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Hematopoietic niche

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933777/generation-and-use-of-a-humanized-bone-marrow-ossicle-niche-for-hematopoietic-xenotransplantation-into-mice
#1
Andreas Reinisch, David Cruz Hernandez, Katharina Schallmoser, Ravindra Majeti
Xenotransplantation is frequently used to study normal and malignant hematopoiesis of human cells. However, conventional mouse xenotransplantation models lack essential human-specific bone-marrow (BM)-microenvironment-derived survival, proliferation, and self-renewal signals for engraftment of normal and malignant blood cells. As a consequence, many human leukemias and other hematologic disorders do not robustly engraft in these conventional models. Here, we describe a complete workflow for the generation of humanized ossicles with an accessible BM microenvironment that faithfully recapitulates normal BM niche morphology and function...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920957/klf4-dependent-perivascular-cell-plasticity-mediates-pre-metastatic-niche-formation-and-metastasis
#2
Meera Murgai, Wei Ju, Matthew Eason, Jessica Kline, Daniel W Beury, Sabina Kaczanowska, Markku M Miettinen, Michael Kruhlak, Haiyan Lei, Jack F Shern, Olga A Cherepanova, Gary K Owens, Rosandra N Kaplan
A deeper understanding of the metastatic process is required for the development of new therapies that improve patient survival. Metastatic tumor cell growth and survival in distant organs is facilitated by the formation of a pre-metastatic niche that is composed of hematopoietic cells, stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and pericytes, are involved in new vessel formation and in promoting stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Given the well-described plasticity of perivascular cells, we hypothesized that perivascular cells similarly regulate tumor cell fate at metastatic sites...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920946/potential-niche-indications-for-blinatumomab-as-a-bridge-to-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#3
Yi Zeng, Emmanuel Katsanis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916148/chemokine-receptor-directed-imaging-and-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Andreas K Buck, Antje Stolzenburg, Heribert Hänscheid, Andreas Schirbel, Katharina Lückerath, Margret Schottelius, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Constantin Lapa
The C - X - C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and its natural ligand CXCL12 are key factors in the process of cell migration, homing of hematopoietic stem cells to the bone marrow, and represent important mediators of angiogenesis and cell proliferation. The CXCR4/CXCL12 interplay can be disrupted by CXCR4 antagonists such as Plerixafor which are already in daily clinical use, i.e. for mobilization and subsequent harvesting of hematopoietic progenitor cells and stem cell transplantation. In a pathological condition, involvement in the process of metastasis and homing of cancer cells to a protective niche has been described, making CXCR4 an attractive target for imaging and treatment of malignant diseases...
September 12, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895849/opening-marrow-niches-in-patients-undergoing-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-gene-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Morton J Cowan, Christopher C Dvorak, Janel Long-Boyle
Successful gene therapy for genetic disorders requires marrow niches to be opened to varying degrees to engraft gene-corrected hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). For example, in severe combined immunodeficiency, relatively limited chimerism is necessary for both T- and B-cell immune reconstitution, whereas for inborn errors of metabolism maximal donor chimerism is the goal. Currently, alkylating chemotherapy is used for this purpose. Significant pharmacokinetic variability exists in drug clearance in children less than 12 years old...
