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Mingjie Xie, Xi Chen, Amara L Holder, Michael D Hays, Michael Lewandowski, John H Offenberg, Tadeusz E Kleindienst, Mohammed Jaoui, Michael P Hannigan
Light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also referred to as "brown carbon" (BrC), has been intensively investigated in atmospheres impacted by biomass burning. However, other BrC sources (e.g., secondary formation in the atmosphere) are rarely studied in ambient aerosols. In the current work, forty-five PM2.5 filter samples were collected in Research Triangle Park (RTP), NC, USA from June 1st to July 15th, 2013. The bulk carbonaceous components, including OC, elemental carbon (EC), water soluble OC (WSOC), and an array of organic molecular markers were measured; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer was used to measure the light absorption of methanol extractable OC and WSOC...
October 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Peng Lin, Lauren T Fleming, Sergey A Nizkorodov, Julia Laskin, Alexander Laskin
Light-absorbing components of atmospheric organic aerosols, which are collectively termed "brown carbon" (BrC), are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. They affect absorption of solar radiation by aerosols in the atmosphere and human health as some of them have been identified as potential toxins. Understanding the sources, formation, atmospheric evolution, and environmental effects of BrC requires molecular identification and characterization of light-absorption properties of BrC chromophores. Identification of BrC components is challenging due to the complexity of atmospheric aerosols...
October 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Lora G Bankova, Daniel F Dwyer, Eri Yoshimoto, Saltanat Ualiyeva, John W McGinty, Hannah Raff, Jakob von Moltke, Yoshihide Kanaoka, K Frank Austen, Nora A Barrett
Respiratory epithelial cells (EpCs) orchestrate airway mucosal inflammation in response to diverse environmental stimuli, but how distinct EpC programs are regulated remains poorly understood. Here, we report that inhalation of aeroallergens leads to expansion of airway brush cells (BrCs), specialized chemosensory EpCs and the dominant epithelial source of interleukin-25 (IL-25). BrC expansion was attenuated in mice lacking either LTC4 synthase, the biosynthetic enzyme required for cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) generation, or the EpC receptor for leukotriene E4 (LTE4 ), CysLT3 R...
October 5, 2018: Science Immunology
Ofer Isakov, Deeann Wallis, D Gareth Evans, Shay Ben-Shachar
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function variants in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin which serves as a tumor suppressor that inhibits RAS signaling and regulates cell proliferation and differentiation. While, the only well-established functional domain in the NF1 protein is the GAP-related domain (GRD), most of the identified non-truncating disease-causing variants are located outside of this domain, supporting the existence of other important disease-associated domains...
October 2018: EBioMedicine
Sandra P Nunes, Catarina Moreira-Barbosa, Sofia Salta, Susana Palma de Sousa, Inês Pousa, Júlio Oliveira, Marta Soares, Licínio Rego, Teresa Dias, Jéssica Rodrigues, Luís Antunes, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo
BACKGROUND: Breast (BrC), colorectal (CRC) and lung (LC) cancers are the three most common and deadly cancers in women. Cancer screening entails an increase in early stage disease detection but is hampered by high false-positive rates and overdiagnosis/overtreatment. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs early in cancer and may be detected in circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA), constituting a valuable biomarker and enabling non-invasive testing for cancer detection. We aimed to develop a ccfDNA methylation-based test for simultaneous detection of BrC, CRC and LC...
September 26, 2018: Cancers
Marisa Victoria Diniz, Sue Y Sun, Claudia Barsottini, Mauricio Viggiano, Roney C Signorini Filho, Bruna Sanches Ozane Pimenta, Kevin M Elias, Neil S Horowitz, Antonio Braga, Ross S Berkowitz
BACKGROUND: The term gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) includes both complete and partial moles, which are uncommon nonviable pregnancies with the potential to evolve into a malignancy known as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. While highly curable, the potential for malignancy associated with molar pregnancies worries the patients, leading them to seek information on the internet. A Facebook page headed by Brazilian specialized physicians in GTD was created in 2013 to provide online support for GTD patients...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Dongxin Zhao, Kui Lu, Guangbin Liu, Li Ma, Hanjing Zhu, Juan He
Mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2) can lead to chromosomal instability and result in breast cancer, which is strongly associated with p53 mutations. Here, based on the crystal structure of BRC4 and p53, the spatial structure of BRC2 and p53 (171-192) was simulated, providing structural basis for the site-specific mutation of BRC2. The BRC analogous peptides and p53 (171-192) were synthesized, and the interaction between the mutant peptide and p53 (171-192) was studied using circular diachronic spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy...
