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Low oestrogen

Xiaoli Xu, Rui Bi, Ruohong Shui, Baohua Yu, Yufan Cheng, Xiaoyu Tu, Wentao Yang
AIMS: Pure mucinous carcinoma (PMC) of the breast is a low-grade cancer. We are aimed to elucidate the prognostic significance of micropapillary structures in breast PMC. METHODS AND RESULTS: 75 patients with breast PMC were collected. All H&E stained slides were reviewed, clinicopathological features including age, tumor size, growth pattern, nuclear grade, histologic grade, lymph node (LN) status, immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of hormone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression, and Ki-67 proliferation index were analysed...
August 1, 2018: Histopathology
Hajime Kuroda, Nozomi Muroi, Mitsuhiro Hayashi, Oi Harada, Kazuei Hoshi, Eisuke Fukuma, Akihito Abe, Keiichi Kubota, Yasuo Imai
BACKGROUND: The existence of progesterone receptor (PgR) expression in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast carcinoma is controversial. Here, we re-evaluated ER-negative/PgR-positive (ER-/PgR+) carcinoma cases by immunohistochemical staining (IHC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected patients who underwent surgery for primary breast carcinoma from our databases at Dokkyo Medical University Hospital and Kameda General Hospital. Among the 9844 patients, the largest series in Japan, 27 (0...
July 31, 2018: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Kinan Mokbel, Umar Wazir, Ali Wazir, Abdul Kasem, Kefah Mokbel
BACKGROUND: The Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) was developed using tumour pathological features to guide decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in breast cancer. Recent breakthroughs in molecular biology aided development of genomic assays such as EndoPredict, which have been shown to provide excellent prognostic information. The current study investigated the impact of EndoPredict Clinical (EPClin), a composite of clinicopathological data and EndoPredict score, on chemotherapy recommendations based on NPI...
August 2018: Anticancer Research
Karolina Kuźbicka, Dominik Rachoń, Anna Woziwodzka, Magda Rybicka, Krzysztof Piotr Bielawski
OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome (MS) affects a quarter of Polish people and is associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 and ischemic heart disease. The prevalence of MS in postmenopausal women can be increased by the lack of protective effects of oestrogens. In the near future, because of the general increase in life expectancy, the number of postmenopausal women will rise substantially. Therefore, investigating both the environmental and the genetic factors predisposing to MS may have a great impact on women's health...
September 2018: Maturitas
Martine Perrot-Applanat, Martine Kolf-Clauw, Cécile Michel, Claire Beausoleil
The development and function of the mammary gland are endocrine-dependent processes, depending on the stage of development. Foetal and/or postnatal exposure to low doses of BPA alters tissue organisation through epithelial proliferation and stroma-epithelial interactions. BPA also alters the expression of E2-dependent epithelial and stroma transcriptomes. Several signalling pathways are consistent with the observed phenotype: proliferation and apoptosis, a focal adhesion pathway indicating changes in biomechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, and immune function...
July 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sunali Y Mehta, Brianna C Morten, Jisha Antony, Luke Henderson, Annette Lasham, Hamish Campbell, Heather Cunliffe, Julia A Horsfield, Roger R Reddel, Kelly A Avery-Kiejda, Cristin G Print, Antony W Braithwaite
The TP53 family consists of three sets of transcription factor genes, TP53 , TP63 and TP73 , each of which expresses multiple RNA variants and protein isoforms. Of these, TP53 is mutated in 25-30% of breast cancers. How TP53 mutations affect the interaction of TP53 family members and their isoforms in breast cancer is unknown. To investigate this, 3 independent breast cancer cohorts were stratified into 4 groups based on oestrogen receptor (ER) and TP53 mutation status. Using bioinformatic methodologies, principal signalling pathways associated with the expression of TP53 family members were identified...
June 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Jeanette K Birnbaum, Catherine Duggan, Benjamin O Anderson, Ruth Etzioni
BACKGROUND: Poor breast cancer survival in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be attributed to advanced-stage presentation and poor access to systemic therapy. We aimed to estimate the outcomes of different early detection strategies in combination with systemic chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in LMICs. METHODS: We adapted a microsimulation model to project outcomes of three early detection strategies alone or in combination with three systemic treatment programmes beyond standard of care (programme A): programme B was endocrine therapy for all oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive cases; programme C was programme B plus chemotherapy for ER-negative cases; programme D was programme C plus chemotherapy for advanced ER-positive cases...
