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Stefano Uccella, Maria Cristina Mele, Lorena Quagliozzi, Emanuele Rinninella, Camilla Nero, Serena Cappuccio, Marco Cintoni, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Scambia, Anna Fagotti
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients' altered body composition (measured with bioimpedentiometry), due to a poor nutritional status, predicts the incidence of no residual disease at primary debulking and the risk of complications in patients with newly-diagnosed advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: Data regarding patients with newly-diagnosed stage IIIC-IV EOC undergoing elective nutritional assessment between December 2016 and March 2017, were prospectively collected...
March 14, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Lucas G Cespedes, Rafael A T P S Nahat, Thatiane T Mendonça, Rafaela R Tavares, Edmar R Oliveira-Filho, Luiziana F Silva, Marilda K Taciro, Rubén J Sánchez, José G C Gomez
Pseudomonas sp. PHA- was used as host for PHA biosynthesis genes from Aeromonas sp. to produce 3HB-co-3HAMCL from glucose with no supply of co-substrates. A non-naturally-occurring PHA composed mainly of 3HB, 3HHx and 3HD (3HO, 3HDdΔ5 and 3HDd monomers were detected in smaller amounts) was obtained. The polymer was extracted using two different solvents (acetone and chloroform) and subject to the following characterization tests: FTIR, DSC, TGA and GPC. The latter suggests a block copolymer since a single elution narrow peak was observed for each sample...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Bastian Vögeli, Sylvain Engilberge, Eric Girard, François Riobé, Olivier Maury, Tobias J Erb, Seigo Shima, Tristan Wagner
Many reactions within a cell are thermodynamically unfavorable. To efficiently run some of those endergonic reactions, nature evolved intermediate-channeling enzyme complexes, in which the products of the first endergonic reactions are immediately consumed by the second exergonic reactions. Based on this concept, we studied how archaea overcome the unfavorable first reaction of isoprenoid biosynthesis-the condensation of two molecules of acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA catalyzed by acetoacetyl-CoA thiolases (thiolases)...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lorena Colás, Maria Domercq, Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Ana Palma, Vanessa Gómez-Vallejo, Daniel Padro, Sandra Plaza-García, Krishna R Pulagam, Makoto Higuchi, Carlos Matute, Jordi Llop, Abraham Martín
In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is a promising tool for the imaging evaluation of neurologic and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of α7 nAChRs after brain diseases such as cerebral ischemia and its involvement in inflammatory reaction is still largely unknown. In vivo and ex vivo evaluation of α7 nAChRs expression after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was carried out using PET imaging with [11 C]NS14492 and immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
March 12, 2018: Glia
Junyu Zhang, Ekaterina I Shishatskaya, Tatiana G Volova, Luiziana Ferreira da Silva, Guo-Qiang Chen
As intracellular carbon and energy storage materials, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a diverse biopolyesters synthesized by many bacteria. PHA have been produced in large quantity for various application research including medical implants for approximately 30years. Many studies demonstrated that PHA are promising implant materials due to their diverse and ascendant mechanical, biodegradable and tissue compatible properties. Importantly, common PHA biodegradation products including oligomers and monomers are also not toxic to the cells and tissues...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
R Manipriya, B Umamaheswari, A Prakash, N Binu
Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) Type 1 is characterized by mineralocorticoid resistance, manifesting as neonatal salt wasting, hypotension, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and metabolic acidosis in spite of elevated aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity. It is important to differentiate children with systemic PHA from renal PHA, as these children are likely to decompensate even with mild symptoms. Here, we report two neonates with PHA that presented to us with multiorgan involvement.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Abbas Ahmadi-Vasmehjani, Rasoul Baharlou, Mohammad Reza Atashzar, Rahim Raofi, Mohammad Jafari, Faezeh-Sadat Razavi
Asthma prevalence and severity are greater in women than in men, and mounting evidence suggests this is in part related to female steroid sex hormones. Conflicting data are reported regarding pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of estradiol. This study was designed to clarify whether estradiol may contribute to enhanced T helper (Th) 17-associated cytokines production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in asthmatic patients and healthy individuals. PBMCs from patients with asthma and healthy donors were cultured with 17-β estradiol (E2) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Anna Burniol-Figols, Cristiano Varrone, Simone Balzer Le, Anders Egede Daugaard, Ioannis V Skiadas, Hariklia N Gavala
Crude glycerol is an important by-product of the biodiesel industry, which can be converted into volatile fatty acids (VFA) and/or 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) by fermentation. In this study, a selective conversion of VFA to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) was attained while leaving 1,3-PDO in the supernatant by means of mixed microbial consortia selection strategies. The process showed highly reproducible results in terms of PHA yield, 0.99 ± 0.07 Cmol PHA/Cmol S (0.84 g COD PHA/g COD S), PHA content (76 ± 3...
