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Low oestrogen

Donghee Kim, Jeong-Eun Choi, Yongsoon Park
Conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) into the longer chain n-3 PUFA has been suggested to be affected by the dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA), but the mechanism is not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-LA diet with and without oestrogen on the fatty acid conversion enzymes and transcription factors. Rats were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93G diet with 0% n-3 PUFA or ALA, containing low or high amounts of LA for 12 weeks. At 8 weeks, the rats were injected with maize oil with or without 17β-oestradiol-3-benzoate (E) at constant intervals for the remaining 3 weeks...
December 3, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Mashuk Alam Khan, Laura Henderson, Dayalan Clarke, Simon Harries, Lucie Jones
Introduction: Oncotype DX® analyses the expression of 21 genes within tumour tissue to determine a Recurrence Score® (RS). RS is a marker of risk for distant recurrence in oestrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer, allowing patient-specific benefit of chemotherapy to be evaluated. Our aim was to determine whether the introduction of Oncotype DX led to a net reduction in chemotherapy use. Methods: Consecutive patients that underwent Oncotype DX at Warwick Hospital were reviewed...
October 2018: Breast Care
Sabine Schäfer-Somi, Duygu Kaya, Mahmut Sözmen, Semra Kaya, Selim Aslan
Aim of the study was to examine the effect of deslorelin on uterine tissues of eleven pre-pubertal bitches aged 4.2 ± 0.6 m. Implants containing placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%; n = 4, G I), 4.7 mg (n = 3, GII) or 9.4 mg (n = 4, GIII) deslorelin acetate (Suprelorin® ; Virbac, France), were administered subcutaneously. Signs of oestrus, vaginal cytology, serum progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17β (E2) concentrations were monitored until the occurrence of oestrus. Bitches were ovariohysterectomized and sections from the uterine tissue were subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detection of GnRH receptor (R), Kisspeptin (KP)10, Kisspeptin receptor (GPR54), androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor (ER) α,β, and progesterone receptor (PR)...
November 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Takehiro Michikawa, Shin Yamazaki, Masaji Ono, Tatsuo Kuroda, Shoji F Nakayama, Eiko Suda, Tomohiko Isobe, Miyuki Iwai-Shimada, Yayoi Kobayashi, Junzo Yonemoto, Kenji Tamura, Toshihiro Kawamoto, Hiroshi Nitta
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between isoflavone intake in early pregnancy (the critical window of masculinisation) and hypospadias. Since oestrogen is likely to contribute to the differentiation of male external genitalia, dietary intake of isoflavone, which has a similar structure to human oestrogen, may be associated with the occurrence of hypospadias. However, there has been little evidence of this association. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data of a nationwide birth cohort study, which recruited women as early in pregnancy as possible throughout Japan between 2011 and 2014...
November 14, 2018: Urology
Cameron E Snell, Madeline Gough, Cheng Liu, Kathryn Middleton, Christopher Pyke, Catherine Shannon, Natasha Woodward, Theresa E Hickey, Jane E Armes, Wayne D Tilley
BACKGROUND: Recent pre-clinical studies indicate that activated progesterone receptor (PR) (particularly the PR-B isoform) binds to oestrogen receptor-α (ER) and reprogrammes transcription toward better breast cancer outcomes. We investigated whether ER and PR-B interactions were present in breast tumours and associated with clinical parameters including response to aromatase inhibitors. METHODS: We developed a proximity ligation assay to detect ER and PR-B (ER:PR-B) interactions in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues...
November 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Jun Gao, Yang Liu, Gaijing Han, Kan Deng, Xiaohai Liu, Xinjie Bao, Ming Feng, Yong Yao, Wei Lian, Bing Xing, Xiang Lv, Renzhi Wang
Metformin (MET) is a diabetes drug that activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and is suggested to have anticancer efficacy. Here, we investigated the role of AMPK signalling in prolactinoma (PRLoma), with particular respect to MET and bromocriptine (BC) as a PRLoma treatment. We analysed AMPK phosphorylation, dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression in both BC-sensitive and -resistant PRLoma samples; effects of the AMPK agonist MET (alone or with BC) on in vitro proliferation and apoptosis, xenograft growth and prolactin (PRL) secretion of BC-sensitive and -resistant cells, and ER expression in xenografts...
