Read by QxMD icon Read

Checkpoint inhibitors oncology

Giuseppe Luigi Banna, Francesco Passiglia, Francesca Colonese, Stefania Canova, Jessica Menis, Alfredo Addeo, Antonio Russo, Diego Luigi Cortinovis
The identification of reliable predictive biomarkers of efficacy or resistance to immune-oncology (I-O) agents is a major issue for translational research and clinical practice. However, along with PDL1 and molecular features other clinical, radiological and laboratory factors can be considered for the selection of those patients who would not be the best candidate for immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs). We examined these factors, emerging from the results of currently available studies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), aiming to provide a useful and manageable tool which can help Oncologists in their everyday clinical practice...
September 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Stavros Gkolfinopoulos, Demetris Papamichael, Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Panos Papanastasopoulos, Vassilios Vassiliou, Panteleimon Kountourakis
In the last few years we have witnessed a vast expansion of our knowledge regarding the molecular and genetic profile of gastric cancer. The molecular subtypes described have shed light on the pathogenesis of the disease, thus prompting the development of new therapeutic strategies and favoring a more individualized approach for treatment. Most of the clinical trials for so called targeted therapies could be considered, at best, partially successful. In addition, checkpoint inhibitors have recently been added to our armamentarium in later stages of the disease, and combinations with chemotherapy and targeted agents are currently under development...
July 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Justin C Kao, Adipong Brickshawana, Teerin Liewluck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors have been increasingly used in patients with metastatic cancers with favorable oncological outcomes; however, there have also been increasing number of cancer survivors who have developed immune-related adverse events. Little is known about PD-1 inhibitor-associated neuromuscular complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuromuscular disorders are the most common neurological complication reported in PD-1 inhibitor-treated patients...
August 4, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Tom T P Seijkens, Esther Lutgens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Targeted cancer therapies have revolutionized the treatment of cancer in the past decade, but cardiovascular toxicity is a rising problem in cancer patients. Here we discuss the effects of targeted cancer therapies on atherosclerosis. Increasing the awareness of these adverse effects will promote the development of evidence-based preventive strategies in the emerging field of cardiovascular oncology. RECENT FINDINGS: Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, immunomodulatory imide drugs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors are successfully used as treatment for many types of solid and hematologic malignancies...
July 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Takayuki Shiroyama, Hidekazu Suzuki, Motohiro Tamiya, Akihiro Tamiya, Ayako Tanaka, Norio Okamoto, Kenji Nakahama, Yoshihiko Taniguchi, Shun-Ichi Isa, Takako Inoue, Fumio Imamura, Shinji Atagi, Tomonori Hirashima
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that liver metastasis is associated with poor outcomes after treatment using immune checkpoint inhibitors, although the cause remains unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 201 patients at three Japanese Centers who received nivolumab for advanced non-small cell lung cancer between December 2015 and July 2016. The patients' baseline clinical characteristics and subsequent outcomes were compared according to liver metastasis status...
August 2018: Anticancer Research
Yasutaka Sukawa, Yasuo Hamamoto, Takanori Kanai
Colitis is one of major adverse event induced by immune checkpoint inhibitor(ICPi), especially in the treatment with anti- CTLA-4 antibody. Colitis can occur anytime during ICPi therapy. The most common symptom is diarrhea. Other symptoms are abdominal pain, hematochezia, weight loss, fever and vomiting. To diagnose ICPi-induced colitis, it is important to deny infectious enterocolitis and tumor-related symptoms. Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy with biopsy are useful for proper diagnosis and evaluation of the severity...
July 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Yoshiyuki Yamaguchi, Yosuke Katata, Makoto Okawaki, Masahiro Yamamura, Hiroaki Tanioka, Takeshi Nagasaka
Time has come when oncology has met immunology. Immune checkpoint inhibitors(ICIs)are being approved as standard cancer treatments, day by day. ICIs, however, have serious immune-related adverse events(irAEs)in a diverse manner, requiring the establishment of team-approach system to manage irAEs. Here, irAEs are summarized and their managements are discussed.
