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Pulmonary test technology

Paul Brinkman, Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee, Ariane H Wagener
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The long-term management goals of the inflammatory airway diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are similar and focus on symptom control and reduction of exacerbation frequency and severity. Treatable traits have recently been postulated as a management concept which complements the traditional diagnostic labels 'asthma' and 'COPD', thereby focusing on therapy targeted to a patients' individual disease-associated characteristics. Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be utilized as noninvasive biomarker for disease activity or manifestation in asthma and COPD...
October 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Satinderjit Locham, Muhammad Faateh, Jasninder Dhaliwal, Besma Nejim, Hanaa Dakour-Aridi, Mahmoud B Malas
BACKGROUND: Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) has expanded the indications of this minimally invasive procedure to include patients with pararenal aneurysms. The actual cost of this relatively newer technology compared with standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has not been studied before. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze in-hospital costs and adverse outcomes in patients undergoing FEVAR vs EVAR for intact abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database (2012-2015), we identified all patients who underwent elective EVAR and FEVAR...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Jiraporn Khumsri, Narin Hiransuthikul, Piya Hanvoravongchai, Charoen Chuchottaworn
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is one of the top 10 causes of mortality worldwide in 2016. Early detection is very important, as it can help early treatment. This study compared 2 separate methods of diagnosing PTB among suspected patients, specifically examining correct diagnosis and the duration of receiving a correct diagnosis. It was carried out in a tertiary care public hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups, one with the Xpert MTB/RIF ( Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin) and the other with sputum AFB (acid-fast bacilli) smear...
September 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Konstantin Willer, Alexander A Fingerle, Lukas B Gromann, Fabio De Marco, Julia Herzen, Klaus Achterhold, Bernhard Gleich, Daniela Muenzel, Kai Scherer, Martin Renz, Bernhard Renger, Felix Kopp, Fabian Kriner, Florian Fischer, Christian Braun, Sigrid Auweter, Katharina Hellbach, Maximilian F Reiser, Tobias Schroeter, Juergen Mohr, Andre Yaroshenko, Hanns-Ingo Maack, Thomas Pralow, Hendrik van der Heijden, Roland Proksa, Thomas Koehler, Nataly Wieberneit, Karsten Rindt, Ernst J Rummeny, Franz Pfeiffer, Peter B Noël
Disorders of the lungs such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality and the third leading cause of death in the world. The absence of sensitive diagnostic tests for early disease stages of COPD results in under-diagnosis of this treatable disease in an estimated 60-85% of the patients. In recent years a grating-based approach to X-ray dark-field contrast imaging has shown to be very sensitive for the detection and quantification of pulmonary emphysema in small animal models...
2018: PloS One
João Ferreira-Martins, James Howard, Becker Al-Khayatt, Joseph Shalhoub, Afzal Sohaib, Matthew J Shun-Shin, Paul G Novak, Rick Leather, Laurence D Sterns, Christopher Lane, Phang Boon Lim, Prapa Kanagaratnam, Nicholas S Peters, Darrel P Francis, Markus B Sikkel
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether ablation methodology and study design can explain the varying outcomes in terms of AF-free survival at 1 year. BACKGROUND: There have been numerous paroxysmal AF ablation trials, which are heterogeneous in their use of different ablation techniques and study design. A useful approach to understanding how these factors influence outcome is to dismantle the trials into individual arms and reconstitute them as a large meta-regression. METHODS: Data was collected from 66 studies (6941 patients)...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
S M Mazidur Rahman, Umme Tasnim Maliha, Shahriar Ahmed, Senjuti Kabir, Razia Khatun, Javeed A Shah, Sayera Banu
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay technology allows rapid and sensitive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from sputum specimens. However, diagnosis of PTB is difficult for patients who cannot produce sputum. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of Xpert assay for successful detection of PTB using stool samples from adult subjects. METHODS: Both stool and sputum samples from known smear and Xpert positive PTB patients were collected from a TB hospital in Dhaka...
