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Wilmarie Marrero-Ortiz, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Yuemeng Ji, Yujue Wang, Song Guo, Yun Lin, Mario Gomez-Hermandez, Jianfei Peng, Yixin Li, Jeremiah Secrest, Misti Levy Zamora, Yuan Wang, Taicheng An, Renyi Zhang
Brown Carbon (BrC) aerosols scatter and absorb solar radiation, directly affecting the Earth's radiative budget. However, considerable uncertainty exists concerning the chemical mechanism leading to BrC formation and their optical properties. In this work, BrC particles were prepared from mixtures of small α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) and amines (methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine). The absorption and scattering of BrC particles were measured using a photo-acoustic extinctometer (405 and 532 nm), and the chemical composition of the α-dicarbonyl-amine mixtures was analyzed using orbitrap-mass spectrometry and thermal desorption-ion drift-chemical ionization mass spectrometry...
November 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Dominique Maiter
<br>Dopamine agonists are usually very effective in the treatment of prolactinomas. Nonetheless, a subset of individuals does not respond satisfactorily to these agents and this resistance is characterized by failure to achieve normoprolactinaemia and a 30% or more reduction in maximal tumor diameter (in the case of macroprolactinoma) under maximally tolerated doses. Its overall prevalence is 20-30% for bromocriptine (BRC) and around 10% for cabergoline (CAB). The two main predictive factors are male gender and tumor invasiveness...
November 27, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Vânia Lages, Natalia Skvortsova, Bruno Jeannin, Amel Gasc, Carl P Herbort
PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence, morphologic and functional characteristics and evolution of mild birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC). METHODS: Retrospective review of all BRC cases treated at the Centre for Ophthalmic Specialized Care, Lausanne, Switzerland, with at least 3 years of follow-up since the initial symptoms. Sub-Tenon's injection of triamcinolone was the first line of treatment if visual field changes were unilateral, with no additional treatment if visual field returned to normal...
November 24, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Markus Bo Schoenberg, Hubertus Johann Wolfgang Anger, Jingcheng Hao, Adrian Vater, Julian Nikolaus Bucher, Michael Nikolaus Thomas, Michael Lauseker, Markus Rentsch, Tobias Simon Schiergens, Martin Kurt Angele, Alexandr V Bazhin, Jens Werner, Markus Otto Guba
OBJECTIVE: To develop criteria for safe and oncologically satisfying liver resection in case of early hepatocellular carcinoma with a 5-year overall survival (OS) similar to liver transplantation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Liver resection (LR) and liver transplantation (LT) are potentially curative treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma. Generally, LT achieves better OS. Due to organ shortage, however not all patients can receive a LT. METHODS: To decide which patients to resect and which to transplant we have developed biological resection criteria (BRC) as a compound out of mGPS (modified Glascow Prognostic Scale) and the Kings-Score (for HCV cirrhosis)...
December 2018: Surgical Oncology
Congai Zhen, Huipeng Yang, Shudong Luo, Jiaxing Huang, Jie Wu
During reproduction, vitellogenin (Vg), as an egg yolk precursor, is critical in sexually mature females of oviparous species including some insects. The transcription of Vg is usually mediated by hormones such as juvenile hormone (JH), ecdysteroids and some neuropeptides. In this study, the structure of the Vg gene from the bumblebee Bombus lantschouensis, (BlVg) was determined by sequencing and assembly. BlVg was found to be expressed at higher levels in reproductive queens than in virgins by quantitative real-time PCR analysis...
2018: PloS One
Mengsi Deng, Jiarong Li, Shuangqi Zhang, Ming Shan, Jill Baumgartner, Ellison Carter, Xudong Yang
Previous studies of solid fuel emissions in household stoves focused more on emission measurements of the overall combustion process instead of the dynamic burning rate and its connection to the emissions. This study put forward a measurement system to monitor the dynamic fuel burning rate and emission rate directly, and explored their relationships during different combustion phases. Experiments were conducted using two types of wood charcoal consumed in a small open pan (i.e. fire basin) used commonly for space heating in rural China...
