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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919815/chemical-modification-of-functionalized-polyhydroxyalkanoates-via-click-chemistry-a-proof-of-concept
#1
Samuel Nkrumah-Agyeefi, Carmen Scholz
A novel approach to the post-biosynthetic chemical modification of bromo and alkyne functionalized poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), (PHAs), via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) and strain promoted azide alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) is reported. Optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of the PHA copolymers, poly(3-hydroxynonanoate-co-3-hydroxy-11-bromoundecanoate) (PHNUBr) and poly(3-hydroxynonanoate-co-3-hydroxy-10-undecynoate) (PHNUD), using Pseudomonas oleovorans as cell factories were 20h of fermentation time and a total carbon substrate concentration of 40mM...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915059/a-process-for-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-production-from-municipal-wastewater-treatment-with-biological-carbon-and-nitrogen-removal-demonstrated-at-pilot-scale
#2
Simon Bengtsson, Anton Karlsson, Tomas Alexandersson, Luca Quadri, Markus Hjort, Peter Johansson, Fernando Morgan-Sagastume, Simon Anterrieu, Monica Arcos-Hernandez, Lamija Karabegovic, Per Magnusson, Alan Werker
A process was developed for biological treatment of municipal wastewater for carbon and nitrogen removal while producing added-value polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The process comprised steps for pre-denitrification, nitrification and post-denitrification and included integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) with biofilm carrier media to support nitrification. In a pilot-scale demonstration (500-800L), wastewater treatment performance, in line with European standards, were achieved for total chemical oxygen demand (83% removal) and total nitrogen (80% removal) while producing a biomass that was able to accumulate up to 49% PHA of volatile suspended solids with acetic acid or fermented organic residues as substrates...
November 30, 2016: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914782/co-metabolism-of-substrates-by-bacillus-thuringiensis-regulates-polyhydroxyalkanoate-co-polymer-composition
#3
Subhasree Ray, Vipin Chandra Kalia
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by Bacillus thuringiensis EGU45 was studied by co-metabolism of crude glycerol (CG) (1%, v/v), glucose (0.05-0.5%, w/v) and propionic acid (0.05-0.5%, v/v) under batch (shake flask) culture conditions. Glycerol+PA combination resulted in 15-100mg/L PHA co-polymers with a HV content of 33-81mol%. The addition of NH4Cl (0.5%, w/v) to CG+PA enhanced PHA production by 1.55-fold, with a HV content of 58-70mol%. The time period of incubation of PA to the feed: CG+glucose was optimized to be 3h after initiation of fermentation...
November 23, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914011/activation-of-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-reduces-brain-edema-in-mice-with-ischemic-stroke-and-bone-fracture
#4
Dingquan Zou, Man Luo, Zhenying Han, Lei Zhan, Wan Zhu, Shuai Kang, Chen Bao, Zhao Li, Jeffrey Nelson, Rui Zhang, Hua Su
Stroke is an important risk factor for bone fracture. We showed previously that bone fracture at the acute stage of ischemic stroke worsens, and activation of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α-7 nAchR) improves, stroke recovery by attenuating inflammation. We hypothesized that activation of α-7 nAchR also improves the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was performed on C57BL/6J mice followed by tibia fracture 1 day later. Mice were treated with 0...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912146/inosine-acedoben-dimepranol-promotes-an-early-and-sustained-increase-in-the-natural-killer-cell-component-of-circulating-lymphocytes-a-clinical-trial-supporting-anti-viral-indications
#5
S Rumel Ahmed, Amy S Newman, James O'Daly, Sean Duffy, Gillian Grafton, Catherine A Brady, S John Curnow, Nicholas M Barnes, John Gordon
Inosine Acedoben Dimepranol (IAD), licensed for the treatment of cell-mediated immune deficiencies associated with viral infections, has been reported to impact a variety of immune parameters both in vitro and in vivo. Here we report the results from a clinical trial where multiple lymphocyte subsets - CD19+ B cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T-helper cells, FoxP3(hi)/CD25(hi)/CD127(lo) regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD3-/CD56+ NK cells, and CD3+/CD56+ NKT cells - were, together with serum immunoglobulins and IgG subclasses, followed during 14days of IAD administration to ten healthy volunteers; these selected from 27 individuals pre-screened in vitro for their capacity to respond to IAD as gauged by increases in the percentage of Treg and/or NKT cells arising in PHA-stimulated cultures...