2018: PloS One
Junlin Chen, Fei Huang, Xi Yin, Delin Gu
This study was undertaken to compare the ability of four clinically used methods to detect the heteroresistance of the tubercle bacillus to Rifampicin (Rif). A total of 94 sputum smear-positive samples of re-treated tuberculosis (TB) patients were employed. Rif-resistant tubercle bacillus tests were carried out by four methods: Lowenstein-Jensen cultures (L-J), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS), and high-resolution melting (HRM). The rates of detection of Rif-resistant bacteria by of L-J, RT-PCR, MODS, and HRM were 35...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Steve Goodacre, Kimberley Horspool, Neil Shephard, Daniel Pollard, Beverley J Hunt, Gordon Fuller, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Marian Knight, Steven Thomas, Fiona Lecky, Judith Cohen
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of death in pregnancy and post partum, but the symptoms of PE are common in normal pregnancy. Simple diagnostic tests are needed to select women for diagnostic imaging. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the accuracy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of clinical features, decision rules and biomarkers for selecting pregnant or postpartum women with a suspected PE for imaging. DESIGN: An expert consensus study to develop new clinical decision rules, a case-control study of women with a diagnosed PE or a suspected PE, a biomarker study of women with a suspected PE or diagnosed deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and decision-analysis modelling...
August 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Dylan C Dean, Shen Shen, Francis J Hornicek, Zhenfeng Duan
Although the investigation into biomarkers specific for pulmonary metastasis within osteosarcoma (OS) has recently expanded, their usage within the clinic remains sparse. The current screening protocol after any OS diagnosis includes a chest CT scan; however, metastatic lung nodules frequently go undetected and remain the primary cause of death in OS. Recently, screening technologies such as liquid biopsy and next-generation sequencing have revealed a promising array of biomarkers with predictive and diagnostic value for the pulmonary metastasis associated with OS...
August 31, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Nichole T Tanner, Lonny Yarmus, Alexander Chen, Jessica Wang Memoli, Hiren J Mehta, Nicholas J Pastis, Hans Lee, Michael A Jantz, Paul J Nietert, Gerard A Silvestri
BACKGROUND: New technology has resulted in bronchoscopy being increasingly used for diagnosing pulmonary lesions. Reported yield from these procedures varies widely with few randomized clinical trials. This study compares the diagnostic yield of a thin bronchoscope and radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) with standard bronchoscopy and fluoroscopy (SB-F) in lung lesions. METHODS: Patients presenting for diagnostic bronchoscopic evaluation at five centers were randomized to undergo SB-F or R-EBUS with a thin bronchoscope (TB-EBUS)...
August 23, 2018: Chest
Hee Kwon, Sungin Lee, Eun Ji Jung, SangHee Kim, Jung-Kyu Lee, Deog Kyeom Kim, Tae-Hyung Kim, Seung Hyeun Lee, Myoung Kyu Lee, Seungjae Song, Kichul Shin
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major morbidities in public health, and the use of mHealth technology for rehabilitation of patients with COPD can help increase physical activity and ameliorate respiratory symptoms. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a comprehensive rehabilitation management platform to improve physical activity and quality of life in patients with COPD. METHODS: The study comprised the following 2 stages: (1) a pilot stage in which a prototype app was developed; and (2) a fully-fledged platform development stage in which 2 apps and 1 COPD patient monitoring website were developed...
