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Pulmonary test technology

Tudor P Toma, Marco Trigiani, Alessandro Zanforlin, Riccardo Inchingolo, Mauro Zanobetti, Lucia Sammicheli, Emanuele G Conte, Giuseppe Buggio, Liliana Villari, Giampietro Marchetti
Ultrasound examination is traditionally considered a safe and repeatable exam, but its use is highly operator dependent. Because of this, lack of sufficient operator skills could lead to diagnostic errors and damage to patient safety related to unnecessary tests or interventional procedures. The indications for lung ultrasound include: diagnosis, quantification, and follow-up of different conditions for which acute respiratory failure or chest pain are the main clinical presentation. Clinician should have theoretical and practical knowledge on: physics and technology of ultrasound, indications and methodology of US examination, normal echographic thoracic anatomy and identification and detection of signs of pleuro-pulmonary pathology...
November 27, 2018: Panminerva Medica
Thorunn Scheving Eliasdottir
PURPOSE: Continuous peripheral pulse oximetry for monitoring adequacy of oxygenation is probably the most important technological advance for patients' monitoring and safety in the last decades. Pulse oximetry has the disadvantage of measuring the peripheral circulation, and the only mean to measure oxygen content of the central circulation is by invasive technology. Determination of blood oxyhaemoglobin saturation in the retinal vessels of the eye can be achieved noninvasively through spectrophotometric retinal oximetry which provides access to the central nervous system circulation...
November 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Ángela Sánchez-Sánchez, Óscar Girón-Vallejo, Ramón Ruiz-Pruneda, Maria Fernandez-Ibieta, Darío García-Calderon, Vanesa Villamil, María Cristina Giménez-Aleixandre, Carlos Andrés Montoya-Rangel, Juan Pedro Hernández Bermejo
Introduction  Three-dimensional (3D) technology is increasingly applied for planning challenging surgical interventions. We report our experience using 3D printing and virtual reconstruction for surgical planning of complex tumor resections in children. Methods  Data were obtained from preoperative magnetic resonance. imaging analysis and 3D virtual recreations were performed using specialized computer software. 3D real-scale geometry models, including tumor, adjacent organs, and relevant vascularization, were printed in colorimetric scale and different materials for optimal structures discrimination...
January 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery Reports
Safiya Richardson, Philip Solomon, Alexander O'Connell, Sundas Khan, Jonathan Gong, Alex Makhnevich, Guang Qiu, Meng Zhang, Thomas McGinn
BACKGROUND: Use of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the assessment of pulmonary embolism (PE) has markedly increased over the past two decades. While this technology has improved the accuracy of radiological testing for PE, CTPA also carries the risk of substantial iatrogenic harm. Each CTPA carries a 14% risk of contrast-induced nephropathy and a lifetime malignancy risk that can be as high as 2.76%. The appropriate use of CTPA can be estimated by monitoring the CTPA yield, the percentage of tests positive for PE...
October 25, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
Karolyne S Magalhães, Pedro F Spiller, Melina P da Silva, Luciana B Kuntze, Julian F R Paton, Benedito H Machado, Davi J A Moraes
At rest, inspiration is an active process while expiration is passive. However, high chemical drive (hypercapnia or hypoxia) activates central and peripheral chemoreceptors triggering reflex increases in inspiration and active expiration. The Locus Coeruleus contains noradrenergic neurons (A6 neurons) that increase their firing frequency when exposed to hypercapnia and hypoxia. Using recently developed neuronal hyperpolarising technology in conscious rats, we tested the hypothesis that A6 neurons are a part of a vigilance centre for controlling breathing under high chemical drive and that this includes recruitment of active inspiration and expiration in readiness for flight or fight...
