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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334324/metformin-inhibits-growth-and-prolactin-secretion-of-pituitary-prolactinoma-cells-and-xenografts
#1
Jun Gao, Yang Liu, Gaijing Han, Kan Deng, Xiaohai Liu, Xinjie Bao, Ming Feng, Yong Yao, Wei Lian, Bing Xing, Xiang Lv, Renzhi Wang
Metformin (MET) is a diabetes drug that activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and is suggested to have anticancer efficacy. Here, we investigated the role of AMPK signalling in prolactinoma (PRLoma), with particular respect to MET and bromocriptine (BC) as a PRLoma treatment. We analysed AMPK phosphorylation, dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression in both BC-sensitive and -resistant PRLoma samples; effects of the AMPK agonist MET (alone or with BC) on in vitro proliferation and apoptosis, xenograft growth and prolactin (PRL) secretion of BC-sensitive and -resistant cells, and ER expression in xenografts...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322288/benefits-of-introduction-of-oncotype-dx-%C3%A2-testing
#2
N Green, A Al-Allak, C Fowler
INTRODUCTION: Decisions regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in women with oestrogen receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative, node negative, early invasive breast cancer are unclear. The Recurrence Score® (RS) from Oncotype DX® (ODX) testing guides decisions based on individual cancer genomics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of introducing ODX results on adjuvant treatment decisions and its potential economic benefits. METHODS: Patients offered the test were identified from the ODX requesting system...
October 16, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317988/should-we-consider-lipoprotein-a-in-cardiovascular-disease-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolaemia
#3
Panagiotis Anagnostis, Pavlos Siolos, Dimitrios Krikidis, Dimitrios G Goulis, John C Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetically determined lipid disorder, affecting 1 per 200-500 individuals in the general population. It is significantly and independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), although it remains still an underrecognized and undertreated disease. Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a low-density-lipoprotein (LDL)-like molecule, containing an additional protein, apolipoprotein (a). OBJECTIVE: This review aims to present and discuss available data on the role of Lp(a) in patients with FH, in terms of its potential augmentation of CVD risk...
October 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314563/menopause-and-diabetes-emas-clinical-guide
#4
Radoslaw Slopien, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Anita Rogowicz-Frontczak, Blazej Meczekalski, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Jesse D Jaremek, Antonio Cano, Peter Chedraui, Dimitrios G Goulis, Patrice Lopes, Gita Mishra, Alfred Mueck, Margaret Rees, Levent M Senturk, Tommaso Simoncini, John C Stevenson, Petra Stute, Pauliina Tuomikoski, Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Irene Lambrinoudaki
INTRODUCTION: Whether menopause increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) independently of ageing has been a matter of debate. Controversy also exists about the benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in women with T2DM. AIMS: To summarise the evidence on 1) the effect of menopause on metabolic parameters and the risk of T2DM, 2) the effect of T2DM on age at menopause, 3) the effect of MHT on the risk of T2DM, and 4) the management of postmenopausal women with T2DM...
November 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301734/oestrogen-replacement-improves-bone-mineral-density-in-oligo-amenorrhoeic-athletes-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#5
Kathryn E Ackerman, Vibha Singhal, Charumathi Baskaran, Meghan Slattery, Karen Joanie Campoverde Reyes, Alexander Toth, Kamryn T Eddy, Mary L Bouxsein, Hang Lee, Anne Klibanski, Madhusmita Misra
OBJECTIVE: Normal-weight oligo-amenorrhoeic athletes (OAA) are at risk for low bone mineral density (BMD). Data are lacking regarding the impact of oestrogen administration on bone outcomes in OAA. Our objective was to determine the effects of transdermal versus oral oestrogen administration on bone in OAA engaged in weight-bearing activity. METHODS: 121 patients with OAA aged 14-25 years were randomised to receive: (1) a 17β-estradiol transdermal patch continuously with cyclic oral micronised progesterone (PATCH), (2) a combined ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel pill (PILL) or (3) no oestrogen/progesterone (NONE)...
