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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528537/intraoperative-mechanical-ventilation-state-of-the-art
#1
Lorenzo Ball, Federico Costantino, Giulia Orefice, Karthikka Chandrapatham, Paolo Pelosi
Mechanical ventilation is a cornerstone of the intraoperative management of the surgical patient and is still mandatory in several surgical procedures. In the last decades, research focused on preventing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), both improving risk stratification through the use of predictive scores and protecting the lung adopting so-called protective ventilation strategies. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of the currently suggested intraoperative ventilation strategies, along with their pathophysiologic rationale, with a focus on challenging conditions, such as obesity, one-lung ventilation and cardiopulmonary bypass...
May 19, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528512/working-memory-in-the-processing-of-long-distance-dependencies-interference-and-filler-maintenance
#2
Tal Ness, Aya Meltzer-Asscher
During the temporal delay between the filler and gap sites in long-distance dependencies, the "active filler" strategy can be implemented in two ways: the filler phrase can be actively maintained in working memory ("maintenance account"), or it can be retrieved only when the parser posits a gap ("retrieval account"). The current study tested whether filler content is maintained during the processing of dependencies. Using a self-paced reading paradigm, we compared reading times on a noun phrase (NP) between the filler and gap sites in object relative clauses, to reading times on an NP between the antecedent and ellipsis sites in ellipsis sentences...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528503/a-flux-enhancing-forward-osmosis-nanofiltration-integrated-treatment-system-for-the-tannery-wastewater-reclamation
#3
Parimal Pal, Sankha Chakrabortty, Jayato Nayak, Suman Senapati
Effective treatment of tannery wastewater prior to discharge to the environment as per environmental regulations remains a big challenge despite efforts to bring down the concentrations of the pollutants which are often quite high as measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (7800 mg/L), total dissolved solids (5400 mg/L), chloride (4260 mg/L), sulphides (250 mg/L) and chromium. A pilot-scale forward osmosis and nanofiltration integrated closed loop system was developed for continuous reclamation of clean water from tannery wastewater at a rate of 52-55 L/m(2)/h at 1...
May 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528501/salicylic-acid-determination-in-estuarine-and-riverine-waters-using-hollow-fiber-liquid-phase-microextraction-and-capillary-zone-electrophoresis
#4
Gilmar Silvério da Silva, Diana L D Lima, Valdemar Inocêncio Esteves
A low-cost methodology using hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with UV-Vis detector was developed to analyze the salicylic acid (SA) in estuarine and riverine waters. The technique is easy-to-use and rapid, and demands little volume of organic solvent. The extraction was carried out using a polypropylene membrane supporting into octan-1-ol. HF-LPME under optimized conditions (donor solution sample pH 2, acceptor solution pH 14, sample volume 25 mL, fiber length 10 cm, acceptor volume 25 μL, extraction time 3 h and stirring speed 350 rpm) presented high enrichment factor (407 times) and good recovery in real water samples (from 88 to 110%)...
May 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528477/human-cost-burden-of-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-a-critical-review
#5
REVIEW
Gregory G Bond, Daniel R Dietrich
Recently published papers have alleged that exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are causing substantial disease burdens in the EU and US and are consequently costing society hundreds of billions of dollars annually. To date, these cost estimates have not undergone adequate scientific scrutiny, but nevertheless are being used aggressively in advocacy campaigns in an attempt to fundamentally change how chemicals are tested, evaluated and regulated. Consequently, we critically evaluated the underlying methodology and assumptions employed by the chief architects of the disease burden cost estimates...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528426/building-a-bio-based-industry-in-the-middle-east-through-harnessing-the-potential-of-the-red-sea-biodiversity
#6
REVIEW
Jens Nielsen, John Archer, Magbubah Essack, Vladimir B Bajic, Takashi Gojobori, Ivan Mijakovic
The incentive for developing microbial cell factories for production of fuels and chemicals comes from the ability of microbes to deliver these valuable compounds at a reduced cost and with a smaller environmental impact compared to the analogous chemical synthesis. Another crucial advantage of microbes is their great biological diversity, which offers a much larger "catalog" of molecules than the one obtainable by chemical synthesis. Adaptation to different environments is one of the important drives behind microbial diversity...
May 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528390/colonization-by-nitrogen-fixing-frankia-bacteria-causes-short-term-increases-in-herbivore-susceptibility-in-red-alder-alnus-rubra-seedlings
#7
Daniel J Ballhorn, Jacob D Elias, M A Balkan, Rachel F Fordyce, Peter G Kennedy
Carbon allocation demands from root-nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) can modulate the host plant's chemical phenotype, with strong bottom-up effects on herbivores. In contrast to well-studied rhizobia, the effects of other important NFB on plant chemistry and herbivory are much less understood. Here, combining field surveys in the Oregon Coast Range, USA with laboratory experiments, we analyzed how N2-fixing Frankia bacteria influenced plant growth, chemistry, and herbivory on Alnus rubra (red alder) seedlings...
