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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922209/unconventional-pretreatment-of-lignocellulose-with-low-temperature-plasma
#1
Jens Vanneste, Thijs Ennaert, Annick Vanhulsel, Bert F Sels
Lignocellulose represents a potential supply of sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels and chemicals. There is, however, an important cost and efficiency challenge associated with the conversion of such lignocellulosics. Since its structure is complex and not prone to undergo chemical reactions very easily, chemical and mechanical pretreatments are usually necessary in order to be able to refine them into the compositional building blocks (carbohydrates and lignin), from which value-added platform molecules such as glucose, ethylene glycol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, etc...
December 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922167/cost-effectiveness-of-primarily-surgical-versus-primarily-conservative-treatment-of-acute-and-subacute-radiculopathies-due-to-intervertebral-disc-herniation-from-the-swiss-perspective
#2
Zanfina Ademi, Viktoria Gloy, Dominik Glinz, Heike Raatz, Joris Van Stiphout, Heiner C Bucher, Matthias Schwenkglenks
AIMS OF THE STUDY: To assess the cost-effectiveness of primarily surgical treatment (PST) versus primarily conservative treatment (PCT) in adults with intermediate severity, acute or subacute, lumbar radicular syndrome due to intervertebral disc herniation. METHODS: A decision analytic model from healthcare system and societal perspectives was used to compare outcomes and costs of PST with those of PCT (physiotherapy, epidural injection and medication). Treatment pathways and quality of life were obtained from published clinical trials...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922094/foldable-and-disposable-memory-on-paper
#3
Byung-Hyun Lee, Dong-Il Lee, Hagyoul Bae, Hyejeong Seong, Seung-Bae Jeon, Myung-Lok Seol, Jin-Woo Han, M Meyyappan, Sung-Gap Im, Yang-Kyu Choi
Foldable organic memory on cellulose nanofibril paper with bendable and rollable characteristics is demonstrated by employing initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for polymerization of the resistive switching layer and inkjet printing of the electrode, where iCVD based on all-dry and room temperature process is very suitable for paper electronics. This memory exhibits a low operation voltage of 1.5 V enabling battery operation compared to previous reports and wide memory window. The memory performance is maintained after folding tests, showing high endurance...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921992/the-hubble-trial-haemorrhoidal-artery-ligation-hal-versus-rubber-band-ligation-rbl-for-symptomatic-second-and-third-degree-haemorrhoids-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-and-health-economic-evaluation
#4
Steven Brown, Jim Tiernan, Katie Biggs, Daniel Hind, Neil Shephard, Mike Bradburn, Allan Wailoo, Abualbishr Alshreef, Lizzie Swaby, Angus Watson, Simon Radley, Oliver Jones, Paul Skaife, Anil Agarwal, Pasquale Giordano, Marc Lamah, Mark Cartmell, Justin Davies, Omar Faiz, Karen Nugent, Andrew Clarke, Angus MacDonald, Phillip Conaghan, Paul Ziprin, Rohit Makhija
BACKGROUND: Optimal surgical intervention for low-grade haemorrhoids is unknown. Rubber band ligation (RBL) is probably the most common intervention. Haemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL) is a novel alternative that may be more efficacious. OBJECTIVE: The comparison of HAL with RBL for the treatment of grade II/III haemorrhoids. DESIGN: A multicentre, parallel-group randomised controlled trial. PERSPECTIVE: UK NHS and Personal Social Services...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921517/effect-of-partial-compliance-on-the-prevention-of-recurrent-preterm-birth-in-women-receiving-weekly-17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone-caproate-injections
#5
Ziad A Haidar, Hind N Moussa, Susan Hosseini Nasab, Baha M Sibai
PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of partial compliance on preterm birth (PTB) prevention among women with previous PTB and receiving 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC). STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter trial for the prevention of recurrent PTB. Women with prior PTB were randomly assigned between 15 0/7 and 20 3/7 weeks to weekly injections of either 17-OHPC or placebo. Full 100% compliance (group 1) was compared to 40-80% (group 2)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921389/superiority-of-sds-lysis-over-saponin-lysis-for-direct-bacterial-identification-from-positive-blood-culture-bottle-by-maldi-tof-ms
#6
Yvan Caspar, Cécile Garnaud, Mariya Raykova, Sébastien Bailly, Marie Bidart, Danièle Maubon
PURPOSE: Fast species diagnosis has an important health care impact, as rapid and specific antibacterial therapy is of clear benefit for patient's outcome. Here we propose a new protocol for species identification directly from positive blood cultures. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We compared four in-house protocols for bacterial identification by mass spectrometry directly from clinical positive blood cultures evaluating 2 lytic agents, SDS and saponin, and 2 protein extraction schemes, fast (FP) and long (LP)...