October 9, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280667/cardiovascular-risk-in-perimenopausal-women
#6
John C Stevenson, Sophia Tsiligiannis, Nick Panay
Cardiovascular disease, and particularly coronary heart disease (CHD), has a low incidence in premenopausal women. Loss of ovarian hormones during the perimenopause and menopause leads to a sharp increase in incidence. Although most CHD risk factors are common to both men and women, the menopause is a unique additional risk factor for women. Sex steroids have profound effects on many CHD risk factors. Their loss leads to adverse changes in lipids and lipoproteins, with increases being seen in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol...
October 2, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254765/vascular-protective-effects-of-morinda-citrifolia-leaf-extract-on-postmenopausal-rats-fed-with-thermoxidized-palm-oil-diet-evidence-at-microscopic-level
#7
C L G Chong, Faizah Othman, Farida Hussan
Atherosclerosis is now well understood as an inflammatory disease instead of lipid storage disorder; however, the conventional treatment is not targeted on treating the inflammation. Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) leaf or noni leaf, which is a medicinal food ( ulam ) used in Traditional Malay Medicine to prevent chronic diseases, may have the potential to be formulated into a functional antiatherosclerotic agent. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Morinda citrifolia leaf extract (MCLE) treatment at histological and ultrastructural level, comparing it with Simvastatin...
2018: International Journal of Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30140383/high-agr2-protein-is-a-feature-of-low-grade-endometrial-cancer-cells
#8
Areege Kamal, Anthony Valentijn, Roger Barraclough, Philip Rudland, Nihad Rahmatalla, Pierre Martin-Hirsch, Helen Stringfellow, Shandya B Decruze, Dharani K Hapangama
Background: Biomarkers for identification of endometrial cancers (ECs) with high risk of recurrence are required to reduce the rising EC-related mortality. AGR2 is a prognostic marker in several hormonally-regulated cancers. Aim: To assess the utility of AGR2 as a prognostic marker in EC. Methods: AGR2 immunoexpression was evaluated in 163 human endometrial samples. Change in AGR2 mRNA levels in response to oestrogen and dihydrotestosterone was studied in vitro ...
July 31, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066338/micropapillary-pattern-in-pure-mucinous-carcinoma-of-the-breast-does-it-matter-or-not
#9
Xiaoli Xu, Rui Bi, Ruohong Shui, Baohua Yu, Yufan Cheng, Xiaoyu Tu, Wentao Yang
AIMS: Pure mucinous carcinoma (PMC) of the breast is a low-grade cancer. We are aimed to elucidate the prognostic significance of micropapillary structures in breast PMC. METHODS AND RESULTS: 75 patients with breast PMC were collected. All H&E stained slides were reviewed, clinicopathological features including age, tumor size, growth pattern, nuclear grade, histologic grade, lymph node (LN) status, immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of hormone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression, and Ki-67 proliferation index were analysed...
August 1, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066060/oestrogen-receptor-negative-progesterone-receptor-positive-phenotype-of-invasive-breast-carcinoma-in-japan-re-evaluated-using-immunohistochemical-staining
#10
Hajime Kuroda, Nozomi Muroi, Mitsuhiro Hayashi, Oi Harada, Kazuei Hoshi, Eisuke Fukuma, Akihito Abe, Keiichi Kubota, Yasuo Imai
BACKGROUND: The existence of progesterone receptor (PgR) expression in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast carcinoma is controversial. Here, we re-evaluated ER-negative/PgR-positive (ER-/PgR+) carcinoma cases by immunohistochemical staining (IHC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected patients who underwent surgery for primary breast carcinoma from our databases at Dokkyo Medical University Hospital and Kameda General Hospital. Among the 9844 patients, the largest series in Japan, 27 (0...
