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Hee-Jeong Kim, Bohkyung Kim, Eun-Gyung Mun, Soon-Yeon Jeong, Youn-Soo Cha
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ginger, a root vegetable, is known to have antioxidant and antiobesity effects. Preparation, such as by steaming, can affect the chemical composition of prepared root vegetables or herbs and can change their functional activities. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of steamed ginger against oxidative stress and steatosis in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS: The levels of polyphenols and flavonoids in two different extracts of steamed ginger, i...
December 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Penghui Cao, Yakun Ren, Xi Liu, Tianyu Zhang, Ping Zhang, Lianjie Xiao, Fulin Zhang, Shijia Liu, Ling Jiang, Jianmin Wan
GARS encodes an enzyme catalyzing the second step of purine nucleotide biosynthesis and plays an important role to maintain the development of chloroplasts in juvenile plants by affecting the expression of plastid-encoded genes. A series of rice white striped mutants were previously described. In this research, we characterized a novel gars mutant with white striped leaves at the seedling stage. By positional cloning, we identified the mutated gene, which encodes a glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase (GARS) that catalyzes the second step of purine nucleotide biosynthesis...
November 29, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Elen Kristine Höglander, Silje Nord, David C Wedge, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Laxmi Silwal-Pandit, Hedda vdL Gythfeldt, Hans Kristian Moen Vollan, Thomas Fleischer, Marit Krohn, Ellen Schlitchting, Elin Borgen, Øystein Garred, Marit M Holmen, Erik Wist, Bjørn Naume, Peter Van Loo, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Olav Engebraaten, Vessela Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapeutic agents such as anthracyclines and taxanes are commonly used in the neoadjuvant setting. Bevacizumab is an antibody which binds to vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and inhibits its receptor interaction, thus obstructing the formation of new blood vessels. METHODS: A phase II randomized clinical trial of 123 patients with Her2-negative breast cancer was conducted, with patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (fluorouracil (5FU)/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) and taxane), with or without bevacizumab...
November 29, 2018: Genome Medicine
Chinmay Satish Rahane, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive tumor whose molecular signaling pathways are not fully understood. Using an in-silico clinical data analysis approach we retrieved human gene mutation data from the highly reputed Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). ACC-specific gene mutations were correlated with proliferation marker FAM72 expression and Mutsig along with the algorithmic implementation of the 20/20 rule were used to validate their oncogenic potential. The newly identified oncogenic driver gene set (ZFPM1, LRIG1, CRIPAK, ZNF517, GARS and DGKZ), specifically and most repeatedly mutated in ACC, is involved in tumor suppression and cellular proliferation and thus could be useful for the prognosis and development of therapeutic approaches for the treatment of ACC...
November 9, 2018: Cancer Genetics
William B Dobyns, Kimberly A Aldinger, Gisele E Ishak, Ghayda M Mirzaa, Andrew E Timms, Megan E Grout, Marjolein H G Dremmen, Rachel Schot, Laura Vandervore, Marjon A van Slegtenhorst, Martina Wilke, Esmee Kasteleijn, Arthur S Lee, Brenda J Barry, Katherine R Chao, Krzysztof Szczałuba, Joyce Kobori, Andrea Hanson-Kahn, Jonathan A Bernstein, Lucinda Carr, Felice D'Arco, Kaori Miyana, Tetsuya Okazaki, Yoshiaki Saito, Masayuki Sasaki, Soma Das, Marsha M Wheeler, Michael J Bamshad, Deborah A Nickerson, Elizabeth C Engle, Frans W Verheijen, Dan Doherty, Grazia M S Mancini
To date, mutations in 15 actin- or microtubule-associated genes have been associated with the cortical malformation lissencephaly and variable brainstem hypoplasia. During a multicenter review, we recognized a rare lissencephaly variant with a complex brainstem malformation in three unrelated children. We searched our large brain-malformation databases and found another five children with this malformation (as well as one with a less severe variant), analyzed available whole-exome or -genome sequencing data, and tested ciliogenesis in two affected individuals...