July 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Frank R Brennan, Laura Andrews, Antonio R Arulanandam, Jorg Blumel, Jim Fikes, Christine Grimaldi, Janice Lansita, Lise I Loberg, Tim MacLachlan, Mark Milton, Suezanne Parker, Jay Tibbitts, Jayanthi Wolf, Krishna P Allamneni
Nonclinical safety testing of biopharmaceuticals can present significant challenges to human risk assessment with these innovative and often complex drugs. Emerging topics in this field were discussed recently at the 2016 Annual US BioSafe General Membership meeting. The presentations and subsequent discussions from the main sessions are summarized. The topics covered included: (i) specialty biologics (oncolytic virus, gene therapy, and gene editing-based technologies), (ii) the value of non-human primates (NHPs) for safety assessment, (iii) challenges in the safety assessment of immuno-oncology drugs (T cell-dependent bispecifics, checkpoint inhibitors, and costimulatory agonists), (iv) emerging therapeutic approaches and modalities focused on microbiome, oligonucleotide, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) therapeutics, (v) first in human (FIH) dose selection and the minimum anticipated biological effect level (MABEL), (vi) an update on current regulatory guidelines, International Council for Harmonization (ICH) S1, S3a, S5, S9 and S11 and (vii) breakout sessions that focused on bioanalytical and PK/PD challenges with bispecific antibodies, cytokine release in nonclinical studies, determining adversity and NOAEL for biologics, the value of second species for toxicology assessment and what to do if there is no relevant toxicology species...
July 17, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Esther Bastiaannet, Nicolò Battisti, Kah Poh Loh, Nienke de Glas, Enrique Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Capucine Baldini, Ellen Kapiteijn, Stuart Lichtman
Malignant melanoma is an aggressive cancer associated with a poor prognosis in patients with metastatic disease. As in many other cancers, the incidence of melanoma rises with age; and combined with the longer life expectancy, this led to an increasing prevalence of melanoma in the older population. Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors significantly improved the treatment of melanoma given their efficacy and tolerability profile. Two major classes of agents include the anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors, such as ipilimumab, and the anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Meric A Altinoz, Aysel Ozpinar, Ebru Emekli Alturfan, Ilhan Elmaci
Vinorelbine is a very potent chemotherapeutic agent which is used to treat a number of cancers including breast and non-small cell lung tumors. Vinorelbine mainly acts via blocking microtubules and induces a specific type of cell death called 'mitotic catastrophe/apoptosis' subsequent to mitotic slippage, which is the failure of cells to stay in a mitotic arrested state and replicating their DNA without cytokinesis. Glial tumor cells are especially sensitive to mitotic slippage. In recent years, vinorelbine demonstrated potency in pediatric optic and pontine gliomas...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Juliet A Carmichael, Daisy Wing-San Mak, Mary O'Brien
Until recently, chemotherapy has remained the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Excellent responses have been observed with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, and targeted treatments for those tumours with actionable mutations, resulting in a paradigm shift in the treatment approach for these patients. Elderly patients and those with poor performance status (PS), such as Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 2, have historically been excluded from clinical trials due to poor outcomes...
