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Tatsuhiro Shimizu, Strahil Iv Pastuhov, Hiroshi Hanafusa, Kunihiro Matsumoto, Naoki Hisamoto
The ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is governed by cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. However, the mechanisms regulating axon regeneration are not well understood. Here, we identify the brc-2 gene encoding a homolog of the mammalian BRCA2 tumor suppressor as a regulator of axon regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons. We show that the RHO-1/Rho GTPase-LET-502/ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase)-regulatory non-muscle myosin light-chain (MLC-4/MLC) phosphorylation signaling pathway regulates axon regeneration...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Michael Luke Carlson, John William Young, Zhiyu Zhao, Lucien Fabre, Daniel Jun, Jianing Li, Jun Li, Harveer Singh Dhupar, Irvin Wason, Allan T Mills, J Thomas Beatty, John S Klassen, Isabelle Rouiller, Franck Duong
Membrane proteins are difficult to work with due to their insolubility in aqueous solution and quite often their poor stability in detergent micelles. Here, we present the peptidisc for their facile capture into water-soluble particles. Unlike the nanodisc, which requires scaffold proteins of different lengths and precise amounts of matching lipids, reconstitution of detergent solubilized proteins in peptidisc only requires a short amphipathic bi-helical peptide (NSPr ) and no extra lipids. Multiple copies of the peptide wrap around to shield the membrane-exposed part of the target protein...
August 15, 2018: ELife
Cong-Cong Huang, Yan Ma, Jun Zheng
A three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) was employed for real-time online measurement of aerosol optical properties and light absorption enhancement of EC together with chemical composition analysis in the northern suburb of Nanjing during January 1-19, 2016. The average aerosol absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and single scattering albedo at 532 nm during the observation period were (64.19±35.28) Mm-1 , (454.68±238.71) Mm-1 , and 0.87±0.03, respectively, and showed clear diurnal variation, mainly affected by planetary boundary layer height and PM2...
July 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
K Gillmann, A El Ameen, R Massy, F Fabro, A Gasc, C P Herbort
PURPOSE: To assess posterior inflammation using a fluorescein (FA)/indocyanine-green angiography (ICGA) scoring system, and compare them to the presently recommended outcome measure, the standardization of uveitis nomenclature vitreous haze score (SUN-VH) in stromal choroiditis. METHODS: This was a retrospective study on patients with a diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis(OS), ocular tuberculosis(OT), Birdshot retinochoroiditis(BRC) and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease(VKH) seen in the Centre for Ophthalmic Specialized Care, Lausanne, Switzerland...
June 26, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Liang Lv, Yu Hu, Senlin Yin, Peizhi Zhou, Yuan Yang, Weichao Ma, Shizhen Zhang, Xiujie Wang, Shu Jiang
Giant prolactinomas represent a rare entity of pituitary tumors so that the management of these patients is still a prevalent challenge at present. Paying special attention to the treatment strategy and outcomes, we presented a large series of 42 cases looking forward to share our understanding and experience in management of these patients. Male patients accounted for 71.4% of this series and were relatively younger (35.70±2.42 vs. 52.00±3.55 years, p=0.0011) and harbored bigger tumors (14.57 vs. 7.74 cm3 , p=0...
June 25, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Nancy Adriana Espinoza-Sánchez, Jennifer Enciso, Rosana Pelayo, Ezequiel M Fuentes-Pananá
Breast cancer is a complex disease exhibiting extensive inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Inflammation is a well-known driver of cancer progression, often attributed to immune cells infiltrating the tumor stroma. However, tumor cells themselves are capable to secrete a variety of inflammatory molecules, of which we understand very little about their role in intra-clonal communication. We recently reported the capacity of triple negative cell lines to induce a cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype and invasion properties into luminal cells, a mechanism mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines that up-regulated the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 chemokine signaling axis...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Raimondo Forte, Florent Aptel, Kim Thia-Soui-Tchong, Lenore Salmon, Adriane Mailhac, Laurence Bouillet, Christophe Chiquet
PURPOSE: To evaluate 2-year choroidal changes in eyes with birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC). METHODS: Thirteen patients (26 eyes) with BRC were prospectively evaluated during a 2-year period with standard automated perimetry (SAP), fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography (Spectralis Heidelberg Retinal Angiograph + optical coherence tomography). Enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography was performed. RESULTS: Eight patients (61%) were females; the patients mean age was 60 ± 4...