August 2018: Lancet Global Health
Anna A Nushtaeva, Grigory A Stepanov, Dmitry V Semenov, Evgeny S Juravlev, Evgenia A Balahonova, Alexey V Gerasimov, Sergey V Sidorov, Eugeniy I Savelyev, Elena V Kuligina, Vladimir A Richter, Olga A Koval
BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of chemotherapy-resistant cancers has necessitated the development of new therapeutics as well as the identification of specific prognostic markers to predict the response to novel drugs. Primary cancer cells provide a model to study the multiplicity of tumourigenic transformation, to investigate alterations of the cellular response to various molecular stimuli, and to test therapeutics for cancer treatment. METHODS: Here, we developed primary cultures of human breast tissue - normal cells (BN1), cancer cells (BC5), and cells from a chemotherapy-treated tumour (BrCCh1) to compare their response to conventional chemotherapeutics and to innate immunity stimulators with that of the immortalized breast cells MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF10A...
July 9, 2018: BMC Cancer
T Amorim, C Durães, J C Machado, G S Metsios, M Wyon, J Maia, A D Flouris, F Marques, L Nogueira, N Adubeiro, Y Koutedakis
The association of genetic polymorphisms with low bone mineral density in elite athletes have not been considered previously. The present study found that bone mass phenotypes in elite and pre-elite dancers are related to genetic variants at the Wnt/β-catenin and ER pathways. INTRODUCTION: Some athletes (e.g. gymnasts, dancers, swimmers) are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) which, if untreated, can lead to osteoporosis. To investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in the oestrogen receptor (ER) and the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways with low BMD in elite and pre-elite dancers (impact sport athletes)...
July 5, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Steve Stegen, Ingrid Stockmans, Karen Moermans, Bernard Thienpont, Patrick H Maxwell, Peter Carmeliet, Geert Carmeliet
Preservation of bone mass is crucial for healthy ageing and largely depends on adequate responses of matrix-embedded osteocytes. These cells control bone formation and resorption concurrently by secreting the WNT/β-catenin antagonist sclerostin (SOST). Osteocytes reside within a low oxygen microenvironment, but whether and how oxygen sensing regulates their function remains elusive. Here, we show that conditional deletion of the oxygen sensor prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) 2 in osteocytes results in a high bone mass phenotype, which is caused by increased bone formation and decreased resorption...
July 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Lei Fang, Yu Wang, Yang Gao, Xuejun Chen
CXXC5 is a newly identified CXXC-type zinc finger family protein, which is encoded by the CXXC5 gene localised to the 5q31.3 chromosomal region. Previous studies revealed that CXXC5 is associated with various malignant tumours. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognosis prediction of CXXC5 in different breast cancer subtypes via the Gene Expression Omnibus database and bc-GenExMiner. CXXC5 overexpression was observed as associated with a poor prognosis for oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Stewart G Martin, Marie N Lebot, Bhudsaban Sukkarn, Graham Ball, Andrew R Green, Emad A Rakha, Ian O Ellis, Sarah J Storr
G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor 1 (GPER), also called G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is attracting considerable attention for its potential role in breast cancer development and progression. Activation by oestrogen (17β-oestradiol; E2) initiates short term, non-genomic, signalling events both in vitro and in vivo . Published literature on the prognostic value of GPER protein expression in breast cancer indicates that further assessment is warranted. We show, using immunohistochemistry on a large cohort of primary invasive breast cancer patients (n=1245), that low protein expression of GPER is not only significantly associated with clinicopathological and molecular features of aggressive behaviour but also significantly associated with adverse survival of breast cancer patients...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Dejan Tomljenovic, Tomislav Baudoin, Zeljka Bukovec Megla, Goran Geber, Glenis Scadding, Livije Kalogjera
Epidemiological studies show female predominance in the prevalence of non- allergic rhinitis (NAR) and local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Experimental studies show female patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) demonstrate higher levels of sensitivity to irritants and airway hyperresponsiveness than males. Bronchial asthma shows female predominance in post-puberty patients, and gender interaction with severe asthma endotypes. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine and chronic cough, syndromes, which are commonly related to neurokinin substance P (SP) in the literature, also show strong female predominance...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Sebastian Franik, Stephanie M Eltrop, Jan Am Kremer, Ludwig Kiesel, Cindy Farquhar
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of infrequent periods (oligomenorrhoea) and absence of periods (amenorrhoea). It affects about 4% to 8% of women worldwide and often leads to anovulatory subfertility. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs that were introduced for ovulation induction in 2001. Since about 2001 clinical trials have reached differing conclusions as to whether the AI letrozole is at least as effective as the first-line treatment clomiphene citrate (CC)...