November 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910457/applying-the-new-gamma-ray-imager-diagnostic-to-measurements-of-runaway-electron-bremsstrahlung-radiation-in-the-diii-d-tokamak-invited
#6
C M Cooper, D C Pace, C Paz-Soldan, N Commaux, N W Eidietis, E M Hollmann, D Shiraki
A new gamma ray imager (GRI) is developed to probe the electron distribution function with 2D spatial resolution during runaway electron (RE) experiments at the DIII-D tokamak. The diagnostic is sensitive to 0.5-100 MeV gamma rays, allowing characterization of the RE distribution function evolution during RE growth and dissipation. The GRI consists of a lead "pinhole camera" mounted on the DIII-D midplane with 123 honeycombed tangential chords 20 cm wide that span the vessel interior. Up to 30 bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors capture RE bremsstrahlung radiation for Pulse Height Analysis (PHA) capable of discriminating up to 20 000 pulses per second...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910447/design-of-the-polar-neutron-imaging-aperture-for-use-at-the-national-ignition-facility
#7
V E Fatherley, D A Barker, D N Fittinghoff, R L Hibbard, J I Martinez, F E Merrill, J A Oertel, D W Schmidt, P L Volegov, C H Wilde
The installation of a neutron imaging diagnostic with a polar view at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) required design of a new aperture, an extended pinhole array (PHA). This PHA is different from the pinhole array for the existing equatorial system due to significant changes in the alignment and recording systems. The complex set of component requirements, as well as significant space constraints in its intended location, makes the design of this aperture challenging. In addition, lessons learned from development of prior apertures mandate careful aperture metrology prior to first use...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909829/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-diagnosis-of-primary-hepatic-angiosarcoma
#8
Wenwu Ling, Tingting Qiu, Lin Ma, Chuanfen Lei, Yan Luo
Primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA) is a rare malignant tumor that occurs mainly in the elderly, with almost no specific symptoms or tumor markers. Information on the imaging characteristics of this tumor is limited due to its rarity. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose PHA. So far, its definite diagnosis depends on histopathologic examination combined with immunohistochemical results. Patients with PHA have a poor prognosis in spite of surgical resection of this tumor. In this case report, we present a 72-year-old woman with PHA, focusing on the imaging features of this tumor, especially its enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced ultrasound images...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902279/desulfonatronospira-sulfatiphila-sp-nov-and-desulfitispora-elongata-sp-nov-the-two-novel-haloalkaliphilic-sulfidogenic-bacteria-from-soda-lakes
#9
Dimitry Y Sorokin, Nikolai A Chernyh
Two novel haloalkaliphilic bacteria with dissimilatory sulfidogenic metabolism were recovered from syntrophic associations obtained from anaerobic sediments of hypersaline soda lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia). Strain ASO3-2T was a member of a sulfidogenic syntrophic association oxidizing acetate at extremely haloalkaline conditions, and was isolated in pure culture using formate as electron donor and sulfate as electron acceptor. It was identified as a new member of the genus Desulfonatronospira within the Deltaproteobacteria...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901315/unveiling-the-30-year-mystery-of-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-synthase
#10
George Guo-Qiang Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900694/methods-for-the-isolation-of-genes-encoding-novel-pha-metabolism-enzymes-from-complex-microbial-communities
#11
Jiujun Cheng, Ricardo Nordeste, Maria A Trainer, Trevor C Charles
Development of different PHAs as alternatives to petrochemically derived plastics can be facilitated by mining metagenomic libraries for diverse PHA cycle genes that might be useful for synthesis of bio-plastics. The specific phenotypes associated with mutations of the PHA synthesis pathway genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Pseudomonas putida, allows the use of powerful selection and screening tools to identify complementing novel PHA synthesis genes. Identification of novel genes through their function rather than sequence facilitates the functional proteins that may otherwise have been excluded through sequence-only screening methodology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895315/identification-of-aberrantly-expressed-glycans-in-gastric-cancer-by-integrated-lectin-microarray-and-mass-spectrometric-analyses
#12
Xiang Li, Feng Guan, Dongliang Li, Zengqi Tan, Ganglong Yang, Yanli Wu, Zhaohui Huang
Cancer progression is usually associated with alterations of glycan expression patterns. Little is known regarding global glycomics in gastric cancer, the most common type of epithelial cancer. We integrated lectin microarray and mass spectrometry (MS) methods to profile glycan expression in three gastric cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, HGC-27, and MGC-803) and one normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1). Significantly altered glycans were confirmed by lectin staining and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The three cancer cell lines showed increased levels of core-fucosylated N-glycans, GalNAcα-Ser/Thr (Tn antigen), and Sia2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc N-glycans, but reduced levels of biantennary N-glycans, Galβ1-3GalNAcα-Ser/Thr (T antigen), and (GlcNAc)n N-glycans...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893674/relapsing-remitting-lesions-in-a-woman-with-progressive-hemifacial-atrophy-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-case-report
#13
Ying Zhang, Mingqin Zhu, Xiaozhen Li, Jing Miao, Chenchen Duan, Li Cui, Xuefan Yu
INTRODUCTION: Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA) is a rare disorder characterized by unilateral facial atrophy affecting the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and fat, muscle, and osteocartilagenous structures creating a sunken hemiface appearance.Etiopathogenesis of PHA is poorly understood; no definitive treatment is currently available. CLINICAL FINDINGS: We report a 41-year-old woman with PHA who showed an uncharacteristic "relapsing-remitting" evolution of brain lesions and was seropositive for hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891063/cell-division-cycle-7-kinase-inhibitor-pha-767491-hydrochloride-suppresses-glioblastoma-growth-and-invasiveness
#14
Zubeyde Erbayraktar, Begum Alural, Resat Serhat Erbayraktar, Erdogan Pekcan Erkan
BACKGROUND: Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and this cellular phenomenon can emerge as a result of replicative stress. It is possible to take advantage of replicative stress, and enhance it in a targeted way to fight cancer cells. One of such strategies involves targeting the cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase (CDC7), a protein with key roles in regulation of initiation of DNA replication. CDC7 overexpression is present in different cancers, and small molecule inhibitors of the CDC7 have well-documented anti-tumor effects...
