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GI intervention

Fatemeh Ghandi, Amir Sadeghi, Maryam Bakhtyari, Saeed Imani, Saeed Abdi, Seyed Shahab Banihashem
Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome is a common gastrointestinal disorder. The perception of stress and GI-specific anxiety play a key role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The present study aims at comparing the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy with emotion regulation on the quality of life and severity in patients IBS. Method : This randomized clinical trial was conducted in 3 phases: pretest, posttest, and follow-up. Follow-up was performed 2 months after the last intervention. The study population consisted of 24 IBS patients who were randomly selected according to Rome-IV Criteria and were then divided into 3 eight-member groups: (1) mindfulness-based stress reduction, (2) emotion regulation, and (3) control group...
July 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Angelo Sala, Ewgenij Proschak, Dieter Steinhilber, G Enrico Rovati
Chronic inflammation and pain is a major global health problem, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) remain the most frequently prescribed drugs and common option for the treatment of inflammatory pain. However, they have the potential to cause serious complications, such as gastrointestinal (GI) lesions, bleeding and cardiovascular (CV) problems. NSAIDs exert their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic actions by inhibiting the cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and COX-2, key enzymes of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade...
October 10, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
James K Ruffle, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz
Technological advances in artificial intelligence (AI) represent an enticing opportunity to benefit gastroenterological practice. Moreover, AI, through machine or deep learning, permits the ability to develop predictive models from large datasets. Possibilities of predictive model development in machine learning are numerous dependent on the clinical question. For example, binary classifiers aim to stratify allocation to a categorical outcome, such as the presence or absence of a gastrointestinal disease. In addition, continuous variable fitting techniques can be used to predict quantity of a therapeutic response, thus offering a tool to predict which therapeutic intervention may be most beneficial to the given patient...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Lauren P Manning, Jessica R Biesiekierski
The role of food in the development of symptoms experienced within functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is well recognised. This review aims to describe the evidence base for dietary interventions in the different functional esophageal, duodenal and bowel disorders. Randomised controlled trials are lacking for many of the FGIDs, with the exception of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Restricting rapidly fermentable, short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) provides an evidence based dietary approach for the management of symptoms of IBS...
October 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
E C O'Brien, A A Geraghty, E J O'Sullivan, J A Riordan, M K Horan, E Larkin, J Donnelly, J Mehegan, P J Twomey, F M McAuliffe
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a dietary intervention in pregnancy had a lasting effect on maternal outcomes of diet, HbA1c and weight retention 5 years' post-intervention; and to establish if modifiable maternal behaviours were associated with these outcomes. DESIGN: Randomised control trial of low glycaemic index (GI) diet in pregnancy with longitudinal follow-up to 5 years' post-intervention. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland (2007 - 2016). POPULATION: 403 of 759 (53...
October 10, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Cesare Hassan, Lars Aabakken, Alanna Ebigbo, John Gásdal Karstensen, Claire Guy, Mario Dinis-Ribeiro, Olivier Le Moine, Peter Vilmann, Thierry Ponchon
A new objective for the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to develop long-term partnerships with African countries. For this, an International Affairs Working Group (IAWG) was formed. In conjunction with the World Endoscopy Organization (WEO), ESGE conducted a survey of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in Africa. Survey results showed that many African countries have few GI endoscopy centers with adequate resources. Barriers to the development of endoscopy services include a shortage of endoscopists who have undergone advanced endoscopy training, and a lack of equipment and basic infrastructure...
October 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Rachel N Pauls, Joshua B Max
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the dietary behaviors and epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients in the United States (US). METHODS: This was an IRB-approved cross-sectional survey conducted via a secured online server (SurveyMonkey®). A representative sample of the US population were queried regarding demographics, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, treatments and dietary practices. Of 1,718 respondents, 161 reported IBS. These were compared to 1,116 subjects reporting no GI diagnosis (controls)...
October 2, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Celina Crisman, Max Ward, Neil Majmundar, Nitesh Damodara, Wayne D Hsueh, Jean Anderson Eloy, James K Liu
BACKGROUND: Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon neurosurgical emergency which may be the initial presentation of undiagnosed pituitary adenomas. Though the exact pathogenesis is unclear, there appears to be an association between pituitary apoplexy and medical interventions which disturb the blood supply and venous drainage of the abnormal sellar region. We present the first case of pituitary apoplexy occurring after an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 43-year-old male who was several hours status post ERCP presented with severe headache, bilateral ptosis and multi-directional ophthalmoplegia...
October 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Christopher Chang
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain that occurs with defecation or alterations in bowel habits. Further classification is based on the predominant bowel habit: constipation-predominant IBS, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D), or mixed IBS. The pathogenesis of IBS is unclear and is considered multifactorial in nature. GI dysbiosis, thought to play a role in IBS pathophysiology, has been observed in patients with IBS. Alterations in the gut microbiota are observed in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and overgrowth may occur in a subset of patients with IBS...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Mat Goebel, Christopher Tainter, Christopher Kahn, James V Dunford, John Serra, Jodie Pierce, J Joelle Donofrio
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are used with increasing frequency and left in place for longer periods of time. Prior publications have focused on the mechanics of troubleshooting the device itself. We aim to describe the epidemiology of LVAD patient presentations to emergency medical services (EMS), prehospital assessments and interventions, and hospital outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of known LVAD patients belonging to a single academic center's heart failure program who activated the 9-1-1 system and were transported by an urban EMS system to one of the center's two emergency departments between January 2012 and December 2015...