November 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Thomas Hengl, Jörn Herfert, Alexander Soliman, Kim Schlinzig, Ralph M Trüeb, Harry F Abts
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be harmful to normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) of the epidermal skin layer, as well as to hair-follicle-associated keratinocytes. An oral formulation containing l-cystine, thiamin, calcium d-pantothenate, medicinal yeast, keratin and p-aminobenzoic acid (Panto[vi]gar®) has demonstrated clinical efficacy for the treatment of diffuse telogen effluvium; however, its mode of action at the cellular level, and in particular whether protective mechanisms are involved, has yet to be elucidated...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Hiroyuki Hachiya, Mitsuru Ishizuka, Kazutoshi Takagi, Yoshimi Iwasaki, Norisuke Shibuya, Yusuke Nishi, Taku Aoki, Keiichi Kubota
Aim: A previous study has revealed that the albumin/globulin ratio (GAR) before treatment is a predictor of cancer-specific survival in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of GAR for prediction of postoperative survival in patients with CRC. Methods: Nine hundred and forty-one patients who had undergone elective CRC surgery were enrolled. Uni- and multivariate analysis models were performed to detect the clinical characteristics that were most closely associated with overall survival (OS)...
November 2018: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
Edwin Ho Ming Lee, Christy Lai Ming Hui, Karen Pui Kei Chan, Pik Ying Chan, Eunice Yeuk Lai Law, Catherine Shiu Yin Chong, Wing Chung Chang, Sherry Kit Wa Chan, Wing King Lee, Alison Wai Fan Lo, Edwin Pui Fai Pang, Eric Fuk Chi Cheung, Michael Gar Chung Yiu, Dicky Wai Sau Chung, Roger Man Kin Ng, Wai Song Yeung, William Tak Lam Lo, Eric Yu Hai Chen
INTRODUCTION: Achieving functional recovery in patients with psychosis is a challenge in clinical practice. Investigating the complex interplay between cognition, symptoms, insight and functional outcome in first episode psychosis will be crucial to understanding the factors leading to better functioning. METHODS: In this 12-month prospective follow-up study, we investigated how cognition, clinical symptoms, and insight into illness affected overall functioning in 160 patients with first episode psychosis recruited from the Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis (EASY) in Hong Kong from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2016...
November 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Kenneth Blum, Edward J Modestino, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, David Baron, Panayotis K Thanos, Igor Elman, David Siwicki, Marcelo Febo, Mark S Gold
Blum's laboratory first showed the benefits of naloxone or narcotic antagonists in the treatment of alcohol dependence. This seminal work published in Nature in the early 70's, in conjunction with many other studies, later served as the basis for the development of the narcotic antagonist (NTX) now used to treat both alcohol and opioid dependence. In 2006 an extended-release injectable of Naltrexone (XR-NTX) was approved by the FDA. Naltrexone is a relatively weak antagonist of κ- and δ-receptors and is also a potent μ-receptor antagonist...
August 2018: EC psychology and psychiatry
Nirmal K Banda, Dhruv Desai, Robert I Scheinman, Rasmus Pihl, Hideharu Sekine, Teizo Fujita, Vibha Sharma, Annette G Hansen, Peter Garred, Steffen Thiel, Anna Borodovsky, V Michael Holers
Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 3 (MASP-3) regulates the alternative pathway of complement and is predominantly synthesized in the liver. The role of liver-derived MASP-3 in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unknown. We hypothesized that liver-derived MASP-3 is essential for the development of joint damage and that targeted inhibition of MASP-3 in the liver can attenuate arthritis. We used MASP-3-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) conjugated to N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to specifically target the liver via asialoglycoprotein receptors...
September 2018: ImmunoHorizons
Chih-Li Chen, Yu-Shuen Tsai, Yen-Hua Huang, Yuh-Jin Liang, Ya-Yun Sun, Chien-Wei Su, Gar-Yang Chau, Yi-Chen Yeh, Yung-Sheng Chang, Jui-Ting Hu, Jaw-Ching Wu
Lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF1) activity is associated with progression of several types of cancers. The role of LEF1 in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poorly known. We investigated LEF1 expression in HCC and its interactions with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulators (e.g., Snail, Slug, Twist) and stemness genes (e.g., octamer-binding transcription factor 4 [ Oct4 ], sex determining region Y-box 2 [ Sox2 ], Nanog homeobox [ Nanog ]). Microarray analysis was performed on resected tumor samples from patients with HCC with or without postoperative recurrence...
November 2018: Hepatology Communications
Eric Gars, Satinder Kaur, Daniel Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Leukemia Research
Kenneth Blum, Edward J Modestino, Jennifer Neary, Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis, David Siwicki, Mark Moran, Mary Hauser, Eric R Braverman, David Baron, Bruce Steinberg, Thomas Mc Laughlin, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
It is universally agreed that dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in terms of reward dependence, however, there remains controversy regarding how to modulate its role clinically to treat and prevent relapse for both substance and non-substance-related addictive behaviors. It is also agreed by most that there is a need to provide early genetic identification possibly through a novel researched technology referred to Genetic Addiction Risk Score(GARS).™ The existing FDA-approved medications promote blocking dopamine, however, we argue that a more prudent paradigm shift should be biphasic-short-term blockade and long-term upregulation, enhancing functional connectivity of brain reward...