July 31, 2018: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061244/the-impact-of-endopredict-clinical-score-on-chemotherapy-recommendations-in-women-with-invasive-er-her2-breast-cancer-stratified-as-having-moderate-or-poor-prognosis-by-nottingham-prognostic-index
#11
Kinan Mokbel, Umar Wazir, Ali Wazir, Abdul Kasem, Kefah Mokbel
BACKGROUND: The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) was developed using tumour pathological features to guide decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in breast cancer. Recent breakthroughs in molecular biology aided development of genomic assays such as EndoPredict, which have been shown to provide excellent prognostic information. The current study investigated the impact of EndoPredict Clinical (EPClin), a composite of clinicopathological data and EndoPredict score, on chemotherapy recommendations based on NPI...
August 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049354/associations-of-esr1-and-esr2-gene-polymorphisms-with-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-in-postmenopausal-women
#12
Karolina Kuźbicka, Dominik Rachoń, Anna Woziwodzka, Magda Rybicka, Krzysztof Piotr Bielawski
OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MS) affects a quarter of Polish people and is associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 and ischemic heart disease. The prevalence of MS in postmenopausal women can be increased by the lack of protective effects of oestrogens. In the near future, because of the general increase in life expectancy, the number of postmenopausal women will rise substantially. Therefore, investigating both the environmental and the genetic factors predisposing to MS may have a great impact on women's health...
September 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048677/alteration-of-mammary-gland-development-by-bisphenol-a-and-evidence-of-a-mode-of-action-mediated-through-endocrine-disruption
#13
REVIEW
Martine Perrot-Applanat, Martine Kolf-Clauw, Cécile Michel, Claire Beausoleil
The development and function of the mammary gland are endocrine-dependent processes, depending on the stage of development. Foetal and/or postnatal exposure to low doses of BPA alters tissue organisation through epithelial proliferation and stroma-epithelial interactions. BPA also alters the expression of E2-dependent epithelial and stroma transcriptomes. Several signalling pathways are consistent with the observed phenotype: proliferation and apoptosis, a focal adhesion pathway indicating changes in biomechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, and immune function...
November 5, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018742/regulation-of-the-interferon-gamma-ifn-%C3%AE-pathway-by-p63-and-%C3%AE-133p53-isoform-in-different-breast-cancer-subtypes
#14
Sunali Y Mehta, Brianna C Morten, Jisha Antony, Luke Henderson, Annette Lasham, Hamish Campbell, Heather Cunliffe, Julia A Horsfield, Roger R Reddel, Kelly A Avery-Kiejda, Cristin G Print, Antony W Braithwaite
The TP53 family consists of three sets of transcription factor genes, TP53 , TP63 and TP73 , each of which expresses multiple RNA variants and protein isoforms. Of these, TP53 is mutated in 25-30% of breast cancers. How TP53 mutations affect the interaction of TP53 family members and their isoforms in breast cancer is unknown. To investigate this, 3 independent breast cancer cohorts were stratified into 4 groups based on oestrogen receptor (ER) and TP53 mutation status. Using bioinformatic methodologies, principal signalling pathways associated with the expression of TP53 family members were identified...
June 26, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012269/early-detection-and-treatment-strategies-for-breast-cancer-in-low-income-and-upper-middle-income-countries-a-modelling-study
#15
Jeanette K Birnbaum, Catherine Duggan, Benjamin O Anderson, Ruth Etzioni
BACKGROUND: Poor breast cancer survival in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be attributed to advanced-stage presentation and poor access to systemic therapy. We aimed to estimate the outcomes of different early detection strategies in combination with systemic chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in LMICs. METHODS: We adapted a microsimulation model to project outcomes of three early detection strategies alone or in combination with three systemic treatment programmes beyond standard of care (programme A): programme B was endocrine therapy for all oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive cases; programme C was programme B plus chemotherapy for ER-negative cases; programme D was programme C plus chemotherapy for advanced ER-positive cases...