June 19, 2018: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
Pablo Corral Arroyo, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Peter A Alpert, Stéphane Dumas, Sébastien Perrier, Christian George, Markus Ammann
Atmospheric aerosol particles may contain light absorbing (brown carbon, BrC), triplet forming organic compounds that can sustain catalytic radical reactions and thus contribute to oxidative aerosol aging. We quantify UVA induced radical production initiated by imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC), benzophenone (BPh). and 4-benzoylbenzoic acid (BBA) in the presence of the nonabsorbing organics citric acid (CA), shikimic acid (SA), and syringol (Syr) at varying mixing ratios. We observed a maximum HO2 release of 1013 molecules min-1 cm-2 at a mole ratio XBPh < 0...
July 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Eric J Norris, Wendell D Jones, Marius D Surleac, Andrei J Petrescu, Darla Destephanis, Qing Zhang, Issam Hamadeh, Jeffrey S Kneisl, Chad A Livasy, Ram N Ganapathi, David L Tait, Mahrukh K Ganapathi
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin, which negatively regulates Ras signaling. NF1 patients have an increased risk of developing early onset breast cancer, however, the association between NF1 and high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is unclear. Since most NF1-related tumors exhibit early biallelic inactivation of NF1 , we evaluated the evolution of genetic alterations in HGSOC in an NF1 patient. Somatic variation analysis of whole exome sequencing of tumor samples from both ovaries and a peritoneal metastasis showed a clonal lineage originating from an ancestral clone within the left adnexa, which exhibited copy number (CN) loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the region of chromosome 17 containing TP53, NF1 , and BRC A1 and mutation of the other TP53 allele...
February 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
Matthew Goodwin, Bastian Bräuer, Stephen Lewis, Ashvin Thambyah, Frédérique Vanholsbeeck
Recent studies have shown potential for using polarisation sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) to study cartilage morphology, and to be potentially used as an in vivo, non-invasive tool for detecting osteoarthritic changes. However, there has been relatively limited ability of this method to quantify the subtle changes that occur in the early stages of cartilage degeneration. An established mechanical indenting technique that has previously been used to examine the microstructural response of articular cartilage was employed to fix the bovine samples in an indented state...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Javier-David Lopez-Morinigo, Andrea C Fernandes, Hitesh Shetty, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Ashraful Bari, Robert Stewart, Rina Dutta
PURPOSE: The predictive value of suicide risk assessment in secondary mental healthcare remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which clinical risk assessment ratings can predict suicide among people receiving secondary mental healthcare. METHODS: Retrospective inception cohort study (n = 13,758) from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) (London, UK) linked with national mortality data (n = 81 suicides). Cox regression models assessed survival from the last suicide risk assessment and ROC curves evaluated the performance of risk assessment total scores...