May 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528384/effects-of-salts-contained-in-lignocellulose-derived-sugar-streams-on-microbial-lipid-production
#8
Zhu Chen, Caixia Wan
This study aimed at developing low-cost, robust non-sterile fermentation processes for microbial lipid production from lignocellulose-derived sugars. Three representative oleaginous yeasts, Lipomyces tetrasporus (NRRL Y-11562), Rhodotorula toruloides (NRRL Y-1091), and Yarrowia lipolytica (NRRL YB-437), were tested for lipid production via non-sterile fermentation. Under optimal non-sterile conditions, all the tested strains had good performance on salt tolerance and lipid production. L. tetrasporus (NRRL Y-11562) gave the highest lipid titer of 12...
May 20, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528365/the-value-of-evidence-in-the-decision-making-process-for-reimbursement-of-pharmacogenetic-dosing-of-warfarin
#9
Andrej Janzic, Igor Locatelli, Mitja Kos
BACKGROUND: After early clinical trials that evaluated pharmacogenetic (PG) algorithms, many healthcare payers were reluctant to cover this technology and, consequently, PG dosing of warfarin could not be translated into clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the value of upgrading evidence relating to PG dosing of warfarin from the healthcare payer perspective. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated PG dosing of warfarin were identified through a systematic literature search, and their findings were combined by a cumulative meta-analysis...
May 20, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528356/operating-room-fires-in-periocular-surgery
#10
Michael A Connor, Anne M Menke, Ivan Vrcek, John W Shore
AIM: A survey of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgeons as well as seven-year data regarding claims made to the Ophthalmic Mutual Insurance Company (OMIC) is used to discuss operating room fires in periocular surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of all closed claim operating room fires submitted to OMIC was performed. A survey soliciting personal experiences with operating room fires was distributed to all American Society of Oculoplastic and Reconstructive Surgeons...
May 20, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528295/a-machine-learning-graph-based-approach-for-3d-segmentation-of-bruch-s-membrane-opening-from-glaucomatous-sd-oct-volumes
#11
Mohammad Saleh Miri, Michael D Abràmoff, Young H Kwon, Milan Sonka, Mona K Garvin
Bruch's membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) is a recently proposed structural parameter which estimates the remaining nerve fiber bundles in the retina and is superior to other conventional structural parameters for diagnosing glaucoma. Measuring this structural parameter requires identification of BMO locations within spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes. While most automated approaches for segmentation of the BMO either segment the 2D projection of BMO points or identify BMO points in individual B-scans, in this work, we propose a machine-learning graph-based approach for true 3D segmentation of BMO from glaucomatous SD-OCT volumes...
May 6, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528246/the-canadian-hypoglycemia-assessment-tool-program-insights-into-rates-and-implications-of-hypoglycemia-from-an-observational-study
#12
Ronnie Aronson, Ronald Goldenberg, Damir Boras, Rasmus Skovgaard, Harpreet Bajaj
OBJECTIVE: The true prevalence of hypoglycemia in insulin-treated patients with diabetes and its impact on patients, employers and healthcare providers is poorly appreciated owing to a paucity of real-world data. The global Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (HAT) study addressed this issue, and here we report data from the Canadian cohort of patients. METHODS: This noninterventional, 6-month retrospective and 4-week prospective study enrolled patients aged ≥18 years receiving insulin treatment for >12 months from community endocrinology practices...
May 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528233/sex-versus-parthenogenesis-immune-function-in-a-facultatively-parthenogenetic-phasmatid-extatosoma-tiaratum
#13
Yasaman Alavi, Mark Adrian Elgar, Therésa Melanie Jones
Facultative parthenogenetic species, in which females can alternate between sex and parthenogenesis, are useful models to investigate the costs and benefits of sex and parthenogenesis, an ongoing issue in biology. The necessary empirical studies comparing the outcomes of alternative reproductive modes on life history traits are rare and focus mainly on traits directly associated with reproductive fitness. Immune function determines the ability of individuals to defend themselves against injury and disease and is therefore likely to have a significant impact on fitness...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528217/citrus-maxima-pomelo-juice-mediated-eco-friendly-synthesis-of-zno-nanoparticles-applications-to-photocatalytic-electrochemical-sensor-and-antibacterial-activities
#14
N S Pavithra, K Lingaraju, G K Raghu, G Nagaraju
In the present work, Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) have been successfully prepared through a simple, effective and low cost solution combustion method using Zn (NO3)2·6H2O as an oxidizer, chakkota (Common name=Pomelo) fruit juice as novel fuel. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the hexagonal wurtzite structure with average crystallite size of ~22nm. ZnO Nps were characterized with the aid of different spectroscopic techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Photoluminescence and UV-Visible spectroscopy...