August 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986702/characterization-of-primary-normal-and-malignant-breast-cancer-cell-and-their-response-to-chemotherapy-and-immunostimulatory-agents
#16
Anna A Nushtaeva, Grigory A Stepanov, Dmitry V Semenov, Evgeny S Juravlev, Evgenia A Balahonova, Alexey V Gerasimov, Sergey V Sidorov, Eugeniy I Savelyev, Elena V Kuligina, Vladimir A Richter, Olga A Koval
BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of chemotherapy-resistant cancers has necessitated the development of new therapeutics as well as the identification of specific prognostic markers to predict the response to novel drugs. Primary cancer cells provide a model to study the multiplicity of tumourigenic transformation, to investigate alterations of the cellular response to various molecular stimuli, and to test therapeutics for cancer treatment. METHODS: Here, we developed primary cultures of human breast tissue - normal cells (BN1), cancer cells (BC5), and cells from a chemotherapy-treated tumour (BrCCh1) to compare their response to conventional chemotherapeutics and to innate immunity stimulators with that of the immortalized breast cells MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF10A...
July 9, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978256/genetic-variation-in-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-er-signalling-pathways-in-female-and-male-elite-dancers-and-its-associations-with-low-bone-mineral-density-a-cross-section-and-longitudinal-study
#17
T Amorim, C Durães, J C Machado, G S Metsios, M Wyon, J Maia, A D Flouris, F Marques, L Nogueira, N Adubeiro, Y Koutedakis
The association of genetic polymorphisms with low bone mineral density in elite athletes have not been considered previously. The present study found that bone mass phenotypes in elite and pre-elite dancers are related to genetic variants at the Wnt/β-catenin and ER pathways. INTRODUCTION: Some athletes (e.g. gymnasts, dancers, swimmers) are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) which, if untreated, can lead to osteoporosis. To investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in the oestrogen receptor (ER) and the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways with low BMD in elite and pre-elite dancers (impact sport athletes)...
October 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967369/osteocytic-oxygen-sensing-controls-bone-mass-through-epigenetic-regulation-of-sclerostin
#18
Steve Stegen, Ingrid Stockmans, Karen Moermans, Bernard Thienpont, Patrick H Maxwell, Peter Carmeliet, Geert Carmeliet
Preservation of bone mass is crucial for healthy ageing and largely depends on adequate responses of matrix-embedded osteocytes. These cells control bone formation and resorption concurrently by secreting the WNT/β-catenin antagonist sclerostin (SOST). Osteocytes reside within a low oxygen microenvironment, but whether and how oxygen sensing regulates their function remains elusive. Here, we show that conditional deletion of the oxygen sensor prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) 2 in osteocytes results in a high bone mass phenotype, which is caused by increased bone formation and decreased resorption...
July 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928427/overexpression-of-cxxc5-is-a-strong-poor-prognostic-factor-in-er-breast-cancer
#19
Lei Fang, Yu Wang, Yang Gao, Xuejun Chen
CXXC5 is a newly identified CXXC-type zinc finger family protein, which is encoded by the CXXC5 gene localised to the 5q31.3 chromosomal region. Previous studies revealed that CXXC5 is associated with various malignant tumours. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognosis prediction of CXXC5 in different breast cancer subtypes via the Gene Expression Omnibus database and bc-GenExMiner. CXXC5 overexpression was observed as associated with a poor prognosis for oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899833/low-expression-of-g-protein-coupled-oestrogen-receptor-1-gper-is-associated-with-adverse-survival-of-breast-cancer-patients
#20
Stewart G Martin, Marie N Lebot, Bhudsaban Sukkarn, Graham Ball, Andrew R Green, Emad A Rakha, Ian O Ellis, Sarah J Storr
G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor 1 (GPER), also called G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is attracting considerable attention for its potential role in breast cancer development and progression. Activation by oestrogen (17β-oestradiol; E2) initiates short term, non-genomic, signalling events both in vitro and in vivo . Published literature on the prognostic value of GPER protein expression in breast cancer indicates that further assessment is warranted. We show, using immunohistochemistry on a large cohort of primary invasive breast cancer patients (n=1245), that low protein expression of GPER is not only significantly associated with clinicopathological and molecular features of aggressive behaviour but also significantly associated with adverse survival of breast cancer patients...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
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