October 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sofia Salta, Sandra P Nunes, Mário Fontes-Sousa, Paula Lopes, Micaela Freitas, Margarida Caldas, Luís Antunes, Fernando Castro, Pedro Antunes, Susana Palma de Sousa, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BrC) is the most frequent neoplasm in women. New biomarkers, including aberrant DNA methylation, may improve BrC management. Herein, we evaluated the detection and prognostic performance of seven genes' promoter methylation ( APC , BRCA1 , CCND2 , FOXA1 , PSAT1 , RASSF1A and SCGB3A1 ). METHODS: Methylation levels were assessed in primary BrC tissues by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (QMSP) and in circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) by multiplex QMSP from two independent cohorts of patients (Cohort #1, n = 137; and Cohort #2, n = 44)...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Qianyan Li, Takamune T Saito, Marina Martinez-Garcia, Alison J Deshong, Saravanapriah Nadarajan, Katherine S Lawrence, Paula M Checchi, Monica P Colaiacovo, JoAnne Engebrecht
Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) and binding partner BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1 (BARD1) form an essential E3 ubiquitin ligase important for DNA damage repair and homologous recombination. The Caenorhabditis elegans orthologs, BRC-1 and BRD-1, also function in DNA damage repair, homologous recombination, as well as in meiosis. Using functional GFP fusions we show that in mitotically-dividing germ cells BRC-1 and BRD-1 are nucleoplasmic with enrichment at foci that partially overlap with the recombinase RAD-51...
November 2018: PLoS Genetics
Eva Janisiw, Maria Rosaria Dello Stritto, Verena Jantsch, Nicola Silva
During meiosis, the maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes must align along their entire length and recombine to achieve faithful segregation in the gametes. Meiotic recombination is accomplished through the formation of DNA double-strand breaks, a subset of which can mature into crossovers to link the parental homologous chromosomes and promote their segregation. Breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility protein BRCA1 and its heterodimeric partner BARD1 play a pivotal role in DNA repair in mitotic cells; however, their functions in gametogenesis are less well understood...
November 2018: PLoS Genetics
Srinivasulu Yerukala Sathipati, Shinn-Ying Ho
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and one of the most common cancers among women. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been used as biomarkers due to their effective role in cancer diagnosis. This study proposes a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier SVM-BRC to categorize patients with breast cancer into early and advanced stages. SVM-BRC uses an optimal feature selection method, inheritable bi-objective combinatorial genetic algorithm, to identify a miRNA signature which is a small set of informative miRNAs while maximizing prediction accuracy...
October 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Veronica R Policht, Andrew Niedringhaus, Jennifer P Ogilvie
Bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) is the most abundant pigment found in the Bacterial Reaction Center (BRC) and light-harvesting proteins of photosynthetic purple and green bacteria. Recent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) studies of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes including the BRC and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex have shown oscillatory signals, or coherences, whose physical origin has been hotly debated. To better understand the observations of coherence in larger photosynthetic systems, it is important to carefully characterize the spectroscopic signatures of the monomeric pigments...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
M Jian, Q Du, D Zhu, Z Mao, X Wang, Y Feng, Z Xiao, H Wang, Y Zhu
PURPOSE: Prolactinoma is the most commonly seen secretory tumor of pituitary glands, which accounts for approximately up to 40% of total pituitary adenomas. Due to its high drug resistance, dopamine agonist, such as bromocriptine, has limited effect on the treatment of patients with prolactinoma. Recent discoveries have revealed that multiple miRNAs were involved in regulating drug resistance. In this research, we explored the relationship between miR-145-5p expression as well as bromocriptine sensitivity both in vitro and in vivo...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Alessandro Torgovnick, Alfonso Schiavi, Anjumara Shaik, Henok Kassahun, Silvia Maglioni, Shane L Rea, Thomas E Johnson, Hans C Reinhardt, Sebastian Honnen, Björn Schumacher, Hilde Nilsen, Natascia Ventura
Interventions that promote healthy aging are typically associated with increased stress resistance. Paradoxically, reducing the activity of core biological processes such as mitochondrial or insulin metabolism promotes the expression of adaptive responses, which in turn increase animal longevity and resistance to stress. In this study, we investigated the relation between the extended Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan elicited by reduction in mitochondrial functionality and resistance to genotoxic stress. We find that reducing mitochondrial activity during development confers germline resistance to DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a cell-non-autonomous manner...
October 26, 2018: EMBO Reports
Seon-Kyu Kim, Kwangho Kim, Jea-Woon Ryu, Tae-Young Ryu, Jung Hwa Lim, Jung-Hwa Oh, Jeong-Ki Min, Cho-Rok Jung, Ryuji Hamamoto, Mi-Young Son, Dae-Soo Kim, Hyun-Soo Cho
Molecular classifications of breast cancer (BRC), such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), luminal A and luminal B, have been developed to reduce unnecessary treatment by dividing patients with BRC into low‑ and high‑risk progression groups. However, these methods do not cover all of the pathological characteristics of BRC, and investigations into novel prognostic/therapeutic markers are thus continually required. In this study, we identified the overexpression of the histone methyltransferase, euchromatic histone‑lysine N‑methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2) in BRC samples (n=1,222) and normal samples (n=113) derived from the TCGA portal by performing a BRC tissue microarray...