May 16, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528171/accountable-care-organizations-and-the-use-of-cancer-screening
#15
Christian P Meyer, Anna Krasnova, Jesse D Sammon, Stuart R Lipsitz, Joel S Weissman, Maxine Sun, Quoc-Dien Trinh
Cancer preventive services, when used appropriately, result in improved health, better quality of life and decreased costs. For these reasons, cancer preventive services represent important priorities within the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Among the many provisions to improve access to preventive services the ACA introduced Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) as trajectory to deliver coordinated, high-quality care. In order to evaluate this benchmark, we analyzed (in 2016/Boston) screening prevalence of breast cancer, a recommended screening test according to the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), and prostate cancer, for which screening is no longer recommended by the USPSTF, among traditional Medicare beneficiaries and those enrolled in ACOs...
May 17, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528133/chemical-synthesis-of-flower-like-hybrid-cu-oh-2-cuo-electrode-application-of-polyvinyl-alcohol-and-triton-x-100-to-enhance-supercapacitor-performance
#16
S K Shinde, V J Fulari, D-Y Kim, N C Maile, R R Koli, H D Dhaygude, G S Ghodake
In this research article, we report hybrid nanomaterials of copper hydroxide/copper oxide (Cu(OH)2/CuO). A thin films were prepared by using a facile and cost-effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As-synthesized and hybrid Cu(OH)2/CuO with two different surfactants polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and triton-X 100 (TRX-100) was prepared having distinct morphological, structural, and supercapacitor properties. The surface of the thin film samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
May 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528089/production-of-highly-concentrated-oil-in-water-emulsions-using-dual-channel-microfluidization-use-of-individual-and-mixed-natural-emulsifiers-saponin-and-lecithin
#17
Xiang Luo, Yanyan Zhou, Long Bai, Fuguo Liu, Ruojie Zhang, Zipei Zhang, Bingjing Zheng, Yihui Deng, David Julian McClements
The fabrication of concentrated oil-in-water emulsions is useful for reducing storage and transportation costs, as well as for providing desirable textural, optical, stability, and release characteristics in commercial products. In this study, 50wt% oil-in-water emulsions were produced from natural emulsifiers using high-pressure dual-channel microfluidization (89.6MPa, 1 pass). The particle size and charge characteristics of emulsions stabilized using a hydrophilic biosurfactant (quillaja saponin) or mixtures of hydrophilic and hydrophobic biosurfactants (quillaja saponin+soy lecithin) were measured...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528086/cellulosic-ethanol-status-and-innovation
#18
REVIEW
Lee R Lynd, Xiaoyu Liang, Mary J Biddy, Andrew Allee, Hao Cai, Thomas Foust, Michael E Himmel, Mark S Laser, Michael Wang, Charles E Wyman
Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today's technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler)...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528020/optimal-hybrid-sequencing-and-assembly-feasibility-conditions-for-accurate-genome-reconstruction-and-cost-minimization-strategy
#19
Chun-Chi Chen, Noushin Ghaffari, Xiaoning Qian, Byung-Jun Yoon
Recent advances in high-throughput genome sequencing technologies have enabled the systematic study of various genomes by making whole genome sequencing affordable. Modern sequencers generate a huge number of small sequence fragments called reads, where the read length and the per-base sequencing cost depend on the technology used. To date, many hybrid genome assembly algorithms have been developed that can take reads from multiple read sources to reconstruct the original genome. However, rigorous investigation of the feasibility conditions for complete genome reconstruction and the optimal sequencing strategy for minimizing the sequencing cost has been conspicuously missing...
April 3, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527991/lignosulfonate-stabilized-selenium-nanoparticles-and-their-deposition-on-spherical-silica
#20
Anna Modrzejewska-Sikorska, Emilia Konował, Łukasz Klapiszewski, Grzegorz Nowaczyk, Stefan Jurga, Teofil Jesionowski, Grzegorz Milczarek
We report a novel room-temperature synthesis of selenium nanoparticles, which for the first time uses lignosulfonate as a stabilizer. Various lignosulfonates obtained both from hardwood and softwood were tested. Selenium oxide was used as the precursor of zero-valent selenium. Three different reducers were tested - sodium borohydride, hydrazine and ascorbic acid - and the latter proved most effective in terms of the particle size and stability of the final colloid. The lignosulfonate-stabilized selenium nanoparticles had a negative zeta potential, dependent on pH, which for some lignosulfonates reached -50mV, indicating the excellent stability of the colloid...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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