September 20, 2018: FEBS Letters
Titia G Meijer, Nicole S Verkaik, Anieta M Sieuwerts, Job van Riet, Kishan A T Naipal, Carolien H M van Deurzen, Michael den Bakker, Hein F B M Sleddens, Hendrikus J Dubbink, T Dorine den Toom, Winand N M Dinjens, Esther H Lips, Petra M Nederlof, Marcel Smid, Harmen J G van de Werken, Roland Kanaar, John W M Martens, Agnes Jager, Dik C van Gent
PURPOSE: Tumors of germline BRCA1/2 mutated carriers show homologous recombination (HR) deficiency (HRD), resulting in impaired DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and high sensitivity to Poly-(ADP-Ribose)-Polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Although this therapy is expected to be effective beyond germline BRCA1/2 mutated carriers, a robust validated test to detect HRD tumors is lacking. In the present study we therefore evaluated a functional HR assay exploiting the formation of RAD51 foci in proliferating cells after ex vivo irradiation of fresh breast cancers (BrC) tissue: the RECAP test...
August 23, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Arkaprabha Konar, Riley Sechrist, Yin Song, Veronica R Policht, Philip D Laible, David F Bocian, Dewey Holten, Christine Kirmaier, Jennifer P Ogilvie
The bacterial reaction center (BRC) serves as an important model system for understanding the charge separation processes in photosynthesis. Knowledge of the electronic structure of the BRC is critical for understanding its charge separation mechanism. While it is well-accepted that the "special pair" pigments are strongly coupled, the degree of coupling among other BRC pigments has been thought to be relatively weak. Here we study the W(M250)V mutant BRC by two-color two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to correlate changes in the Q x region with excitation of the Q y transitions...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Els Dozeman, Irma M Verdonck-de Leeuw, Josée Savard, Annemieke van Straten
Background: Insomnia is highly prevalent in breast cancer (BRC) patients, but non-pharmacological treatment is not widely available. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate whether guided cognitive behavioral therapy via the Internet (I-CBT) is a feasible and effective solution for this undertreated condition in BRC patients, and to investigate who benefits most. Methods: An existing evidence based I-CBT sleep intervention (I-Sleep) was adapted for BRC patients...
September 2017: Internet Interventions: the Application of Information Technology in Mental and Behavioural Health
Tatsuhiro Shimizu, Strahil Iv Pastuhov, Hiroshi Hanafusa, Kunihiro Matsumoto, Naoki Hisamoto
The ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is governed by cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. However, the mechanisms regulating axon regeneration are not well understood. Here, we identify the brc-2 gene encoding a homolog of the mammalian BRCA2 tumor suppressor as a regulator of axon regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons. We show that the RHO-1/Rho GTPase-LET-502/ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase)-regulatory non-muscle myosin light-chain (MLC-4/MLC) phosphorylation signaling pathway regulates axon regeneration...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Michael Luke Carlson, John William Young, Zhiyu Zhao, Lucien Fabre, Daniel Jun, Jianing Li, Jun Li, Harveer Singh Dhupar, Irvin Wason, Allan T Mills, J Thomas Beatty, John S Klassen, Isabelle Rouiller, Franck Duong
Membrane proteins are difficult to work with due to their insolubility in aqueous solution and quite often their poor stability in detergent micelles. Here, we present the peptidisc for their facile capture into water-soluble particles. Unlike the nanodisc, which requires scaffold proteins of different lengths and precise amounts of matching lipids, reconstitution of detergent solubilized proteins in peptidisc only requires a short amphipathic bi-helical peptide (NSPr ) and no extra lipids. Multiple copies of the peptide wrap around to shield the membrane-exposed part of the target protein...
August 15, 2018: ELife
Cong-Cong Huang, Yan Ma, Jun Zheng
A three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) was employed for real-time online measurement of aerosol optical properties and light absorption enhancement of EC together with chemical composition analysis in the northern suburb of Nanjing during January 1-19, 2016. The average aerosol absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and single scattering albedo at 532 nm during the observation period were (64.19±35.28) Mm-1 , (454.68±238.71) Mm-1 , and 0.87±0.03, respectively, and showed clear diurnal variation, mainly affected by planetary boundary layer height and PM2...
