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N C Adams, T P Farrell, A O'Shea, A O'Hare, J Thornton, S Power, P Brennan, S Looby
Central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus (CDI) is due to deficient synthesis or secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as arginine vasopressin peptide (AVP). It is clinically characterised by polydipsia and polyuria (urine output > 30 mL/kg/day) of dilute urine (< 250 mOsm/L). It is the result of a defect in one of more sites involving the hypothalamic osmoreceptors, supraoptic or paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, median eminence of the hypothalamus, infundibulum or the posterior pituitary gland...
August 10, 2018: Neuroradiology
Tadashi Kitahara, Masaharu Sakagami, Taeko Ito, Tomoyuki Shiozaki, Koichi Kitano, Akinori Yamashita, Ichiro Ota, Yoshiro Wada, Toshiaki Yamanaka
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of neuro-otological examination, blood tests, and scoring questionnaire data with treatment-resistant intractability of persistent dizziness in Ménière's disease. METHODS: We managed 1520 successive vertigo/dizziness patients at the Vertigo/Dizziness Center in Nara Medical University from May 2014 to April 2018. Five hundred and twenty-two patients were diagnosed with Ménière's disease (522/1520; 34...
July 30, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Anton Wangler, Dominik Boettcher, Aline Hueser, Gabriele Sadowski, Christoph Held
Co-solvents are known to influence the Michaelis constant KM of enzyme-catalysed reactions. In literature co-solvent effects on KM are usually explained by interactions between enzyme and co-solvent. Very recent works replaced substrate concentrations by thermodynamic activities in order to separate enzyme-co-solvent from substrate-co-solvent interactions. This yields the thermodynamic activity-based Michalis constant KMa. In this work this approach was extended to ADH-catalysed reduction of acetophenone (ACP), a two-substrate reaction...
August 1, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Akihito Endo, Shintaro Maeno, Yasuhiro Tanizawa, Wolfgang Kneifel, Masanori Arita, Leon Dicks, Seppo Salminen
Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are a recently discovered group, consisting of a few Fructobacillus and Lactobacillus species. Because of their unique characteristics, including poor growth on glucose and preference of oxygen, they are regarded as "unconventional" lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Their unusual growth characteristics are due to an incomplete gene encoding a bi-functional alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase ( adhE ). This results in the imbalance of NAD/NADH and the requirement of additional electron acceptors to metabolize glucose...
July 27, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Caroline M Gorvin, Morten Frost, Tomas Malinauskas, Treena Cranston, Hannah Boon, Christian Siebold, E Yvonne Jones, Fadil M Hannan, Rajesh V Thakker
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a homodimeric G-protein coupled receptor that signals via intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) mobilisation and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) to regulate extracellular calcium (Ca2+e) homeostasis. The central importance of the CaSR in Ca2+e homeostasis has been demonstrated by the identification of loss- or gain-of-function CaSR mutations that lead to familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) or autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia (ADH), respectively...
July 20, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
John K Maesaka, Louis J Imbriano, Nobuyuki Miyawaki
BACKGROUND: The approach to hyponatremia is in a state of flux, especially in differentiating syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) from cerebral-renal salt wasting (RSW) because of diametrically opposite therapeutic goals. Considering RSW can occur without cerebral disease, we determined the prevalence of RSW in the general hospital wards. METHODS: To differentiate SIADH from RSW, we used an algorithm based on fractional excretion (FE) of urate and nonresponse to saline infusions in SIADH as compared to excretion of dilute urines and prompt increase in serum sodium in RSW...
July 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Tadashi Kitahara, Ichiro Ota, Akira Horinaka, Hiroki Ohyama, Masaharu Sakagami, Taeko Ito, Tomoyuki Shiozaki, Yoshiro Wada, Toshiaki Yamanaka
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of neuro-otological examination, blood test, and scoring questionnaire data with treatment-resistant intractability in idiopathic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) patients. METHODS: We experienced 1520 successive vertigo/dizziness patients at the Vertigo/Dizziness Center in Nara Medical University during May 2014 to April 2018. Six hundred and eleven patients were diagnosed as BPPV (611/1520; 40...
July 2, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
F S S Raidan, L R Porto-Neto, Y Li, S A Lehnert, Z G Vitezica, A Reverter
Non-additive effects may contribute to genetic variation of complex traits. Their inclusion in genetic evaluation models may therefore improve breeding value estimates and lead to more accurate selection decisions. In this study, we evaluated a systematic series of models accounting for additive, dominance and first-order epistatic interaction (additive by additive, GxG; additive by dominance, GxD; and dominance by dominance, DxD) on body yearling weight (YWT) of 2,550 Tropical Composite (TC) and 2,111 Brahman (BB) cattle in Australia...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Eun-Yeong Jeon, Ji-Won Song, Hee-Jeong Cha, Sun-Mee Lee, Jinwon Lee, Jin-Byung Park
Fatty acids have a low permeability through the cell membrane. Therefore, the intracellular biotransformation of fatty acids can be slow due to supply limitations. The effects of expression level of the fatty acid transporter FadL in Escherichia coli on the biotransformations were investigated. The enhanced expression of FadL led to 5.5-fold increase of the maximum reaction rate Vmax (i.e., 200 μmol/min per g dry cells (200 U/g dry cells)) of the recombinant E. coli expressing a hydratase of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in the periplasm with respect to hydration of oleic acid...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Haichao Wang, Sisi Li, Shenglin Fang, Xiaojing Yang, Jie Feng
To investigate the role of betaine in the intestinal functions of high-salt stressed rats, 32 four-week-old male Sprague⁻Dawley rats weighing 128.0 (SD 5.06) g were randomly allotted to four groups. The control group was fed with standard chow diet (0.4% NaCl), while the treatment groups were fed a high-salt diet (4.0% NaCl) supplemented with betaine at 0.0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%, respectively. The experiment lasted 28 days. The results showed that rats in the high-salt stressed groups had a significant increase in both water intake and kidney index ( p < 0...
