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brain chemistry

Mariane Le Fur, Peter Caravan
Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are widely used with clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 10 s of millions of doses of GBCAs are administered annually worldwide. GBCAs are hydrophilic, thermodynamically stable and kinetically inert gadolinium chelates. In clinical MRI, 5-10 millimoles of Gd ion is administered intravenously and the GBCA is rapidly eliminated intact primarily through the kidneys into the urine. It is now well-established that the Gd3+ ion, in some form(s), is partially retained in vivo...
December 5, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Lital Magid, Sami Heymann, Merav Elgali, Liat Avram, Yoram Cohen, Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Raphael Mechoulam, Esther Shohami
Cannabis is one of the most widely used plant drugs in the world today. In spite of the large number of scientific reports on medical marijuana there still exists much controversy surrounding its use and the potential for abuse due to the undesirable psychotropic effects. However, recent developments in medicinal chemistry of novel non-psychoactive synthetic cannabinoids have indicated that it is possible to separate some of the therapeutic effects from the psychoactivity. We have previously shown that treatment with the endocannabinoid 2-AG that binds to both CB1 and CB2 receptors 1 hr after traumatic brain injury in mice attenuates neurological deficits, edema formation, infarct volume, blood-brain barrier permeability, neuronal cell loss at the CA3 hippocampal region and neuroinflammation...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Abhayraj Shrikrishna Joshi, Virender Singh, Avinash Yashwant Gahane, Ashwani Kumar Thakur
Detailed study of the molecular mechanism behind the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD) suggests that the polyglutamine aggregation is one of the fundamental reasons. Despite of discovery of many potential molecules, HD therapy is yet limited to symptomatic relief. Among these molecules, few mechanism based peptide inhibitors of polyglutamine aggregation (QBP1, NT17 and PGQ9P2) have shown promising activity; however, poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, low bioavailability and low half-life may hinder their therapeutic potential...
November 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Hieronim Jakubowski
Epidemiological studies established that elevated homocysteine, an important intermediate in folate, vitamin B12 , and one carbon metabolism, is associated with poor health, including heart and brain diseases. Earlier studies show that patients with severe hyperhomocysteinemia, first identified in the 1960s, exhibit neurological and cardiovascular abnormalities and premature death due to vascular complications. Although homocysteine is considered to be a nonprotein amino acid, studies over the past 2 decades have led to discoveries of protein-related homocysteine metabolism and mechanisms by which homocysteine can become a component of proteins...
January 1, 2019: Physiological Reviews
Andrew J Shoffstall, Melanie Ecker, Vindhya Danda, Alexandra Joshi-Imre, Allison Stiller, Marina Yu, Jennifer E Paiz, Elizabeth Mancuso, Hillary W Bedell, Walter E Voit, Joseph J Pancrazio, Jeffrey R Capadona
Thiol-ene based shape memory polymers (SMPs) have been developed for use as intracortical microelectrode substrates. The unique chemistry provides precise control over the mechanical and thermal glass-transition properties. As a result, SMP substrates are stiff at room temperature, allowing for insertion into the brain without buckling and subsequently soften in response to body temperatures, reducing the mechanical mismatch between device and tissue. Since the surface chemistry of the materials can contribute significantly to the ultimate biocompatibility, as a first step in the characterization of our SMPs, we sought to isolate the biological response to the implanted material surface without regards to the softening mechanics...
September 24, 2018: Micromachines
Joaquin González-Fuentes, Jorge Selva, Carmen Moya, Lucia Castro-Vázquez, Maria V Lozano, Pilar Marcos, Maria Plaza-Oliver, Virginia Rodríguez-Robledo, Manuel J Santander-Ortega, Noemi Villaseca-González, Maria M Arroyo-Jimenez
The prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders is increasing; however, an effective neuroprotective treatment is still remaining. Nutrition plays an important role in neuroprotection as recently shown by epidemiological and biochemical studies which identified food components as promising therapeutic agents. Neuroprotection includes mechanisms such as activation of specific receptors, changes in enzymatic neuronal activity, and synthesis and secretion of different bioactive molecules. All these mechanisms are focused on preventing neuronal damage and alleviating the consequences of massive cell loss...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mateusz Cholewski, Monika Tomczykowa, Michał Tomczyk
Omega-3 fatty acids, one of the key building blocks of cell membranes, have been of particular interest to scientists for many years. However, only a small group of the most important omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered. This full-length review presents a broad and relatively complete cross-section of knowledge about omega-3 monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturates, and an outline of their modifications. This is important because all these subgroups undoubtedly play an important role in the function of organisms...