February 16, 2018: Water Research
Paweł Link-Lenczowski, Monika Bubka, Crina I A Balog, Carolien A M Koeleman, Terry D Butters, Manfred Wuhrer, Anna Lityńska
N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) is known to catalyze N-glycan "bisection" and thereby modulate the formation of highly branched complex structures within the Golgi apparatus. While active, it inhibits the action of other GlcNAc transferases such as GnT-IV and GnT-V. Moreover, GnT-III is considered as an inhibitor of the metastatic potential of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of GnT-III may be more diverse and depend on the cellular context. We describe the detailed glycomic analysis of the effect of GnT-III overexpression in WM266-4-GnT-III metastatic melanoma cells...
March 3, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Barbara Lukasiewicz, Pooja Basnett, Rinat Nigmatullin, Rupy Matharu, Jonathan C Knowles, Ipsita Roy
Progress in tissue engineering is dependent on the availability of suitable biomaterials. In an effort to overcome the brittleness of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB), a natural biodegradable polyester, and widen its biomedical applications, plasticising of P(3HB) with oligomeric substances of related structure has been studied. A biosynthesised medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) copolymer, the plasticizer precursor, was obtained using vegetable waste frying oil as a sole carbon source. The mcl-PHA was transformed into an oligomeric derivative by acid hydrolysis...
March 1, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Elena Roca, Pier Paolo Mattogno, Teresa Porcelli, Luigi Poliani, Francesco Belotti, Alberto Schreiber, Filippo Maffezzoni, Marco Maria Fontanella, Francesco Doglietto
INTRODUCTION: Plurihormonal adenomas (PHA) represent 10-15% of all functioning pituitary adenomas. The most frequent hormonal association is represented by prolactin and growth hormone (GH). AIM: To describe a rare case of functional ACTH and GH microadenoma, together with a systematic literature review on PHA. METHODS: PubMed was searched using the terms "plurihormonal pituitary adenoma", "ACTH, GH pituitary adenoma", and "Acromegaly AND Cushing's disease"...
February 28, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Pratheep Sandrasaigaran, Satar Jabbar Rahi Algraittee, Azfar Rizal Ahmad, Sharmili Vidyadaran, Rajesh Ramasamy
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exert potent immuno-regulatory activities on various immune cells and also differentiate into various mesodermal lineages besides retaining a distinct self-renewal ability. Such exclusive characteristics had enabled MSCs to be recognised as an ideal source for cell-based treatment in regenerative medicine and immunotherapy. Thus, considering MSCs for treating degenerative disease of organs with limited regenerative potential such as cartilage would serve as an ideal therapy. This study explored the feasibility of generating human cartilage-derived MSCs (hC-MSCs) from sports injured patients and characterised based on multipotent differentiation and immunosuppressive activities...
March 1, 2018: Cytotechnology
Fan Fan, Leilei Wang, Zhenlin Ouyang, Yurong Wen, Xiaoyun Lu
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a class of microbial synthesized biodegradable and biocompatible aliphatic polymer which has been developed into nanoparticles (NPs) for sustained release of hydrophobic compounds. Taking advantage of the natural PHA binding protein PhaP which could be steadily adsorbed onto PHA NPs through hydrophobic interaction, a tumor targeting system was developed in this study by presenting an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting peptide (ETP) on the surface of PHA NPs, via PhaP mediated adsorption...
March 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jakob M Townsend, Brian T Andrews, Yi Feng, Jinxi Wang, Randolph J Nudo, Erik Van Kampen, Stevin H Gehrke, Cory J Berkland, Michael S Detamore
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a life-threatening condition defined by internal brain herniation. Severe TBI is commonly treated by a two-stage surgical intervention, where decompressive craniectomy is first conducted to remove a large portion of calvarial bone and allow unimpeded brain swelling. In the second surgery, spaced weeks to months after the first, cranioplasty is performed to restore the cranial bone. Hydrogels with paste-like precursor solutions for surgical placement may potentially revolutionize TBI treatment by permitting a single-stage surgical intervention, capable of being implanted with the initial surgery, remaining pliable during brain swelling, and tuned to regenerate calvarial bone after brain swelling has subsided...