October 4, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Keiichi Koshinaka, Rie Ando, Akiko Sato
Dietary intervention for preventing postprandial increases in glucose level by replacing high-glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates with lower-GI carbohydrate has been proposed as a strategy for treating insulin-resistant metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes. In this study, we examined the effect of short-term replacement of starch with a low-GI disaccharide, isomaltulose, on insulin action in skeletal muscle. Male Wistar rats were fed isomaltulose for 12 h during their dark cycle. In isolated epitrochlearis muscle, insulin-induced glucose uptake was greater in tissue from rats treated with isomaltulose than from those treated with starch...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Masanao Nakamura, Takeshi Yamamura, Keiko Maeda, Tsunaki Sawada, Yasuyuki Mizutani, Takuya Ishikawa, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Eizaburo Ohno, Hiroki Kawashima, Ryoji Miyahara, Anastasios Koulaouzidis, Yoshiki Hirooka
Mucosal healing in Crohn's disease (CD) can be evaluated by capsule endoscopy (CE). However, only a few studies have utilized CE to demonstrate the therapeutic effect of medical treatment. We sought to evaluate the validity of using CE to monitor the effect of medical treatment in patients with CD. One hundred ( n = 100) patients with CD were enrolled. All patients had a gastrointestinal (GI) tract patency check prior to CE. Patients with baseline CE Lewis score (LS) ≤ 135 were included in the non-active CD group and ended the study...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Marta Ordoñez, Natalia Presa, Asier Dominguez-Herrera, Miguel Trueba, Antonio Gomez-Muñoz
We showed previously that ceramide kinase (CerK) expression increases during adipogenesis pointing to a relevant role of intracellular C1P in this process. In the present work we demonstrate that administration of exogenous C1P inhibits the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes into mature adipocytes through a mechanism involving activation of extracellularly regulated kinases (ERK) 1-2. Exogenous C1P reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets and the content of triacylglycerol in these cells, and potently inhibited the expression of the early and late adipogenic markers C/EBPβ and PPARγ, respectively...
September 27, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Leen Khoury, David A Hill, Melissa Panzo, Melissa Chiappetta, Sachin Tekade, Stephen M Cohn
OBJECTIVE: Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding occurs at a rate of 40-150 episodes per 100,000 persons per year and is associated with a mortality rate of 6%-10%. We sought to determine the need for therapeutic endoscopy or surgical interventions in patients with hematemesis and the association with blood transfusion requirements. METHODS: We queried the database of our large teaching facility for adult patients presenting with obvious upper GI hemorrhage (hematemesis) between 2014 and 2017...
July 23, 2018: Curēus
Sonia Vega-López, Bernard J Venn, Joanne L Slavin
Despite initial enthusiasm, the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response (GR) and disease prevention remains unclear. This review examines evidence from randomized, controlled trials and observational studies in humans for short-term (e.g., satiety) and long-term (e.g., weight, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes) health effects associated with different types of GI diets. A systematic PubMed search was conducted of studies published between 2006 and 2018 with key words glycemic index, glycemic load, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, body weight, satiety, and obesity...
September 22, 2018: Nutrients
Prasoon Mohan, John Manov, Alexander Diaz-Bode, Sree Venkat, Michael Langston, Akash Naidu, Rayna Howse, Govindarajan Narayanan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify clinical and imaging predictors of arterial extravasation, post embolization rebleeding and 30-day mortality in gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. METHOD: This retrospective study included 114 patients who underwent angiography for upper or lower GI bleeding. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify clinical and imaging predictors. RESULTS: Angiography demonstrated arterial extravasation in 22 patients (19%) and embolization was performed in 48 (42%) patients including prophylactic embolization in 26 (56%)...
September 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
R Ananthalakshmi, Jaideep Mahendra, P Jayamathi, Little Mahendra, Nashra Kareem, S Subramaniam
Background: Yogic stretching (asana) has been proven to have an effect on salivary human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) concentration, which is an antimicrobial peptide and is an inflammatory marker in periodontal disease. Sudarshan Kriya Pranayama (SKP) is a part of yoga which involves rhythmic breathing. Hence, we aim to evaluate the periodontal parameters and to estimate the salivary HBD-2 level before and after SKP program in periodontitis individuals. Materials and Methods: An interventional study was designed and individuals were divided into three groups: Group I - healthy periodontium, Group II - chronic gingivitis, and Group III - chronic periodontitis...
September 2018: Dental Research Journal
Jiang Xu, Shandong Ye
BACKGROUND: Low-glycemic index (GI) diet might be beneficial for gestational diabetes. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the influence of low-GI diet on gestational diabetes. METHODS: PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of low-GI diet on gestational diabetes were included...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Ekin Secinti, Kevin L Rand, Shelley A Johns, Bert H O'Neil, Paul R Helft, Safi Shahda, Shadia I Jalal, Catherine E Mosher
PURPOSE: The present study examined the degree to which loneliness mediated the influence of negative (social constraints) and positive (emotional support) relationship qualities on the global mental health of advanced gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients and their family caregivers. METHODS: Fifty patient-caregiver dyads completed measures assessing social constraints (e.g., avoidance, criticism) from the other dyad members, emotional support from others, loneliness, and global mental health...
September 17, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Tao He, Lina Qu, Jinlan Chang, Jingyang Wang
OBJECTIVES: To review the application of gingivitis prevention and treatment models to assess the efficacy of mechanical and chemotherapeutic oral hygiene interventions following shorter- and longer-term use. METHODS: Representative published clinical trials evaluating the shorter- and longer-term anti-gingivitis efficacy of stannous fluoride dentifrice, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) rinse, and oscillating-rotating (O-R) electric rechargeable toothbrushes were reviewed...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
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