November 4, 2018: Nutrients
Navid Rabiee, Mojtaba Bagherzadeh, Mohammad Rabiee
Substantial terms have been recognized on the associated risk elements, comorbidities as well as, putative pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRDs) as well as, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a few from greatest important disease from the moments. Very much is considered regarding that biology and chemistry of each predicament, nevertheless regardless of T2DM and ADRDs are actually similar pattern developing from the similar origins of maturing or synergistic conditions connected by aggressive patho-corporeal terms continues to be ambiguous...
October 31, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Karin E Sandoval, Joshua S Wooten, Mathew P Harris, Megan L Schaller, David S Umbaugh, Ken A Witt
Background: Diet-mediated alterations of critical brain nutrient transporters, major facilitator super family domain-containing 2a (Mfsd2a) and glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), have wide reaching implications in brain health and disease. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the impact of long-term low- and high-fat diets with lard or fish oil on critical brain nutrient transporters, Mfsd2a and Glut1. Methods: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed 1 of the following 4 diets for 32 wk: 10% of kcal from lard, 10% of kcal from fish oil, 41% of kcal from lard, or 41% of kcal from fish oil...
October 2018: Current developments in nutrition
Decai Tian, Xiaodong Zhu, Rong Xue, Peng Zhao, Yuanrong Yao
History In November 2012, a previously healthy 31-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 2-month history of right-sided numbness, diplopia, and intermittent nausea and dizziness. She did not have a history of fever, weight loss, headache, photophobia, seizure, or extremity weakness. Physical examination revealed left abduction limitation and right-sided hypoesthesia. Kernig and Brudzinski signs were absent, and pathergy test results were negative. Laboratory evaluation revealed normal complete and differential blood counts, normal serum chemistry, and normal immune function...
November 2018: Radiology
Iwona Grabowska, Neha Sharma, Alina Vasilescu, Madalina Iancu, Gabriela Badea, Rabah Boukherroub, Satishchandra Ogale, Sabine Szunerits
Rapid and accurate diagnostic technologies for early-state identification of cardiovascular abnormalities have become of high importance to prevent and attenuate their progression. The capability of biosensors to determine an increase in the concentration of cardiovascular protein biomarkers in circulating blood immediately after a myocardial infarction makes them ideal point-of-care platforms and alternative approaches to electrocardiograms, chest X-rays, and different laboratory-based immunoassays. We report here a generic approach toward multianalyte sensing platforms for cardiac biomarkers by developing aptamer-based electrochemical sensors for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP-32) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI)...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Gregory C Shearer, Rachel E Walker
Oxylipins are lipid mediators produced from polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism, and are thought to be a molecular explanation for the diverse biological effects of PUFAs. Like PUFAs, oxylipins are distinguished by their omega-6 (n6) or omega-3 (n3) chemistry. We review the use of n6 oxylipins as biomarkers of disease and their use in diagnosis and risk assessment. We show cases where oxylipins derived from linoleate (LA) or arachidonate (AA) produced by the activities of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, epoxygenase, ω/ω-1 hydroxylase, and autooxidation are useful as biomarkers or risk markers...
October 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
C I Edvard Smith, Rula Zain
Oligonucleotides (ONs) can interfere with biomolecules representing the entire extended central dogma. Antisense gapmer, steric block, spliceswitching ONs, and short interfering RNA drugs have been successfully developed. Moreover, antagomirs (antimicroRNAs), microRNA mimics, aptamers, DNAdecoys, DNAzymes, synthetic guide strands for CRISPR/Cas, and innate immunity-stimulating ONs are all in clinical trials. DNAtargeting, triplex-forming ONs and strand-invading ONs have made their mark on drug development research, but not yet as medicines...