August 24, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Tiva Nemanic, Irena Sarc, Sabina Skrgat, Matjaz Flezar, Iztok Cukjati, Mateja Marc Malovrh
OBJECTIVE: Telemonitoring seems to be a useful tool for patients' management. The aim of our project was to test the applicability and potential effects of a 12-month telemonitoring of patients with asthma supported by information and communication technologies. METHODS: We included 100 patients with asthma followed in the outpatient pulmonary clinic in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The patients' data were collected by study questionnaires and lung function tests at the inclusion and at the end of interventional period...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Ron Balczon, Michael Francis, Silas Leavesley, Troy Stevens
Patients who survive pneumonia have elevated death rates in the months following hospital discharge. It has been hypothesized that infection of pulmonary tissue during pneumonia results in the production of long-lived cytotoxins that can lead to subsequent end organ failure. We have developed in vitro assays to test the hypothesis that cytotoxins are produced during pulmonary infection. Isolated rat pulmonary endothelial cells and the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as model systems, and the production of cytoxins following infection of the endothelial cells by the bacteria is demonstrated using cell culture followed by direct quantitation using lactate dehydrogenase assays and a novel microscopic method utilizing ImageJ technology...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Simon L F Walsh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The application of computer-based imaging analysis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a rapidly developing field. The purpose of this review is to provide insights into the problems associated with visual interpretation of HRCT patterns and describe some of the current technologies used to provide objective quantification of disease on HRCT. Future directions are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there is strong evidence that visual quantification of disease on HRCT in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis provides prognostic information, this approach is hampered by its subjective nature and interobserver variability...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Reshma Jagsi, Kent A Griffith, Jean M Moran, Edward Ficaro, Robin Marsh, Robert T Dess, Eugene Chung, Adam L Liss, James A Hayman, Charles S Mayo, Kevin Flaherty, James Corbett, Lori Pierce
PURPOSE: Although inverse-planned intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) may allow for more conformal dose distributions, it is unknown whether using these technologies reduces cardiac or pulmonary toxicity of breast radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A randomized controlled trial compared IMRT-DIBH versus standard, free-breathing, forward-planned, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in patients with left-sided, node-positive breast cancer in whom the internal mammary nodal region was targeted...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Branislava Milenkovic, Sanja Dimic Janjic, Spasoje Popevic
Emphysema is an incurable and underdiagnosed disease with obstructive ventilatory impairment of lung function. Despite decades of research, medical treatments available so far did not significantly improve the survival benefits. Different bronchoscopic methods for lung volume reduction (LVR) in emphysema were used in the past 2 decades aiming to close the airways serving the hyperinflated lung regions and to allow the gas in the more distal bullas to be absorbed. Sealants and adhesives can be natural/biological, synthetic and semisynthetic...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
F J Candel, M Borges Sá, S Belda, G Bou, J L Del Pozo, O Estrada, R Ferrer, J González Del Castillo, A Julián-Jiménez, I Martín-Loeches, E Maseda, M Matesanz, P Ramírez, J T Ramos, J Rello, B Suberviola, A Suárez de la Rica, P Vidal
The incidence and prevalence of sepsis depend on the definitions and records that we use and we may be underestimating their impact. Up to 60% of the cases come from the community and in 30-60% we obtain microbiological information. Sometimes its presentation is ambiguous and there may be a delay in its detection, especially in the fragile population. Procalcitonin is the most validated biomarker for bacterial sepsis and the one that best discriminates the non-infectious cause. Presepsin and pro-adrenomedullin are useful for early diagnosis, risk stratification and prognosis in septic patients...
August 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Zhiqiong Wang, Junchang Xin, Peishun Sun, Zhixiang Lin, Yudong Yao, Xiaosong Gao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Among all malignant tumors, lung cancer ranks in the top in mortality rate. Pulmonary nodule is the early manifestation of lung cancer, and plays an important role in its discovery, diagnosis and treatment. The technology of medical imaging has encountered a rapid development in recent years, thus the amount of pulmonary nodules can be discovered are on the raise, which means even tiny or minor changes in lung can be recorded by the CT images. This paper proposes a pulmonary nodule computer aided diagnosis (CAD) based on semi-supervised extreme learning machine(SS-ELM)...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Nozha Ben Salah, Dorra Bejar, Houda Snene, Yacine Ouahchi, Nadia Mehiri, Bechir Louzir
Pulmonary resection can be associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality, which depends on the nature and extent of pulmonary resection but also on the patient himself. This risk can be apprehended by a preoperative assessment which estimates the immediate operative risk as well as the physiological state and the post-operative quality of life which can require more conservative therapies. Currently, preoperative exploration of a patient is based on various technological tools, which can range from simple electrocardiogram or simple spirometry to a complex exploration such as a cardiorespiratory effort test...
December 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
Bo Liu, Rongrong Li, Jinjin Zhang, Chao Meng, Jie Zhang, Xiaodong Song, Changjun Lv
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for many diseases. However, the miRNAs that control the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and act as potential therapeutic targets for the disease are rarely studied. In the present study, we analyzed the function and regulatory mechanism of microRNA-708-3p (miR-708-3p) and evaluated this marker's potential as a therapeutic target in IPF. The clinical and biological relevance of fibrogenesis for miR-708-3p was assessed in vivo and in vitro, specifically in matching plasma and tissue samples from 78 patients with IPF...
March 30, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
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