October 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893838/biology-of-bone-the-vasculature-of-the-skeletal-system
#6
Emma C Watson, Ralf H Adams
Blood vessels are essential for the distribution of oxygen, nutrients, and immune cells, as well as the removal of waste products. In addition to this conventional role as a versatile conduit system, the endothelial cells forming the innermost layer of the vessel wall also possess important signaling capabilities and can control growth, patterning, homeostasis, and regeneration of the surrounding organ. In the skeletal system, blood vessels regulate developmental and regenerative bone formation as well as hematopoiesis by providing vascular niches for hematopoietic stem cells...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884113/in-vitro-culture-of-na%C3%A3-ve-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-stemness-based-approach
#7
REVIEW
Bidisha Pal, Bikul Das
Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) resides in their niches in close proximity to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These naïve MSCs have tremendous potential in regenerative therapeutics, and may also be exploited by cancer and infectious disease agents. Hence, it is important to study the physiological and pathological roles of naïve MSC. However, our knowledge of naïve MSCs is limited by lack of appropriate isolation and in vitro culture methods. Established culture methods use serum rich media, and serial passaging for retrospective isolation of MSCs...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878134/prevention-of-breast-cancer-skeletal-metastases-with-parathyroid-hormone
#8
Srilatha Swami, Joshua Johnson, Lance A Bettinson, Takaharu Kimura, Hui Zhu, Megan A Albertelli, Rachelle W Johnson, Joy Y Wu
Advanced breast cancer is frequently associated with skeletal metastases and accelerated bone loss. Recombinant parathyroid hormone [teriparatide, PTH(1-34)] is the first anabolic agent approved in the US for treatment of osteoporosis. While signaling through the PTH receptor in the osteoblast lineage regulates bone marrow hematopoietic niches, the effects of anabolic PTH on the skeletal metastatic niche are unknown. Here, we demonstrate, using orthotopic and intratibial models of 4T1 murine and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer tumors, that anabolic PTH decreases both tumor engraftment and the incidence of spontaneous skeletal metastasis in mice...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866324/effects-of-in-vivo-deletion-of-gata2-in-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#9
Shin Hasegawa, Tohru Fujiwara, Yoko Okitsu, Hiroki Kato, Yuki Sato, Noriko Fukuhara, Yasushi Onishi, Ritsuko Shimizu, Masayuki Yamamoto, Hideo Harigae
The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment comprises multiple stem cell niches derived from BM mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Previous in vitro analyses have suggested that transcription factor GATA2 plays an important role in adipocyte differentiation of BM-mesenchymal stem cells as well as in hematopoietic support, but the role of GATA2 in vivo remains unknown. We evaluated GATA2 effects in BM-MSC in vivo. Expression profiling analysis of Gata2 knockout Ter119(-)CD45(-) mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from compact bone from tamoxifen-treated Gata2 conditional knockout mice (Gata2(f/f)/ER-Cre mice) revealed upregulation of 110 genes and downregulation of 141 by a factor of 2...
August 30, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846069/secreted-protein-del-1-regulates-myelopoiesis-in-the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche
#10
Ioannis Mitroulis, Lan-Sun Chen, Rashim Pal Singh, Ioannis Kourtzelis, Matina Economopoulou, Tetsuhiro Kajikawa, Maria Troullinaki, Athanasios Ziogas, Klara Ruppova, Kavita Hosur, Tomoki Maekawa, Baomei Wang, Pallavi Subramanian, Torsten Tonn, Panayotis Verginis, Malte von Bonin, Manja Wobus, Martin Bornhäuser, Tatyana Grinenko, Marianna Di Scala, Andres Hidalgo, Ben Wielockx, George Hajishengallis, Triantafyllos Chavakis
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remain mostly quiescent under steady-state conditions but switch to a proliferative state following hematopoietic stress, e.g., bone marrow (BM) injury, transplantation, or systemic infection and inflammation. The homeostatic balance between quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation of HSCs is strongly dependent on their interactions with cells that constitute a specialized microanatomical environment in the BM known as the HSC niche. Here, we identified the secreted extracellular matrix protein Del-1 as a component and regulator of the HSC niche...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845387/notch-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell
#11
REVIEW
Fabio Pereira Lampreia, Joana Gonçalves Carmelo, Fernando Anjos-Afonso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the signaling pathways that govern hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is fundamental to uncover their regulation and how this is skewed in hematological malignancies. Whether Notch is necessary for the regulation of mammalian HSPCs is still unclear. We therefore critically review the current literature on the role of Notch in HSPCs. RECENT FINDINGS: HSPCs have shown different requirements for Notch signals in vitro and in vivo and at different stages of differentiation...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845386/innate-immunity-and-mobilization-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#12
REVIEW
Mateusz Adamiak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several mechanisms have been postulated to orchestrate mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), and still more work is needed to better understand this process and to gain better mechanistic insight. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence accumulated that mobilization of HSPCs is a part of innate immunity response to tissue organ injury, stress, and infection. This evolutionary ancient process is orchestrated by granulocytes and monocytes that trigger activation of complement cascade and the coagulation cascade...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845045/the-niche-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-expansion-a-collaboration-network
#13
Qingfeng Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844835/the-skeletal-vascular-system-breathing-life-into-bone-tissue
#14
Steve Stegen, Geert Carmeliet
During bone development, homeostasis and repair, a dense vascular system provides oxygen and nutrients to highly anabolic skeletal cells. Characteristic for the vascular system in bone is the serial organization of two capillary systems, each typified by specific morphological and physiological features. Primarily the arterial capillaries mediate the growth of the bone vascular system, serve as a niche for skeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and couple angiogenesis to osteogenesis. Endothelial cells and osteoprogenitor cells interact not only physically, but also communicate to each other by secretion of growth factors...