October 4, 2018: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Lorenzo Massimi, Inna Bukreeva, Giulia Santamaria, Michela Fratini, Alessandro Corbelli, Francesco Brun, Stefano Fumagalli, Laura Maugeri, Alexandra Pacureanu, Peter Cloetens, Nicola Pieroni, Fabio Fiordaliso, Gianluigi Forloni, Antonio Uccelli, Nicole Kerlero de Rosbo, Claudia Balducci, Alessia Cedola
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with aberrant production of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide depositing in brain as amyloid plaques. While animal models allow investigation of disease progression and therapeutic efficacy, technology to fully dissect the pathological mechanisms of this complex disease at cellular and vascular levels is lacking. X-ray phase contrast tomography (XPCT) is an advanced non-destructive 3D multi-scale direct imaging from the cell through to the whole brain, with exceptional spatial and contrast resolution...
January 1, 2019: NeuroImage
Federico Baruffaldi, April Huseby Kelcher, Megan Laudenbach, Valeria Gradinati, Ajinkya Limkar, Michaela Roslawski, Angela Birnbaum, Andrew Lees, Carla Hassler, Scott P Runyon, Marco Pravetoni
Vaccines may offer a new treatment strategy for opioid use disorders and opioid-related overdoses. To speed translation, this study evaluates opioid conjugate vaccines containing components suitable for pharmaceutical manufacturing and compares analytical assays for conjugate characterization. Three oxycodone-based haptens (OXY) containing either PEGylated or tetraglycine [(Gly)4] linkers were conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) carrier protein via carbodiimide (EDAC) or maleimide chemistry. The EDAC-conjugated OXY(Gly)4-KLH was most effective in reducing oxycodone distribution to the brain in mice...
September 21, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Anika Westphal, Ralf Mrowka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Monika Rana, Anuj Kumar Sharma
The coordination chemistry of transition metal ions (Fe, Cu, Zn) with the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides has attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to its repercussions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ peptide undergoes self-aggregation to form amyloid plaques and soluble oligomers, which are believed to play a central role in AD pathology. Metal ions and Aβ-metal adducts can generate toxic radical species capable of modifying biomolecules, ultimately causing death of the neuronal cells. The impact of these metal ions on Aβ aggregation and neurotoxic species formation is still not well understood...
September 20, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Sridhar T Narla, Brandon Decker, Pinaki Sarder, Ewa K Stachowiak, Michal K Stachowiak
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by complex aberrations in the structure, wiring, and chemistry of multiple neuronal systems. The abnormal developmental trajectory of the brain is established during gestation, long before clinical manifestation of the disease. Over 200 genes and even greater numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations have been linked with schizophrenia. How does altered function of such a variety of genes lead to schizophrenia? We propose that the protein products of these altered genes converge on a common neurodevelopmental pathway responsible for the development of brain neural circuit and neurotransmitter systems...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Kenneth Blum, Edward J Modestino, Marjorie Gondré-Lewis, B William Downs, David Baron, Bruce Steinberg, David Siwicki, John Giordano, Thomas McLaughlin, Jennifer Neary, Mary Hauser, Lyle Fried, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The well-researched pro-dopamine regulator KB220 and variants result in increased functional connectivity in both animal and human brains, and prolonged neuroplasticity (brain cell repair) having been observed in rodents. Moreover, in addition to increased functional connectivity, recent studies show that KB220Z increases overall brain connectivity volume, enhances neuronal dopamine firing, and eliminates lucid dreams in humans over a prolonged period. An unprecedented number of clinical studies validating this patented nutrigenomic technology in re-balancing brain chemistry and optimizing dopamine sensitivity and function have been published...
November 2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
Watshara Shoombuatong, Nalini Schaduangrat, Chanin Nantasenamat
Aromatase is a rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis that is overproduced in breast cancer tissue. To block the growth of breast tumors, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are employed to bind and inhibit aromatase in order to lower the amount of estrogen produced in the body. Although a number of synthetic aromatase inhibitors have been released for clinical use in the treatment of hormone-receptor positive breast cancer, these inhibitors may lead to undesirable side effects (e.g. increased rash, diarrhea and vomiting; effects on the bone, brain and heart) and therefore, the search for novel AIs continues...
2018: EXCLI Journal
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