January 7, 2018: Biomedical journal of scientific & technical research
Henrik J Jürgensen, Kirstine S Nørregaard, Megan M Sibree, Eric Santoni-Rugiu, Daniel H Madsen, Katharina Wassilew, Dorrit Krustrup, Peter Garred, Thomas H Bugge, Lars H Engelholm, Niels Behrendt
Collectins such as mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and surfactant protein D (SP-D) become temporarily deposited in extravascular compartments after tissue injury and perform immune-stimulatory or inflammation-limiting functions. However, their turnover mechanisms, necessary to prevent excessive tissue damage, are virtually unknown. In this study, we show that fibroblasts in injured tissues undertake the clearance of collectins by using the endocytic collagen receptor uPARAP. In cellular assays, several types of collectins were endocytosed in a highly specific uPARAP-dependent process, not shared by the closely related receptor MR/CD206...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Øyvind Gløersen, Jan Kocbach, Matthias Gilgien
Advances in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technology have resulted in smaller and more accurate GNSS receivers, which have become increasingly suitable for calculating instantaneous performance parameters during sports competitions, for example by providing the difference in time between athletes at any location along a course. This study investigated the accuracy of three commercially available GNSS receivers directed at the sports market and evaluated their applicability for time analysis in endurance racing sports...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mónica Lopes-Marques, Naoki Kabeya, Yu Qian, Raquel Ruivo, Miguel M Santos, Byrappa Venkatesh, Douglas R Tocher, L Filipe C Castro, Óscar Monroig
BACKGROUND: Provision of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in vertebrates occurs through the diet or via endogenous production from C18 precursors through consecutive elongations and desaturations. It has been postulated that the abundance of LC-PUFA in the marine environment has remarkably modulated the gene complement and function of Fads in marine teleosts. In vertebrates two fatty acyl desaturases, namely Fads1 and Fads2, encode ∆5 and ∆6 desaturases, respectively...
October 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Anna C Pfalzer, Jimmy W Crott, Gar Yee Koh, Donald E Smith, Paloma E Garcia, Joel B Mason
Obesity is a prominent risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). One mechanism by which obesity promotes the development of CRC is by generating a chronic, low-grade state of colonic inflammation. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a proinflammatory cytokine often elevated in obesity, is known to activate several procarcinogenic signaling pathways that are implicated in colonic carcinogenesis. We therefore sought to define the role of IL-1β in mediating some of the early biochemical and molecular events leading up to obesity-promoted CRC...
October 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Rafael Bayarri-Olmos, Nikolaj Kirketerp-Moller, Laura Pérez-Alós, Karsten Skjodt, Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt, Peter Garred
Collectin-11 (CL-11) is a pattern recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of complement with diverse functions spanning from host defense to embryonic development. CL-11 is found in the circulation in heterocomplexes with the homologous collectin-10 (CL-10). Abnormal CL-11 plasma levels are associated with the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation, urinary schistosomiasis, and congenital disorders. Although there has been a marked development in the characterization of CL-11 there is still a scarcity of clinical tools for its analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Farnaz Nasr Esfahani, Mitra Hakim Shooshtari, Rasoul Shirmohammadi Sosfadi, Fahimeh Saeed, Fereshteh Jalai, Aida Farsham, Reza Bidaki
Objective: This study was conducted to recognize the problems of living with a sibling with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to improve their quality of life. Method : A total of 30 participants were selected among the 4-to11- year-old siblings of children who had referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute due to autism spectrum disorder. For the control group, 30 children aged 4 to11years old who were the siblings of patients with chronic diseases referring to Pediatric Clinic of Rasoul-e Akram (PBUH) hospital were selected...
July 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Anna K Haugaard, Hanne V Marquart, Lilian Kolte, Lars Peter Ryder, Michala Kehrer, Maria Krogstrup, Ulrik B Dragsted, Benny Dahl, Ida E Gjørup, Åse B Andersen, Peter Garred, Susanne D Nielsen
Acute infectious spondylodiscitis (AIS) is a serious infection of the spine with rising incidence and a mortality of 3-6%. The role of the immune system in AIS is largely unknown. We performed extensive B and T-lymphocyte phenotyping in patients with AIS at diagnosis and after treatment cessation. In this prospective multicentre study, flow cytometric analysis of T and B-lymphocyte subsets was performed in 35 patients at diagnosis and 3 months after treatment cessation. We additionally analysed levels of immunoglobulins and IgG subclasses, serum level and genetic variants of mannose-binding lectin, and somatic hypermutation...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
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