July 18, 2018: Cancers
Paul Ponath, Daniel L Menezes, Chin Pan, Bing Chen, Miho Oyasu, Debbie Strachan, Heidi LeBlanc, Huadong Sun, Xi-Tao Wang, Vangipuram Rangan, Shrikant Deshpande, Sandra Cristea, Kwon-Sik Park, Julien Sage, Pina M Cardarelli
PURPOSE: The ganglioside fucosyl-GM1 (FucGM1) is a tumor-associated antigen expressed in a large percentage of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) tumors, but absent in most normal adult tissues, making it a promising target in immuno-oncology. This study was undertaken to evaluate the preclinical efficacy of BMS-986012, a novel, nonfucosylated, fully human IgG1 antibody that binds specifically to FucGM1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The antitumor activity of BMS-986012 was evaluated in in vitro assays using SCLC cells and in mouse xenograft and syngeneic tumor models, with and without chemotherapeutic agents and checkpoint inhibitors...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Donald L Kimpel, Janet E Lewis, Elizabeth Gaughan, William W Grosh, Christiana Brenin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Yoshihiro Tanaka, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Tomonari Suetsugu, Takeharu Imai, Nobuhisa Matsuhashi, Kazuya Yamaguchi
The 11th edition of the Japanese Classification of Esophageal Cancer (EC) was published in 2017. Some correction was made in the depth of tumor invasion to be consistent with the TNM classification by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). With regard to surgery, short-term safety and long-term effectiveness under thoracotomy/video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery are expected to be proven by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG)1409 study. Results of nutritional management and countermeasures for adverse events not only during the perioperative period but also during EC chemotherapy were reported...
July 2018: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
Hélène Babey, Gilles Quéré, Renaud Descourt, Ronan Le Calloch, Luca Lanfranco, Jean-Baptiste Nousbaum, Divi Cornec, Alice Tison, Christos Chouaid
Because of their efficacy against numerous cancers, immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, and anti-programmed cell death monoclonal antibodies are being used ever more often in oncology. However, some patients were excluded from clinical trials because of their comorbidities despite their potentially higher cancer frequencies, as is the case for immunocompromised patients. Areas covered: We analyzed reported preclinical and clinical information and evaluated the risk/benefit ratio for four immunocompromised populations: people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHs), solid-organ transplant recipients, recipients of hematopoietic stem-cell allografts, and patients with autoimmune diseases...
July 20, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Pramern Sriratana, Joseph Norton
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies in cancer treatment have a long history going all the way back to the very beginning of the field, and recent advances are extremely promising. These therapies are becoming a larger part in many patients' oncology treatment as the number of approaches, individual medicines, and indications increase. Furthermore, these novel therapies have different side effect profiles from those traditional chemotherapies which have, until recently, typified the oncologist's approach to treatment together with surgery and radiation...
July 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Jakob Daniel Rudzki
IO treatments (immuno-oncology treatments) have become reality and are now daily practice or, in some cases, a daily challenge. New recommendations are being made with the prime purpose of increasing alertness and awareness as well as emphasizing standard operating strategies to deal with immune-related adverse events (ir-AEs) in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). This brief review refers to systemic reviews, guidelines and meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and case series published from 2000 to the present...
2018: Memo
Sarah Yentz, David Smith
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an enzyme of interest in immuno-oncology because of the immunosuppressive effects that result from its role in tryptophan catabolism. IDO is upregulated in malignancy and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple cancer types. IDO inhibitors have been developed to target IDO, both directly and indirectly. Pre-clinical data have shown combined IDO and checkpoint inhibition to be an efficacious strategy for tumor control. Clinical trials of IDO inhibitors with chemotherapy or immunotherapy are currently underway...
August 2018: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Michael Flynn, Lisa Pickering, James Larkin, Samra Turajlic
Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs), including antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 and programmed cell death protein 1, have been shown to induce durable complete responses in a proportion of patients in the first-line and refractory setting in advanced melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. In fact, there are several lines of both targeted agents and ICPI that are now feasible treatment options. However, survival in the metastatic setting continues to be poor and there remains a need for improved therapeutic approaches...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
D N Ionescu, M R Downes, A Christofides, M S Tsao
Checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death 1 protein (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are demonstrating promising efficacy and appear to be well tolerated in a number of tumour types. In non-small-cell lung cancer, head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma, and urothelial carcinoma, outcomes appear particularly favourable in patients with high PD-L1 expression. However, assays for PD-L1 have been developed for individual agents, and they use different antibody clones, immunohistochemistry staining protocols, scoring algorithms, and cut-offs...
June 2018: Current Oncology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"