July 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
K Gillmann, A El Ameen, R Massy, F Fabro, A Gasc, C P Herbort
PURPOSE: To assess posterior inflammation using a fluorescein (FA)/indocyanine-green angiography (ICGA) scoring system, and compare them to the presently recommended outcome measure, the standardization of uveitis nomenclature vitreous haze score (SUN-VH) in stromal choroiditis. METHODS: This was a retrospective study on patients with a diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis(OS), ocular tuberculosis(OT), Birdshot retinochoroiditis(BRC) and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease(VKH) seen in the Centre for Ophthalmic Specialized Care, Lausanne, Switzerland...
June 26, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Liang Lv, Yu Hu, Senlin Yin, Peizhi Zhou, Yuan Yang, Weichao Ma, Shizhen Zhang, Xiujie Wang, Shu Jiang
Giant prolactinomas represent a rare entity of pituitary tumors so that the management of these patients is still a prevalent challenge at present. Paying special attention to the treatment strategy and outcomes, we presented a large series of 42 cases looking forward to share our understanding and experience in management of these patients. Male patients accounted for 71.4% of this series and were relatively younger (35.70±2.42 vs. 52.00±3.55 years, p=0.0011) and harbored bigger tumors (14.57 vs. 7.74 cm3 , p=0...
June 25, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Nancy Adriana Espinoza-Sánchez, Jennifer Enciso, Rosana Pelayo, Ezequiel M Fuentes-Pananá
Breast cancer is a complex disease exhibiting extensive inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Inflammation is a well-known driver of cancer progression, often attributed to immune cells infiltrating the tumor stroma. However, tumor cells themselves are capable to secrete a variety of inflammatory molecules, of which we understand very little about their role in intra-clonal communication. We recently reported the capacity of triple negative cell lines to induce a cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype and invasion properties into luminal cells, a mechanism mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines that up-regulated the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 chemokine signaling axis...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Raimondo Forte, Florent Aptel, Kim Thia-Soui-Tchong, Lenore Salmon, Adriane Mailhac, Laurence Bouillet, Christophe Chiquet
PURPOSE: To evaluate 2-year choroidal changes in eyes with birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC). METHODS: Thirteen patients (26 eyes) with BRC were prospectively evaluated during a 2-year period with standard automated perimetry (SAP), fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography (Spectralis Heidelberg Retinal Angiograph + optical coherence tomography). Enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography was performed. RESULTS: Eight patients (61%) were females; the patients mean age was 60 ± 4...
June 19, 2018: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
Pablo Corral Arroyo, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Peter A Alpert, Stéphane Dumas, Sébastien Perrier, Christian George, Markus Ammann
Atmospheric aerosol particles may contain light absorbing (brown carbon, BrC), triplet forming organic compounds that can sustain catalytic radical reactions and thus contribute to oxidative aerosol aging. We quantify UVA induced radical production initiated by imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC), benzophenone (BPh). and 4-benzoylbenzoic acid (BBA) in the presence of the nonabsorbing organics citric acid (CA), shikimic acid (SA), and syringol (Syr) at varying mixing ratios. We observed a maximum HO2 release of 1013 molecules min-1 cm-2 at a mole ratio XBPh < 0...
July 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Eric J Norris, Wendell D Jones, Marius D Surleac, Andrei J Petrescu, Darla Destephanis, Qing Zhang, Issam Hamadeh, Jeffrey S Kneisl, Chad A Livasy, Ram N Ganapathi, David L Tait, Mahrukh K Ganapathi
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin, which negatively regulates Ras signaling. NF1 patients have an increased risk of developing early onset breast cancer, however, the association between NF1 and high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is unclear. Since most NF1-related tumors exhibit early biallelic inactivation of NF1 , we evaluated the evolution of genetic alterations in HGSOC in an NF1 patient. Somatic variation analysis of whole exome sequencing of tumor samples from both ovaries and a peritoneal metastasis showed a clonal lineage originating from an ancestral clone within the left adnexa, which exhibited copy number (CN) loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the region of chromosome 17 containing TP53, NF1 , and BRC A1 and mutation of the other TP53 allele...
February 2018: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
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