December 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
N Green, A Al-Allak, C Fowler
INTRODUCTION: Decisions regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in women with oestrogen receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative, node negative, early invasive breast cancer are unclear. The Recurrence Score® (RS) from Oncotype DX® (ODX) testing guides decisions based on individual cancer genomics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of introducing ODX results on adjuvant treatment decisions and its potential economic benefits. METHODS: Patients offered the test were identified from the ODX requesting system...
October 16, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Pavlos Siolos, Dimitrios Krikidis, Dimitrios G Goulis, John C Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetically determined lipid disorder, affecting 1 per 200-500 individuals in the general population. It is significantly and independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), although it remains still an underrecognized and undertreated disease. Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-like molecule, containing an additional protein, apolipoprotein (a). OBJECTIVE: This review aims to present and discuss available data on the role of Lp(a) in patients with FH, in terms of its potential augmentation of CVD risk...
October 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Radoslaw Slopien, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Anita Rogowicz-Frontczak, Blazej Meczekalski, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Jesse D Jaremek, Antonio Cano, Peter Chedraui, Dimitrios G Goulis, Patrice Lopes, Gita Mishra, Alfred Mueck, Margaret Rees, Levent M Senturk, Tommaso Simoncini, John C Stevenson, Petra Stute, Pauliina Tuomikoski, Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Irene Lambrinoudaki
INTRODUCTION: Whether menopause increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) independently of ageing has been a matter of debate. Controversy also exists about the benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in women with T2DM. AIMS: To summarise the evidence on 1) the effect of menopause on metabolic parameters and the risk of T2DM, 2) the effect of T2DM on age at menopause, 3) the effect of MHT on the risk of T2DM, and 4) the management of postmenopausal women with T2DM...
November 2018: Maturitas
Kathryn E Ackerman, Vibha Singhal, Charumathi Baskaran, Meghan Slattery, Karen Joanie Campoverde Reyes, Alexander Toth, Kamryn T Eddy, Mary L Bouxsein, Hang Lee, Anne Klibanski, Madhusmita Misra
OBJECTIVE: Normal-weight oligo-amenorrhoeic athletes (OAA) are at risk for low bone mineral density (BMD). Data are lacking regarding the impact of oestrogen administration on bone outcomes in OAA. Our objective was to determine the effects of transdermal versus oral oestrogen administration on bone in OAA engaged in weight-bearing activity. METHODS: 121 patients with OAA aged 14-25 years were randomised to receive: (1) a 17β-estradiol transdermal patch continuously with cyclic oral micronised progesterone (PATCH), (2) a combined ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel pill (PILL) or (3) no oestrogen/progesterone (NONE)...
October 9, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
John C Stevenson, Sophia Tsiligiannis, Nick Panay
Cardiovascular disease, and particularly coronary heart disease (CHD), has a low incidence in premenopausal women. Loss of ovarian hormones during the perimenopause and menopause leads to a sharp increase in incidence. Although most CHD risk factors are common to both men and women, the menopause is a unique additional risk factor for women. Sex steroids have profound effects on many CHD risk factors. Their loss leads to adverse changes in lipids and lipoproteins, with increases being seen in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol...
October 2, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
C L G Chong, Faizah Othman, Farida Hussan
Atherosclerosis is now well understood as an inflammatory disease instead of lipid storage disorder; however, the conventional treatment is not targeted on treating the inflammation. Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) leaf or noni leaf, which is a medicinal food ( ulam ) used in Traditional Malay Medicine to prevent chronic diseases, may have the potential to be formulated into a functional antiatherosclerotic agent. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Morinda citrifolia leaf extract (MCLE) treatment at histological and ultrastructural level, comparing it with Simvastatin...
2018: International Journal of Vascular Medicine
Areege Kamal, Anthony Valentijn, Roger Barraclough, Philip Rudland, Nihad Rahmatalla, Pierre Martin-Hirsch, Helen Stringfellow, Shandya B Decruze, Dharani K Hapangama
Background: Biomarkers for identification of endometrial cancers (ECs) with high risk of recurrence are required to reduce the rising EC-related mortality. AGR2 is a prognostic marker in several hormonally-regulated cancers. Aim: To assess the utility of AGR2 as a prognostic marker in EC. Methods: AGR2 immunoexpression was evaluated in 163 human endometrial samples. Change in AGR2 mRNA levels in response to oestrogen and dihydrotestosterone was studied in vitro ...