October 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paul Brinkman, Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee, Ariane H Wagener
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The long-term management goals of the inflammatory airway diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are similar and focus on symptom control and reduction of exacerbation frequency and severity. Treatable traits have recently been postulated as a management concept which complements the traditional diagnostic labels 'asthma' and 'COPD', thereby focusing on therapy targeted to a patients' individual disease-associated characteristics. Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be utilized as noninvasive biomarker for disease activity or manifestation in asthma and COPD...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Satinderjit Locham, Muhammad Faateh, Jasninder Dhaliwal, Besma Nejim, Hanaa Dakour-Aridi, Mahmoud B Malas
BACKGROUND: Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) has expanded the indications of this minimally invasive procedure to include patients with pararenal aneurysms. The actual cost of this relatively newer technology compared with standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has not been studied before. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze in-hospital costs and adverse outcomes in patients undergoing FEVAR vs EVAR for intact abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database (2012-2015), we identified all patients who underwent elective EVAR and FEVAR...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Jiraporn Khumsri, Narin Hiransuthikul, Piya Hanvoravongchai, Charoen Chuchottaworn
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is one of the top 10 causes of mortality worldwide in 2016. Early detection is very important, as it can help early treatment. This study compared 2 separate methods of diagnosing PTB among suspected patients, specifically examining correct diagnosis and the duration of receiving a correct diagnosis. It was carried out in a tertiary care public hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Ninety patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups, one with the Xpert MTB/RIF ( Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin) and the other with sputum AFB (acid-fast bacilli) smear...
September 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Konstantin Willer, Alexander A Fingerle, Lukas B Gromann, Fabio De Marco, Julia Herzen, Klaus Achterhold, Bernhard Gleich, Daniela Muenzel, Kai Scherer, Martin Renz, Bernhard Renger, Felix Kopp, Fabian Kriner, Florian Fischer, Christian Braun, Sigrid Auweter, Katharina Hellbach, Maximilian F Reiser, Tobias Schroeter, Juergen Mohr, Andre Yaroshenko, Hanns-Ingo Maack, Thomas Pralow, Hendrik van der Heijden, Roland Proksa, Thomas Koehler, Nataly Wieberneit, Karsten Rindt, Ernst J Rummeny, Franz Pfeiffer, Peter B Noël
Disorders of the lungs such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality and the third leading cause of death in the world. The absence of sensitive diagnostic tests for early disease stages of COPD results in under-diagnosis of this treatable disease in an estimated 60-85% of the patients. In recent years a grating-based approach to X-ray dark-field contrast imaging has shown to be very sensitive for the detection and quantification of pulmonary emphysema in small animal models...
2018: PloS One
João Ferreira-Martins, James Howard, Becker Al-Khayatt, Joseph Shalhoub, Afzal Sohaib, Matthew J Shun-Shin, Paul G Novak, Rick Leather, Laurence D Sterns, Christopher Lane, Phang Boon Lim, Prapa Kanagaratnam, Nicholas S Peters, Darrel P Francis, Markus B Sikkel
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether ablation methodology and study design can explain the varying outcomes in terms of atrial fibrillation (AF)-free survival at 1 year. BACKGROUND: There have been numerous paroxysmal AF ablation trials, which are heterogeneous in their use of different ablation techniques and study design. A useful approach to understanding how these factors influence outcome is to dismantle the trials into individual arms and reconstitute them as a large meta-regression...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
S M Mazidur Rahman, Umme Tasnim Maliha, Shahriar Ahmed, Senjuti Kabir, Razia Khatun, Javeed A Shah, Sayera Banu
BACKGROUND: The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay technology allows rapid and sensitive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from sputum specimens. However, diagnosis of PTB is difficult for patients who cannot produce sputum. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of Xpert assay for successful detection of PTB using stool samples from adult subjects. METHODS: Both stool and sputum samples from known smear and Xpert positive PTB patients were collected from a TB hospital in Dhaka...
2018: PloS One
Junlin Chen, Fei Huang, Xi Yin, Delin Gu
This study was undertaken to compare the ability of four clinically used methods to detect the heteroresistance of the tubercle bacillus to Rifampicin (Rif). A total of 94 sputum smear-positive samples of re-treated tuberculosis (TB) patients were employed. Rif-resistant tubercle bacillus tests were carried out by four methods: Lowenstein-Jensen cultures (L-J), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS), and high-resolution melting (HRM). The rates of detection of Rif-resistant bacteria by of L-J, RT-PCR, MODS, and HRM were 35...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Steve Goodacre, Kimberley Horspool, Neil Shephard, Daniel Pollard, Beverley J Hunt, Gordon Fuller, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Marian Knight, Steven Thomas, Fiona Lecky, Judith Cohen
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of death in pregnancy and post partum, but the symptoms of PE are common in normal pregnancy. Simple diagnostic tests are needed to select women for diagnostic imaging. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the accuracy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of clinical features, decision rules and biomarkers for selecting pregnant or postpartum women with a suspected PE for imaging. DESIGN: An expert consensus study to develop new clinical decision rules, a case-control study of women with a diagnosed PE or a suspected PE, a biomarker study of women with a suspected PE or diagnosed deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and decision-analysis modelling...