December 6, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921381/cost-analysis-of-the-treatment-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-west-africa
#7
Sheila Isanaka, Nicolas A Menzies, Jessica Sayyad, Mudasiru Ayoola, Rebecca F Grais, Stéphane Doyon
We present an updated cost analysis to provide new estimates of the cost of providing community-based treatment for severe acute malnutrition, including expenditure shares for major cost categories. We calculated total and per child costs from a provider perspective. We categorized costs into three main activities (outpatient treatment, inpatient treatment, and management/administration) and four cost categories within each activity (personnel; therapeutic food; medical supplies; and infrastructure and logistical support)...
December 5, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921291/evaluation-of-capillary-electrophoresis-for-the-analysis-of-rooibos-and-honeybush-tea-phenolics
#8
William J Arries, Andreas G J Tredoux, Dalene de Beer, Elizabeth Joubert, André de Villiers
Rooibos and honeybush are popular herbal teas produced from the shrubs of Aspalathus linearis and Cyclopia spp., respectively, which are indigenous to South Africa. Both herbal teas are rich in polyphenols and their consumption is associated with several health benefits, partly ascribed to their phenolic constituents. Quantification of phenolics in extracts and teas for quality control and research purposes is generally performed using HPLC, although dedicated and often species-specific methods are required...
December 6, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921257/impact-of-community-health-workers-on-use-of-healthcare-services-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#9
Helen E Jack, Sophia D Arabadjis, Lucy Sun, Erin E Sullivan, Russell S Phillips
BACKGROUND: As the US transitions to value-based healthcare, physicians and payers are incentivized to change healthcare delivery to improve quality of care while controlling costs. By assisting with the management of common chronic conditions, community health workers (CHWs) may improve healthcare quality, but physicians and payers who are making choices about care delivery also need to understand their effects on healthcare spending. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science from the inception of each database to 22 June 2015...
December 5, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921251/skin-manifestations-of-insulin-resistance-from-a-biochemical-stance-to-a-clinical-diagnosis-and-management
#10
REVIEW
Gloria González-Saldivar, René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Jorge Ocampo-Candiani, José Gerardo González-González, Minerva Gómez-Flores
Worldwide, more than 1.9 billion adults are overweight, and around 600 million people suffer from obesity. Similarly, ~382 million individuals live with diabetes, and 40-50% of the global population is labeled at "high risk" (i.e., prediabetes). The impact of these two chronic conditions relies not only on the burden of illnesses per se (i.e., associated increased morbidity and mortality), but also on their increased cost, burden of treatment, and decreased health-related quality of life. For this review a comprehensive search in several databases including PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted...
December 5, 2016: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921190/elearning-resources-to-supplement-postgraduate-neurosurgery-training
#11
Martin N Stienen, Karl Schaller, Hannah Cock, Vitalie Lisnic, Luca Regli, Simon Thomson
BACKGROUND: In an increasingly complex and competitive professional environment, improving methods to educate neurosurgical residents is key to ensure high-quality patient care. Electronic (e)Learning resources promise interactive knowledge acquisition. We set out to give a comprehensive overview on available eLearning resources that aim to improve postgraduate neurosurgical training and review the available literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A MEDLINE query was performed, using the search term "electronic AND learning AND neurosurgery"...
December 5, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921189/homogenized-constrained-mixture-models-for-anisotropic-volumetric-growth-and-remodeling
#12
F A Braeu, A Seitz, R C Aydin, C J Cyron
Constrained mixture models for soft tissue growth and remodeling have attracted increasing attention over the last decade. They can capture the effects of the simultaneous presence of multiple constituents that are continuously deposited and degraded at in general different rates, which is important to understand essential features of living soft tissues that cannot be captured by simple kinematic growth models. Recently the novel concept of homogenized constrained mixture models was introduced. It was shown that these models produce results which are very similar (and in certain limit cases even identical) to the ones of constrained mixture models based on multi-network theory...
December 5, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921153/prone-transradial-catheterization-for-combined-single-session-transarterial-embolization-and-percutaneous-posterior-approach-cryoablation-of-solid-neoplasms
#13
Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick, Casey Branach, Bill Saliba Majdalany, J Matthew Meadows, Douglas A Murrey, Wael A Saad, Minhaj S Khaja, Kyle J Cooper, Matthew L Osher, Ravi Nara Srinivasa
Transradial access (TRA) has been associated with improved post-procedure hemostasis and patient satisfaction, and decreased hemorrhagic complications, sedation requirements, recovery times, and procedure-related costs when compared with traditional transfemoral catheterization. Supine TRA has been described for the treatment of myocardial infarctions, aortoiliac and femoropopliteal stenoses, and a variety of neoplasms. This original research describes prone transradial catheterization to facilitate combined single-session transarterial embolization and percutaneous cryoablation of solid neoplasms from a posterior approach without repositioning...