July 31, 2018: Oncotarget
Xiaoli Xu, Rui Bi, Ruohong Shui, Baohua Yu, Yufan Cheng, Xiaoyu Tu, Wentao Yang
AIMS: Pure mucinous carcinoma (PMC) of the breast is a low-grade cancer. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the prognostic significance of micropapillary structures in breast PMC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with breast PMC were recruited. All haematoxylin and eosin (H&)-stained slides were reviewed, and clinicopathological features including age, tumour size, growth pattern, nuclear grade, histological grade, lymph node (LN) status, immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of hormone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression and Ki-67 proliferation index were analysed...
August 1, 2018: Histopathology
Hajime Kuroda, Nozomi Muroi, Mitsuhiro Hayashi, Oi Harada, Kazuei Hoshi, Eisuke Fukuma, Akihito Abe, Keiichi Kubota, Yasuo Imai
BACKGROUND: The existence of progesterone receptor (PgR) expression in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast carcinoma is controversial. Here, we re-evaluated ER-negative/PgR-positive (ER-/PgR+) carcinoma cases by immunohistochemical staining (IHC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected patients who underwent surgery for primary breast carcinoma from our databases at Dokkyo Medical University Hospital and Kameda General Hospital. Among the 9844 patients, the largest series in Japan, 27 (0...
July 31, 2018: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Kinan Mokbel, Umar Wazir, Ali Wazir, Abdul Kasem, Kefah Mokbel
BACKGROUND: The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) was developed using tumour pathological features to guide decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in breast cancer. Recent breakthroughs in molecular biology aided development of genomic assays such as EndoPredict, which have been shown to provide excellent prognostic information. The current study investigated the impact of EndoPredict Clinical (EPClin), a composite of clinicopathological data and EndoPredict score, on chemotherapy recommendations based on NPI...
August 2018: Anticancer Research
Karolina Kuźbicka, Dominik Rachoń, Anna Woziwodzka, Magda Rybicka, Krzysztof Piotr Bielawski
OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MS) affects a quarter of Polish people and is associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 and ischemic heart disease. The prevalence of MS in postmenopausal women can be increased by the lack of protective effects of oestrogens. In the near future, because of the general increase in life expectancy, the number of postmenopausal women will rise substantially. Therefore, investigating both the environmental and the genetic factors predisposing to MS may have a great impact on women's health...
September 2018: Maturitas
Martine Perrot-Applanat, Martine Kolf-Clauw, Cécile Michel, Claire Beausoleil
The development and function of the mammary gland are endocrine-dependent processes, depending on the stage of development. Foetal and/or postnatal exposure to low doses of BPA alters tissue organisation through epithelial proliferation and stroma-epithelial interactions. BPA also alters the expression of E2-dependent epithelial and stroma transcriptomes. Several signalling pathways are consistent with the observed phenotype: proliferation and apoptosis, a focal adhesion pathway indicating changes in biomechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, and immune function...
November 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sunali Y Mehta, Brianna C Morten, Jisha Antony, Luke Henderson, Annette Lasham, Hamish Campbell, Heather Cunliffe, Julia A Horsfield, Roger R Reddel, Kelly A Avery-Kiejda, Cristin G Print, Antony W Braithwaite
The TP53 family consists of three sets of transcription factor genes, TP53 , TP63 and TP73 , each of which expresses multiple RNA variants and protein isoforms. Of these, TP53 is mutated in 25-30% of breast cancers. How TP53 mutations affect the interaction of TP53 family members and their isoforms in breast cancer is unknown. To investigate this, 3 independent breast cancer cohorts were stratified into 4 groups based on oestrogen receptor (ER) and TP53 mutation status. Using bioinformatic methodologies, principal signalling pathways associated with the expression of TP53 family members were identified...
June 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Jeanette K Birnbaum, Catherine Duggan, Benjamin O Anderson, Ruth Etzioni
BACKGROUND: Poor breast cancer survival in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be attributed to advanced-stage presentation and poor access to systemic therapy. We aimed to estimate the outcomes of different early detection strategies in combination with systemic chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in LMICs. METHODS: We adapted a microsimulation model to project outcomes of three early detection strategies alone or in combination with three systemic treatment programmes beyond standard of care (programme A): programme B was endocrine therapy for all oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive cases; programme C was programme B plus chemotherapy for ER-negative cases; programme D was programme C plus chemotherapy for advanced ER-positive cases...
August 2018: Lancet Global Health
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