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GARS- (Genetic Addiction Risk Score)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911684/insurance-companies-fighting-the-peer-review-empire-without-any-validity-the-case-for-addiction-and-pain-modalities-in-the-face-of-an-american-drug-epidemic
#1
K Blum, W Jacobs, E J Modestino, N DiNubile, D Baron, T McLaughlin, D Siwicki, I Elman, M Moran, E R Braverman, P K Thanos, R D Badgaiyan
The United States are amid an opioid overdose epidemic; we are challenged to provide non-addicting/non-pharmacological alternatives to assist in pain attenuation. There are proven strategies available to manage chronic pain effectively without opioids. Utilization review providers for insurance companies often ignore medicine based scientific peer-reviewed studies that warn against the chronic use of opioid medications, as well as the lack of evidence to support long-term use of opioids for pain. This paradigm must change if we are to indeed change the drug-embracing culture in American chronic pain management...
October 4, 2018: SEJ surgery and pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930612/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-%C3%A2-a-predictor-of-vulnerability-to-opioid-dependence
#2
REVIEW
Kenneth Blum, Amanda L C Chen, Panayotis K Thanos, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Kristina Dushaj, Abraham Kovoor, David Baron, David E Smith, Alphonso Kenison Roy, Lyle Fried, Thomas J H Chen, Edwin Chapman, Edward J Modestino, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617300/coupling-neurogenetics-gars%C3%A2-and-a-nutrigenomic-based-dopaminergic-agonist-to-treat-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds-targeting-polymorphic-reward-genes-for-carbohydrate-addiction-algorithms
#3
Kenneth Blum, Thomas Simpatico, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Zsolt Demetrovics, James Fratantonio, Gozde Agan, Marcelo Febo, Mark S Gold
Earlier work from our laboratory, showing anti-addiction activity of a nutraceutical consisting of amino-acid precursors and enkephalinase inhibition properties and our discovery of the first polymorphic gene (Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene [DRD2]) to associate with severe alcoholism serves as a blue-print for the development of "Personalized Medicine" in addiction. Prior to the later genetic finding, we developed the concept of Brain Reward Cascade, which continues to act as an important component for stratification of addiction risk through neurogenetics...
2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24878765/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-molecular-neurogenetic-evidence-for-predisposition-to-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds
#4
Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Zsolt Demetrovics, Debmalya Barh, Mark S Gold
We have published extensively on the neurogenetics of brain reward systems with reference to the genes related to dopaminergic function in particular. In 1996, we coined "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS), to portray behaviors found to have gene-based association with hypodopaminergic function. RDS as a useful concept has been embraced in many subsequent studies, to increase our understanding of Substance Use Disorder (SUD), addictions, and other obsessive, compulsive, and impulsive behaviors. Interestingly, albeit others, in one published study, we were able to describe lifetime RDS behaviors in a recovering addict (17 years sober) blindly by assessing resultant Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS™) data only...
December 2014: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24616834/coupling-genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-with-electrotherapy-fighting-iatrogenic-opioid-dependence
#5
Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Nicholas Dinubile, John Giordano, Eric R Braverman, Courtney E Truesdell, Debmalya Barh, Rajendra Badgaiyan
The endemic of legal opioid iatrogenic induced prescription drug abuse is of major world-wide concern. Understanding pain pathways and the role of dopaminergic tone in the neurophysiology of pain relief provides potential therapeutic solutions. A 2011 NIDA report indicated that approximately 8.7% of the entire US population above the age of 12 years has used a psychoactive drug within the past 30 days. It has been reported that the overall genetic contribution to the variance of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) was approximately 60% but each candidate gene evaluated by GWAS was relatively small...
October 31, 2013: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23543775/dopamine-genetics-and-function-in-food-and-substance-abuse
#6
K Blum, M Oscar-Berman, D Barh, J Giordano, Ms Gold
Having entered the genomics era with confidence in the future of medicine, including psychiatry, identifying the role of DNA and polymorphic associations with brain reward circuitry has led to a new understanding of all addictive behaviors. It is noteworthy that this strategy may provide treatment for the millions who are the victims of "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS) a genetic disorder of brain reward circuitry. This article will focus on drugs and food being mutuality addictive, and the role of dopamine genetics and function in addictions, including the interaction of the dopamine transporter, and sodium food...
February 10, 2013: Journal of Genetic Syndrome & Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23264886/neurogenetic-impairments-of-brain-reward-circuitry-links-to-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds-potential-nutrigenomic-induced-dopaminergic-activation
#7
K Blum, M Oscar-Berman, J Giordano, Bw Downs, T Simpatico, D Han, John Femino
Work from our laboratory in both in-patient and outpatient facilities utilizing the Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD)(™) found a significant lack of compliance to prescribed treatment medications and a lack of abstinence from drugs of abuse during active recovery. This unpublished, ongoing research provides an impetus to develop accurate genetic diagnosis and holistic approaches that will safely activate brain reward circuitry in the mesolimbic dopamine system. This editorial focuses on the neurogenetics of brain reward systems with particular reference to genes related to dopaminergic function...
October 17, 2012: Journal of Genetic Syndrome & Gene Therapy
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