December 5, 2016: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921142/intra-population-variability-of-ocean-acidification-impacts-on-the-physiology-of-baltic-blue-mussels-mytilus-edulis-integrating-tissue-and-organism-response
#14
L S Stapp, J Thomsen, H Schade, C Bock, F Melzner, H O Pörtner, G Lannig
Increased maintenance costs at cellular, and consequently organism level, are thought to be involved in shaping the sensitivity of marine calcifiers to ocean acidification (OA). Yet, knowledge of the capacity of marine calcifiers to undergo metabolic adaptation is sparse. In Kiel Fjord, blue mussels thrive despite periodically high seawater PCO2, making this population interesting for studying metabolic adaptation under OA. Consequently, we conducted a multi-generation experiment and compared physiological responses of F1 mussels from 'tolerant' and 'sensitive' families exposed to OA for 1 year...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921141/kidney-stones-diseases-and-glycaemic-statuses-focus-on-the-latest-clinical-evidences
#15
REVIEW
Leonardo Spatola, Claudio Angelini, Salvatore Badalamenti, Silvio Maringhini, Giovanni Gambaro
Diabetes and obesity are already recognized as potential risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially for uric acid stones. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia actively contribute to impaired ability to excrete an acid load and altered ammonium production, leading to a lower urinary pH compared to non-diabetic controls. All these electrolytic disorders play an important role in stone formation and aggregation, especially in uric acid stones. There are still missing points in scientific evidence if the increased risk in stone formation is already existing even in the prediabetic statuses (isolated impaired glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, and associated impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glucose) as well as it is worth to consider the same level of risk...
December 5, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921127/pre-authorization-processes-have-no-effect-on-patients-undergoing-knee-mri-in-a-pediatric-setting-when-evaluated-by-specialists
#16
Drew Pierce, J Herman Kan, Megan May, George S Bisset
OBJECTIVE: Pre-authorization processes are often used by medical insurance companies to reduce costs by managing the utilization of advanced diagnostic imaging, and their impact on patient care is unclear. The purpose of our study is to determine if a pre-authorization process increases the rate of surgically significant abnormal knee MRI and surgical referrals compared with patients referred from pediatric orthopedic specialists who do not undergo a pre-authorization process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed; 124 patients were identified who were referred for knee MRI by a pediatric orthopedist...
December 5, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921031/amniotic-epithelial-cells-a-new-tool-to-combat-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#17
Clara Di Germanio, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Barbara Barboni
The number of elderly people is growing at an unprecedented rate and this increase of the aging population is expected to have a direct impact on the incidence of age-related diseases and healthcare-associated costs. Thus, it is imperative that new tools are developed to fight and slow age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is a promising strategy for the maintenance of health and function late in life; however, stem cell-based therapies face several challenges including rejection and tumor transformation...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920972/potentially-preventable-hospitalizations-for-acute-and-chronic-conditions-in-alaska-2010-2012
#18
Prabhu P Gounder, Sara M Seeman, Robert C Holman, Alice Rarig, Mary K McEwen, Claudia A Steiner, Michael L Bartholomew, Thomas W Hennessy
OBJECTIVE: The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Prevention Quality Indicators comprise acute and chronic conditions for which hospitalization can be potentially prevented by high-quality ambulatory care. The Healthy Alaska 2020 initiative (HA2020) targeted reducing potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPH) for acute and chronic conditions among its health indicators. We estimated the PPH rate for adults aged ≥ 18 years in Alaska during 2010-2012. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of state-wide hospital discharge data obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project and the Indian Health Service...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920964/the-apprentice-an-innovative-approach-to-meet-the-behavior-analysis-certification-board-s-supervision-standards
#19
Breanne K Hartley, William T Courtney, Mary Rosswurm, Vincent J LaMarca
The Behavior Analysis Certification Board continues to increase the standards for supervision of trainees, which is needed in order for the field to continually improve. However, this presents a challenge for organizations to meet the needs of both their clients and their supervisees based on these increasing standards. Throughout the ages, experts in all trades have passed along their knowledge and skill through apprenticeship opportunities. An apprenticeship supervision model is described that allows Board Certified Behavior Analysts to supervise future behavior analysts by mentoring, educating, and training supervisees on the science of human behavior in a format that is mutually beneficial...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920895/organosilane-functionalization-of-nanostructured-indium-tin-oxide-films
#20
R Pruna, F Palacio, M Martínez, O Blázquez, S Hernández, B Garrido, M López
Fabrication and organosilane-functionalization and characterization of nanostructured ITO electrodes are reported. Nanostructured ITO electrodes were obtained by electron beam evaporation, and a subsequent annealing treatment was selectively performed to modify their crystalline state. An increase in geometrical surface area in comparison with thin-film electrodes area was observed by atomic force microscopy, implying higher electroactive surface area for nanostructured ITO electrodes and thus higher detection levels...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
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