2016: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887708/pulsatile-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-therapy-in-persistent-amenorrheic-weight-recovered-anorexia-nervosa-patients
#15
Natacha Germain, Anaïs Fauconnier, Jean-Philippe Klein, Amélie Wargny, Yadh Khalfallah, Chrysoula Papastathi-Boureau, Bruno Estour, Bogdan Galusca
OBJECTIVE: To compare hormonal and clinical responses to GnRH pulsatile treatment in weight-recovered anorexia nervosa patients (Rec-AN) with persistent functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) vs. in patients with secondary and primary HA. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational, ambulatory study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Forty-one women: 19 Rec-AN (body mass index >18.5 kg/m(2) without menses recovery), 15 secondary HA without any eating disorders patients (SHA), and 7 primary HA patients (PHA)...
November 22, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886803/relapsing-polychondritis-a-2016-update-on-clinical-features-diagnostic-tools-treatment-and-biological-drug-use
#16
REVIEW
Alexis Mathian, Makoto Miyara, Fleur Cohen-Aubart, Julien Haroche, Miguel Hie, Micheline Pha, Philippe Grenier, Zahir Amoura
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a very rare autoimmune disease characterised by a relapsing inflammation of the cartilaginous tissues (joints, ears, nose, intervertebral discs, larynx, trachea and cartilaginous bronchi), which may progress to long-lasting atrophy and/or deformity of the cartilages. Non-cartilaginous tissues may also be affected, such as the eyes, heart, aorta, inner ear and skin. RP has a long and unpredictable course. Because no randomised therapeutic trials are available, the treatment of RP remains mainly empirical...
April 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883877/surgical-management-of-progressive-hemifacial-atrophy-with-de-epithelialized-profunda-artery-perforator-flap-a-case-report
#17
Zoltán Lóderer, Ágnes Janovszky, Péter Lázár, József Piffkó
Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA) is a rare disorder characterized by slow, unilateral atrophy of the soft tissues and bones of the craniofacial region. The defect becomes more pronounced with age, leading to esthetic and functional deficits. However, the proper timing and method of surgical reconstruction are still debated. The correction of this defect markedly influencing the quality of life of the patient can be achieved with less invasive to more invasive surgical approaches. A 21-year-old female patient with hemifacial atrophy and extensive alopecia presented to our clinic...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882178/modulatory-effects-of-feeding-pregnant-and-lactating-mice-rhodiola-kirilowii-extracts-on-the-immune-system-of-offspring
#18
Sławomir Lewicki, Barbara Joanna Bałan, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Robert Zdanowski, Marta Stelmasiak, Łukasz Szymański, Wanda Stankiewicz
Plants of Rhodiola genus are medicinal herbs that have a number of therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. The present study aimed to determine whether the use Rhodiola kirilowii as an immunostimulant during pregnancy has an adverse effect on the development of the offspring immune system. Following mating, pregnant mice were placed in three groups that were fed during pregnancy and lactation with R. kirilowii aqueous extract (RKW; 20 mg/kg), R. kirilowii 50% hydro-alcoholic extract (RKW-A; 20 mg/kg) or water (control group), receiving water...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878786/enhancing-poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate-production-in-escherichia-coli-by-the-removal-of-the-regulatory-gene-arca
#19
Ryan A Scheel, Liyuan Ji, Benjamin R Lundgren, Christopher T Nomura
Recombinant Escherichia coli is a desirable platform for the production of many biological compounds including poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), a class of naturally occurring biodegradable polyesters with promising biomedical and material applications. Although the controlled production of desirable polymers is possible with the utilization of fatty acid feedstocks, a central challenge to this biosynthetic route is the improvement of the relatively low polymer yield, a necessary factor of decreasing the production costs...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865492/peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-proliferation-and-cytokine-production-in-sheep-as-affected-by-cortisol-level-and-duration-of-stress
#20
M G Ciliberti, M Albenzio, C Inghese, A Santillo, R Marino, A Sevi, M Caroprese
A large number of studies recognize glucocorticoids (Gc) as suppressors of inflammation; Gc exert an important role in coordinating the magnitude and duration of host immune responses. In the present in vitro investigation, we tested incremental levels of cortisol to verify the immunosuppressive or immunopermissive role of cortisol in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after acute and chronic stress. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC were cultured for 24 h and 96 h at 37°C with 5% of CO2 and varying cortisol levels: 10 ng/mL (baseline), 100 ng/mL (physiological poststressor), and 1,000 ng/mL [hyperactivated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis]...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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