January 2019: International Journal of Oncology
Mingjie Xie, Xi Chen, Amara L Holder, Michael D Hays, Michael Lewandowski, John H Offenberg, Tadeusz E Kleindienst, Mohammed Jaoui, Michael P Hannigan
Light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also referred to as "brown carbon" (BrC), has been intensively investigated in atmospheres impacted by biomass burning. However, other BrC sources (e.g., secondary formation in the atmosphere) are rarely studied in ambient aerosols. In the current work, forty-five PM2.5 filter samples were collected in Research Triangle Park (RTP), NC, USA from June 1st to July 15th, 2013. The bulk carbonaceous components, including OC, elemental carbon (EC), water soluble OC (WSOC), and an array of organic molecular markers were measured; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer was used to measure the light absorption of methanol extractable OC and WSOC...
January 2019: Environmental Pollution
Peng Lin, Lauren T Fleming, Sergey A Nizkorodov, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin
Light-absorbing components of atmospheric organic aerosols, which are collectively termed "brown carbon" (BrC), are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. They affect absorption of solar radiation by aerosols in the atmosphere and human health as some of them have been identified as potential toxins. Understanding the sources, formation, atmospheric evolution, and environmental effects of BrC requires molecular identification and characterization of light-absorption properties of BrC chromophores. Identification of BrC components is challenging due to the complexity of atmospheric aerosols...
November 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Lora G Bankova, Daniel F Dwyer, Eri Yoshimoto, Saltanat Ualiyeva, John W McGinty, Hannah Raff, Jakob von Moltke, Yoshihide Kanaoka, K Frank Austen, Nora A Barrett
Respiratory epithelial cells (EpCs) orchestrate airway mucosal inflammation in response to diverse environmental stimuli, but how distinct EpC programs are regulated remains poorly understood. Here, we report that inhalation of aeroallergens leads to expansion of airway brush cells (BrCs), specialized chemosensory EpCs and the dominant epithelial source of interleukin-25 (IL-25). BrC expansion was attenuated in mice lacking either LTC4 synthase, the biosynthetic enzyme required for cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) generation, or the EpC receptor for leukotriene E4 (LTE4 ), CysLT3 R...
October 5, 2018: Science Immunology
Ofer Isakov, Deeann Wallis, D Gareth Evans, Shay Ben-Shachar
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function variants in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin which serves as a tumor suppressor that inhibits RAS signaling and regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. While, the only well-established functional domain in the NF1 protein is the GAP-related domain (GRD), most of the identified non-truncating disease-causing variants are located outside of this domain, supporting the existence of other important disease-associated domains...
October 2018: EBioMedicine
Sandra P Nunes, Catarina Moreira-Barbosa, Sofia Salta, Susana Palma de Sousa, Inês Pousa, Júlio Oliveira, Marta Soares, Licínio Rego, Teresa Dias, Jéssica Rodrigues, Luís Antunes, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo
BACKGROUND: Breast (BrC), colorectal (CRC) and lung (LC) cancers are the three most common and deadly cancers in women. Cancer screening entails an increase in early stage disease detection but is hampered by high false-positive rates and overdiagnosis/overtreatment. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs early in cancer and may be detected in circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA), constituting a valuable biomarker and enabling non-invasive testing for cancer detection. We aimed to develop a ccfDNA methylation-based test for simultaneous detection of BrC, CRC and LC...
September 26, 2018: Cancers
Marisa Victoria Diniz, Sue Y Sun, Claudia Barsottini, Mauricio Viggiano, Roney C Signorini Filho, Bruna Sanches Ozane Pimenta, Kevin M Elias, Neil S Horowitz, Antonio Braga, Ross S Berkowitz
BACKGROUND: The term gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) includes both complete and partial moles, which are uncommon nonviable pregnancies with the potential to evolve into a malignancy known as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. While highly curable, the potential for malignancy associated with molar pregnancies worries the patients, leading them to seek information on the internet. A Facebook page headed by Brazilian specialized physicians in GTD was created in 2013 to provide online support for GTD patients...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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