June 2, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Junji Cao, Yang Chen, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Jing Duan, Chongshu Zhu, Wenting Dai, Kai Wang, Chunshui Lin, Haiyan Ni, Joel C Corbin, Yunfei Wu, Renjian Zhang, Xuexi Tie, Thorsten Hoffmann, Colin O'Dowd, Uli Dusek
Light-absorbing organic carbon (i.e., brown carbon or BrC) in the atmospheric aerosol has significant contribution to light absorption and radiative forcing. However, the link between BrC optical properties and chemical composition remains poorly constrained. In this study, we combine spectrophotometric measurements and chemical analyses of BrC samples collected from July 2008 to June 2009 in urban Xi'an, Northwest China. Elevated BrC was observed in winter (5 times higher than in summer), largely due to increased emissions from wintertime domestic biomass burning...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Junwen Liu, Yangzhi Mo, Ping Ding, Jun Li, Chengde Shen, Gan Zhang
Water-soluble brown carbon (ws-BrC) exerts an important influence on climate change, but its emission sources and optical properties remain poorly understood. In this study, we isolated two ws-BrC proxies, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and humic-like substance carbon (HULIS-C), from particulate matter collected in Guangzhou, China, during December 2012 for the measurement of dual carbon isotopes (14 C and 13 C) and light absorption. The mass absorption efficiencies of WSOC and HULIS-C at 365nm were 0...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sheng Li, Ming Zhu, Weiqiang Yang, Mingjin Tang, Xueliang Huang, Yuegang Yu, Hua Fang, Xu Yu, Qingqing Yu, Xiaoxin Fu, Wei Song, Yanli Zhang, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang
Carbonaceous aerosols represent an important nexus between air pollution and climate change. Here we collected filter-based PM2.5 samples during summer and autumn in 2015 at one urban and two rural sites in Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China, and got the light absorption by black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) resolved with a DRI Model 2015 multi-wavelength thermal/optical carbon analyzer apart from determining the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents. On average BrC contributed 12-15% of the measured absorption at 405nm (LA405 ) during summer and 15-19% during autumn with significant increase in the LA405 by BrC at the rural sites...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mingjie Xie, Guofeng Shen, Amara L Holder, Michael D Hays, James J Jetter
Household cookstove emissions are an important source of carbonaceous aerosols globally. The light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also termed brown carbon (BrC), from cookstove emissions can impact the Earth's radiative balance, but is rarely investigated. In this work, PM2.5 filter samples were collected during combustion experiments with red oak wood, charcoal, and kerosene in a variety of cookstoves mainly at two water boiling test phases (cold start CS, hot start HS). Samples were extracted in methanol and extracts were examined using spectrophotometry...
September 2018: Environmental Pollution
Juping Yan, Xiaoping Wang, Ping Gong, Chuanfei Wang, Zhiyuan Cong
Brown carbon (BrC), a carbonaceous aerosol which absorbs solar radiation over a broad range of wavelengths, is beginning to be seen as an important contributor to global warming. BrC absorbs both inorganic and organic pollutants, leading to serious effects on human health. We review the fundamental features of BrC, including its sources, chemical composition, optical properties and radiative forcing effects. We detail the importance of including photochemical processes related to BrC in the GEOS-Chem transport model for the estimation of aerosol radiative forcing...
September 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yangzhi Mo, Jun Li, Bin Jiang, Tao Su, Xiaofei Geng, Junwen Liu, Haoyu Jiang, Chengde Shen, Ping Ding, Guangcai Zhong, Zhineng Cheng, Yuhong Liao, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Gan Zhang
Humic-like substances (HULIS) are a class of high molecular weight, light-absorbing compounds that are highly related to brown carbon (BrC). In this study, the sources and compositions of HULIS isolated from fine particles collected in Beijing, China during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit were characterized based on carbon isotope (13 C and 14 C) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) analyses, respectively. HULIS were the main light-absorbing components of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), accounting for 80...
August 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ji Soo Park, Seung-Tae Lee, Jung Woo Han, Tae Il Kim, Eun Ji Nam, Hyung Seok Park
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the relative risk of breast and ovarian cancers related to the putative functional domain regions, obesity, and parity among Korean BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the clinical characteristics, cancer history, and mutations according to the putative functional domain of BRCA proteins among 229 women with BRCA1/2 mutations who were treated at Yonsei Cancer Center, Severance Hospital between January 2009 and March 2017...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Filippo Fabro, Carl P Herbort
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Quantitative methods for posterior uveitis are necessary for precise appraisal and follow-up of inflammation in practice and in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to assess fluorescein angiography (FA), indocanine green angiography (ICGA), and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography choroidal thickness (EDI-OCT CT) in two stromal choroiditis entities, birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC), and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), as well as to determine (1) disease patterns, (2) respective response to therapy, and (3) their potential utility in clinical trials in comparison to vitreous haze, the present standard outcome used in clinical trials...
April 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
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