenomenon is not observed during steady state of healthy cells. Manipulation of NRF2 transcriptional activity and the cellular redox homeostasis therefore has potential to be therapeutically exploitable for cancer therapy by preferentially targeting cancer cells for induction of oxidative stress...
January 3, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295559/recent-advances-in-3d-printing-of-aliphatic-polyesters
#12
REVIEW
Ioana Chiulan, Adriana Nicoleta Frone, Călin Brandabur, Denis Mihaela Panaitescu
3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture...
December 24, 2017: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290264/the-predictive-value-of-the-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-for-chemotherapy-responses-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#13
Hsu-Ching Huang, Wei-Juin Su, Chi-Lu Chiang, Jia-Yih Feng, Hsin-Yi Huang, Ching-Hsiung Lin, Sheng-Hao Lin, Ching-Yuan Cheng, Chao-Hua Chiu
OBJECTIVES: IFN-γ takes part in immunologic responses to cancer and its interactions with chemotherapy have also been described. Our previous study had showed an association between phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated IFN-γ (PSIG) response and overall survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between PSIG and chemotherapy responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2011 to August 2012, 340 newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer were enrolled in a prospective latent tuberculosis observational study...
January 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281810/insights-into-feast-famine-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-producer-selection-microbial-community-succession-relationships-with-system-function-and-underlying-driving-forces
#14
Long Huang, Zhiqiang Chen, Qinxue Wen, Lizhi Zhao, Duu-Jong Lee, Lian Yang, Yao Wang
The Feast-Famine (FF) process has been frequently used to select polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating mixed cultures (MCs), but there has been little insight into the ecophysiology of the microbial community during the selection process. In three FF systems with well-defined conditions, synchronized variations in higher-order properties of MCs and complicate microbial community succession mainly including enrichment and elimination of non-top competitors and unexpected turnover of top competitors, were observed...
December 18, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279090/evaluation-of-saccharum-officinarum-l-bagasse-derived-polysaccharides-as-native-immunomodulatory-and-anticoccidial-agents-in-broilers
#15
Mian Muhammad Awais, Masood Akhtar, Muhammad Irfan Anwar, Kashfa Khaliq
Coccidiosis is one of the most important protozoal diseases of the poultry industry, inflicting heavy economic losses in the form of high mortality and morbidity in affected birds. Under these circumstances, the development of nonchemical consumer-friendly strategies for its effective control is of paramount importance. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse-derived polysaccharides as native immunomodulatory and anticoccidial agents in commercial broilers...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260143/single-incision-laparoscopic-adrenalectomy-in-a-patient-with-acute-hypokalemic-paralysis-due-to-primary-hyperaldosteronism
#16
Lütfi Soylu, Oğuz Uğur Aydın, Mustafa Cesur, Serdar Özbaş, Selçuk Hazinedaroğlu
Acute hypokalemic paralysis is a relatively rare cause of acute weakness. It may resolve spontaneously; however, it may be a potential life-threatening condition. Hypertension may be considered the most important finding in combination with hypokalemic paralysis for raising the suspicion of primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA). A 55-year-old hypertensive Mexican woman was admitted to the Emergency Unit with a sudden onset of generalized paralysis. An endocrinological workup and an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed PHA with a 1...
2017: Turkish Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259216/cytokine-profiling-in-healthy-children-shows-association-of-age-with-cytokine-concentrations
#17
Marie-Luise Decker, Verena Gotta, Sven Wellmann, Nicole Ritz
Cytokine-based diagnostic assays are increasingly used in research and clinical practice. Assays developed for adults such as the interferon-gamma release assay for tuberculosis show inferior performance in children. Limited evidence suggests that release of cytokines is influenced by age but normal ranges of cytokines in children are lacking. Whole blood of healthy children (0-12 years) undergoing elective/diagnostic procedures was stimulated with SEB, PHA, Candida albicans for 24 hours or left unstimulated...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248684/involvement-of-polyhydroxyalkanoates-in-stress-resistance-of-microbial-cells-biotechnological-consequences-and-applications
#18
REVIEW
Stanislav Obruca, Petr Sedlacek, Martin Koller, Dan Kucera, Iva Pernicova
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters accumulated by numerous prokaryotes as storage materials; they attract attention as "green" alternatives to petrochemical plastics. Recent research has demonstrated that their biological role goes beyong their storage function, since they presence in cytoplasm enhances stress resistance of microorganisms. To address these complex functions, this review summarizes the protective effects of PHA for microrganisms; the involvement of PHA in stress resistance is discussed also from a praxis-oriented perspective...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247708/modulation-the-expression-of-natural-killer-cell-activating-receptor-nkp44-in-the-peripheral-blood-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-patients-and-the-correlation-with-clinic-pathological-features
#19
Enas Said Essa, Gehan Abd-Elfatah Tawfeek, Suzan Ahmed El Hassanin, Khloud Gamal Mohammed Emara
NK cell activation is one strategy to improve the immunotherapy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. So, we aimed to investigate expression of Natural killer cell activating receptor NKp44 in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and its correlation with clinic pathological data. In this study, 30 new cases with DLBCL in addition to 20 healthy control were involved. All were submitted to full history, clinical examination, histopathology, Routine laboratory investigations including CBC, LDH, β2microgloubine and bone marrow examination...
December 13, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243993/modeling-the-bioconversion-of-starch-to-p-hb-co-hv-optimized-by-experimental-design-using-bacillus-megaterium-bbst4-strain
#20
Mauricio A Porras, Fernando D Ramos, María S Diaz, María A Cubitto, Marcelo A Villar
Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (P(HB-co-HV)) is a prominent biopolymer as a potential candidate for use in the biomedical area. Several Bacillus spp. strains show promising characteristics in the use of several carbon sources and are an interesting alternative for the production of P(HB-co-HV). Sewage from the agricultural and food processing industries can be used to obtain abundantly starch as a carbon source for PHA production. The aim of the present study was to optimize by response surface methodology and desirability, the production of PHA by a Bacillus megaterium strain using starch as the sole carbon source...
January 2, 2018: Environmental Technology
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