May 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Katharine A Edey, Stuart Rundle, Martha Hickey
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide and most commonly occurs after the menopause (75%) ( About 319,000 new cases were diagnosed worldwide in 2012. Endometrial cancer is commonly considered as a potentially 'curable cancer,' as approximately 75% of cases are diagnosed before disease has spread outside the uterus (FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage I). The overall five-year survival for all stages is about 86%, and, if the cancer is confined to the uterus, the five-year survival rate may increase to 97%...
May 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Andrew Condappa, Maxine Gossell-Williams, William Aiken
Conjugated oestrogen is one of the more affordable secondary hormonal options available for castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in Jamaica. The present study was conducted to examine the disease response in Jamaican men with CRPC treated with conjugated oestrogen. This study retrospectively reviewed the medical notes of patients who attended the urologic clinic of the University Hospital of the West Indies from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013 and a private urology clinic from 2 November 2005 to 3 June 2015 to identify patients diagnosed with CRPC treated with conjugated oestrogen (Premarin ®) as secondary therapy...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Mathis Grossmann, Sabashini K Ramchand, Frances Milat, Amanda Vincent, Elgene Lim, Mark A Kotowicz, Jill Hicks, Helena Teede
To formulate clinical consensus recommendations on bone health assessment and management of women with oestrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer receiving endocrine therapy, representatives appointed by relevant Australian Medical Societies used a systematic approach for adaptation of guidelines (ADAPTE) to derive an evidence-informed position statement addressing 5 key questions. Women receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors and the subset of premenopausal woman treated with tamoxifen have accelerated bone loss and increased fracture risk...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Amr El Meliegy, Ahmad Motawi, Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Salam
Objectives: To highlight alternative treatment options other than exogenous testosterone administration for hypogonadal men with concomitant infertility or who wish to preserve their fertility potential, as testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) inhibits spermatogenesis, representing a problem for hypogonadal men of reproductive age. Materials and methods: We performed a comprehensive literature review for the years 1978-2017 via PubMed. Also abstracts from major urological/surgical conferences were reviewed...
March 2018: Arab Journal of Urology
Qurrat U van den Blink, Kate Garcez, Caroline C Henson, Susan E Davidson, Claire E Higham
BACKGROUND: Pelvic radiotherapy is a treatment delivered to an estimated 150,000 to 300,000 people annually across high-income countries. Fractures due to normal stresses on weakened bone due to radiotherapy are termed insufficiency fractures. Pelvic radiotherapy-related interruption of the blood supply to the hip is termed avascular necrosis and is another recognised complication. The reported incidences of insufficiency fractures are 2.7% to 89% and risk of developing avascular necrosis is 0...
April 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
John A Katzenellenbogen, Christopher G Mayne, Benita S Katzenellenbogen, Geoffrey L Greene, Sarat Chandarlapaty
Oestrogen receptor-α (ERα), a key driver of breast cancer, normally requires oestrogen for activation. Mutations that constitutively activate ERα without the need for hormone binding are frequently found in endocrine-therapy-resistant breast cancer metastases and are associated with poor patient outcomes. The location of these mutations in the ER ligand-binding domain and their impact on receptor conformation suggest that they subvert distinct mechanisms that normally maintain the low basal state of wild-type ERα in the absence of hormone...
June 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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