February 26, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Kim Lategan, Hend Alghadi, Mohamed Bayati, Maria Fidalgo de Cortalezzi, Edmund Pool
Graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) have attracted a lot of attention due to their many applications. These applications include batteries, super capacitors, drug delivery and biosensing. However, few studies have investigated the effects of these nanoparticles on the immune system. In this study, the in vitro effects of GONPs on the immune system was evaluated by exposing murine macrophages, RAW 264.7 cells and human whole blood cell cultures (to GONPs. The effects of GONPs on RAW cells were monitored under basal conditions...
February 24, 2018: Nanomaterials
M Abedini, F Shariatmadari, M A Karimi Torshizi, H Ahmadi
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) on the performance, egg quality, Zn retention, immunity responses, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), egg malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and serum parameters in laying hens in the late phase of production. A total of 288 laying hens at 64 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replicates, and 12 birds within each group. Experimental diets included a corn-soybean meal-based diet (without Zn supplementation) and a basal diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg of Zn-oxide, ZnO-NPs, and Zn-methionine...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Konstantin A Rogovin, Anastasiya M Khrushchova, Olga N Shekarova, Nina A Vasilieva, Nina Yu Vasilieva
Androgen-dependent male sexual traits (STs) as well as immunocompetence are theoretically assumed to be key indicators of a male's quality for the mate-choosing female. We studied mate choice by sexually motivated (SM) females of Campbell's dwarf hamsters. Females chose between 2 tethered male siblings that differed in expression of STs. Males were unrelated to the female and able to contact and copulate with her. In both males, we measured sex-related morphology of body mass, mid-ventral specific skin gland, ano-genital distance, and external testicular diameter...
October 2017: Current Zoology
Oliver J Lawless, Joseph A Bellanti, Milton L Brown, Kathryn Sandberg, Jason G Umans, Li Zhou, Weiqian Chen, Julie Wang, Kan Wang, Song Guo Zheng
BACKGROUND: Allergic and autoimmune diseases comprise a group of inflammatory disorders caused by aberrant immune responses in which CD25+ Forkhead box P3-positive (FOXP3+) T regulatory (Treg) cells that normally suppress inflammatory events are often poorly functioning. This has stimulated an intensive investigative effort to find ways of increasing Tregs as a method of therapy for these conditions. One such line of investigation includes the study of how ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by CpG oligonucleotides (ODN) results in an immunostimulatory cascade that leads to induction of T-helper (Th) type 1 and Treg-type immune responses...
March 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Jiuxiao Hao, Hui Wang, Xiujin Wang
The feast-to-famine ratio (F/F) represents the extent of selective pressure during polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) culture selection. This study evaluated the effects of F/F on a new PHA production system by an enriched culture with valerate-dominant sludge hydrolysate and selected the optimal F/F. After the original F/F 1/3 was modified to 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, and 1/5, F/F did not affect their lengths of feast phase, but affected their biomass growth behaviors during the famine phase and PHA-producing abilities. The optimal F/F was 1/2, and compared with 1/3, it increased the maximal PHA content and the fraction of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3H2MV) monomers, with higher productivity and better polymer properties...
February 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Phan Vinh Thinh, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Colin J Brauner, Do Thi Thanh Huong, Andrew T Wood, Garfield T Kwan, Justin L Conner, Mark Bayley, Tobias Wang
Vertebrates reduce arterial blood pH (pHa) when body temperature increases. In water-breathers this response occurs primarily by reducing plasma HCO3 - levels with small changes in the partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2 ). In contrast, air-breathers mediate the decrease in pHa by increasing arterial PCO2 (PaCO2 ) at constant plasma HCO3 - by reducing lung ventilation relative to metabolic CO2 production. Much less is known in bimodal breathers that utilize both water and air. Here, we characterize the influence of temperature on arterial acid-base balance and intracellular pH (pHi) in the bimodal breathing swamp eel, Monopterus albus This teleost uses the buccopharyngeal cavity for gas exchange and has very reduced gills...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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