August 24, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844708/osteopontin-and-their-roles-in-hematological-malignancies-splice-variants-on-the-new-avenues
#15
Ana Clara Santos Fonseca Bastos, Caroline Barbieri Blunck, Mariana Emerenciano, Etel Rodrigues Pereira Gimba
Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein expressed in several tissues, including bone marrow, in which it performs distinct roles, such as modulating hematopoietic stem cell niche and bone remodeling. Most data in hematological malignancies (HMs) refers to total OPN (tOPN), comprehending the sum of distinct OPN splicing isoforms (OPN-SI), while reports describing the expression and roles of each OPN-SI are scarce. This review aims to summarize tOPN roles in HMs and provide evidence that OPN-SIs can also modulate specific functions in HMs biology...
August 24, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844660/dermatopontin-in-bone-marrow-extracellular-matrix-regulates-adherence-but-is-dispensable-for-murine-hematopoietic-cell-maintenance
#16
Ashley C Kramer, Amanda L Blake, Mandy E Taisto, Michael J Lehrke, Beau R Webber, Troy C Lund
The hematopoietic marrow microenvironment is composed of multiple cell types embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). We have explored marrow ECM using mass spectrometry and found dermatopontin (DPT), a small non-collagenous ECM protein, to be present. We found that DPT cooperates with other ECM proteins to promote hematopoietic cell adherence in vitro on plastic as well as OP9 stromal cells. We generated constitutional DPT(-/-) mice that were viable and had no peripheral lympho-hematopoietic abnormalities...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841136/modulation-of-occluding-junctions-alters-the-hematopoietic-niche-to-trigger-immune-activation
#17
Rohan J Khadilkar, Wayne Vogl, Katharine Goodwin, Guy Tanentzapf
Stem cells are regulated by signals from their microenvironment, or niche. During Drosophila hematopoiesis, a niche regulates prohemocytes to control hemocyte production. Immune challenges activate cell-signalling to initiate the cellular and innate immune response. Specifically, certain immune challenges stimulate the niche to produce signals that induce prohemocyte differentiation. However, the mechanisms that promote prohemocyte differentiation subsequent to immune challenges are poorly understood. Here we show that bacterial infection induces the cellular immune response by modulating occluding-junctions at the hematopoietic niche...
August 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830909/efforts-to-enhance-blood-stem-cell-engraftment-recent-insights-from-zebrafish-hematopoiesis
#18
REVIEW
Julie R Perlin, Anne L Robertson, Leonard I Zon
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important therapy for patients with a variety of hematological malignancies. HSCT would be greatly improved if patient-specific hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could be generated from induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro. There is an incomplete understanding of the genes and signals involved in HSC induction, migration, maintenance, and niche engraftment. Recent studies in zebrafish have revealed novel genes that are required for HSC induction and niche regulation of HSC homeostasis...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829353/chemokines-as-a-conductor-of-bone-marrow-microenvironment-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#19
REVIEW
Naofumi Mukaida, Yamato Tanabe, Tomohisa Baba
All blood lineage cells are generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which reside in bone marrow after birth. HSCs self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate into mature progeny under the control of local microenvironments including hematopoietic niche, which can deliver regulatory signals in the form of bound or secreted molecules and from physical cues such as oxygen tension and shear stress. Among these mediators, accumulating evidence indicates the potential involvement of several chemokines, particularly CXCL12, in the interaction between HSCs and bone marrow microenvironments...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826860/the-microenvironment-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes-niche-mediated-disease-initiation-and-progression
#20
REVIEW
Allison J Li, Laura M Calvi
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and represent the most common cause of acquired marrow failure. Hallmarked by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplastic marrow, and risk of transformation to acute leukemia, MDS remains a poorly treated disease. Although identification of hematopoietic aberrations in human MDS has contributed significantly to our understanding of MDS pathogenesis, evidence now identify the bone marrow microenvironment (BMME) as another key contributor to disease initiation and progression...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Hematology
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