August 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Dylan C Dean, Shen Shen, Francis J Hornicek, Zhenfeng Duan
Although the investigation into biomarkers specific for pulmonary metastasis within osteosarcoma (OS) has recently expanded, their usage within the clinic remains sparse. The current screening protocol after any OS diagnosis includes a chest CT scan; however, metastatic lung nodules frequently go undetected and remain the primary cause of death in OS. Recently, screening technologies such as liquid biopsy and next-generation sequencing have revealed a promising array of biomarkers with predictive and diagnostic value for the pulmonary metastasis associated with OS...
August 31, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Nichole T Tanner, Lonny Yarmus, Alexander Chen, Jessica Wang Memoli, Hiren J Mehta, Nicholas J Pastis, Hans Lee, Michael A Jantz, Paul J Nietert, Gerard A Silvestri
BACKGROUND: New technology has resulted in bronchoscopy being increasingly used for diagnosing pulmonary lesions. Reported yield from these procedures varies widely with few randomized clinical trials. This study compares the diagnostic yield of a thin bronchoscope and radial endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) with standard bronchoscopy and fluoroscopy (SB-F) in lung lesions. METHODS: Patients presenting for diagnostic bronchoscopic evaluation at five centers were randomized to undergo SB-F or R-EBUS with a thin bronchoscope (TB-EBUS)...
November 2018: Chest
Hee Kwon, Sungin Lee, Eun Ji Jung, SangHee Kim, Jung-Kyu Lee, Deog Kyeom Kim, Tae-Hyung Kim, Seung Hyeun Lee, Myoung Kyu Lee, Seungjae Song, Kichul Shin
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major morbidities in public health, and the use of mHealth technology for rehabilitation of patients with COPD can help increase physical activity and ameliorate respiratory symptoms. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a comprehensive rehabilitation management platform to improve physical activity and quality of life in patients with COPD. METHODS: The study comprised the following 2 stages: (1) a pilot stage in which a prototype app was developed; and (2) a fully-fledged platform development stage in which 2 apps and 1 COPD patient monitoring website were developed...
August 24, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Tiva Nemanic, Irena Sarc, Sabina Skrgat, Matjaz Flezar, Iztok Cukjati, Mateja Marc Malovrh
OBJECTIVE: Telemonitoring seems to be a useful tool for patients' management. The aim of our project was to test the applicability and potential effects of a 12-month telemonitoring of patients with asthma supported by information and communication technologies. METHODS: We included 100 patients with asthma followed in the outpatient pulmonary clinic in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The patients' data were collected by study questionnaires and lung function tests at the inclusion and at the end of interventional period...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Ron Balczon, Michael Francis, Silas Leavesley, Troy Stevens
Patients who survive pneumonia have elevated death rates in the months following hospital discharge. It has been hypothesized that infection of pulmonary tissue during pneumonia results in the production of long-lived cytotoxins that can lead to subsequent end organ failure. We have developed in vitro assays to test the hypothesis that cytotoxins are produced during pulmonary infection. Isolated rat pulmonary endothelial cells and the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa are used as model systems, and the production of cytoxins following infection of the endothelial cells by the bacteria is demonstrated using cell culture followed by direct quantitation using lactate dehydrogenase assays and a novel microscopic method utilizing ImageJ technology...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Simon L F Walsh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The application of computer-based imaging analysis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a rapidly developing field. The purpose of this review is to provide insights into the problems associated with visual interpretation of HRCT patterns and describe some of the current technologies used to provide objective quantification of disease on HRCT. Future directions are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there is strong evidence that visual quantification of disease on HRCT in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis provides prognostic information, this approach is hampered by its subjective nature and interobserver variability...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Reshma Jagsi, Kent A Griffith, Jean M Moran, Edward Ficaro, Robin Marsh, Robert T Dess, Eugene Chung, Adam L Liss, James A Hayman, Charles S Mayo, Kevin Flaherty, James Corbett, Lori Pierce
PURPOSE: Although inverse-planned intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) may allow for more conformal dose distributions, it is unknown whether using these technologies reduces cardiac or pulmonary toxicity of breast radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A randomized controlled trial compared IMRT-DIBH versus standard, free-breathing, forward-planned, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in patients with left-sided, node-positive breast cancer in whom the internal mammary nodal region was targeted...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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