July 16, 2018: Nutrients
Amanda M Williams-Rhaesa, Gabriel M Rubinstein, Israel M Scott, Gina L Lipscomb, Farris L Poole Ii, Robert M Kelly, Michael W W Adams
Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is an extremely thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium with great potential for consolidated bioprocessing of renewable plant biomass. Since it does not natively produce ethanol, metabolic engineering is required to create strains with this capability. Previous efforts involved the heterologous expression of the gene encoding a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase, AdhE, which uses NADH as the electron donor to reduce acetyl-CoA to ethanol. Acetyl-CoA produced from sugar oxidation also generates reduced ferredoxin but there is no known pathway for the transfer of electrons from reduced ferredoxin to NAD in C...
December 2018: Metabolic Engineering Communications
Priydarshani Shinde, Mustafa Musameh, Yuan Gao, Andrea J Robinson, Ilias Louis Kyratzis
A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibrous carrier has been chemically modified for the immobilization of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with an aim to increase its stability over a wide pH range, prolong its activity upon storage, and enhance its reusability. The strategy for immobilization involved functionalization of the fibrous carrier with chloropropinoyl chloride followed by amination with ethylenediamine. Tethering of the ADH enzyme to the PVA scaffold was achieved with glutaraldehyde. The activity profile of the immobilized enzyme was compared to soluble enzyme as a function of pH, temperature and reusability...
September 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Diana Hodorowicz-Zaniewska, Karolina Brzuszkiewicz, Joanna Szpor, Wojciech Kibil, Andrzej Matyja, Katarzyna Dyląg-Trojanowska, Piotr Richter, Antoni M Szczepanik
Introduction: Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is a benign lesion, which due to the risk of coexisting cancer is classified as a lesion of uncertain malignant potential. Aim: To identify clinical predictors of cancer underestimation in patients with ADH diagnosed after vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB). Material and methods: Between 2001 and 2016, a total of 3804 vacuum-assisted core needle biopsies were performed at the First Chair of General Surgery of the Jagiellonian University Medical College in Krakow, including 2907 ultrasound (US)-guided biopsies and 897 digital stereotactic procedures...
June 2018: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
Krisztian Sepp, Anna M Laszlo, Zsolt Molnar, Andrea Serester, Tunde Alapi, Marta Galfi, Zsuzsanna Valkusz, Marianna Radacs
Uron herbicides polluting the environment represent a serious concern for environmental health and may be regarded as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which influence the regulation of human homeostasis. We aimed to investigate the effect of EDC urons (phenuron: PU, monuron: MU, and diuron: DU) and chlorobenzenes on the basal release of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is a part of the adenohypophysis-adrenocortical axis. Hormone secretion in the presence of EDC was studied in two cell types: normal adenohypophysis cells (AdH) and cells of prolactinomas (PRLOMA)...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Qiong Wu, Xiaoya Tao, Xinzi Ai, Zisheng Luo, Linchun Mao, Tiejin Ying, Li Li
Fruit aroma development depends on ripening. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of tomato fruit ripening. In the present study, the effects of exogenous ABA on aromatic volatiles in tomato fruit during postharvest ripening were studied. The results showed that exogenous ABA accelerated color development and ethylene production as well as the accumulation of carotenoids, total phenolics and linoleic acid in tomato fruit during ripening. Moreover, exogenous ABA increased the accumulation of volatile compounds such as 1-peten-3-one (2...
June 30, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yuanli Guo, Peiyan Yang, Liu Liu
BACKGROUND Several hyaluronan preparations are available that have different dosage forms, origins, and concentrations. The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of intra-articular chemically cross-linked hyaluronan (CCH) and avian-derived hyaluronan (ADH) injections in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS In total, 258 patients were randomized into 2 groups of 129 each: patients who received CCH injection (CCH group) and patients who received ADH injection (ADH group). Radiographic Kellgren-Lawrence score, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, Lequesne index score, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index, single-limb stance (SLS) test, and timed "Up-and-Go" (TUG) test were performed...
July 9, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Steven R Brown, Marta Staff, Rob Lee, John Love, David A Parker, Stephen J Aves, Thomas P Howard
Multifactorial approaches can quickly and efficiently model complex, interacting natural or engineered biological systems in a way that traditional one-factor-at-a-time experimentation can fail to do. We applied a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach to model ethanol biosynthesis in yeast, which is well-understood and genetically tractable, yet complex. Six alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes catalyze ethanol synthesis, differing in their transcriptional and post-translational regulation, subcellular localization, and enzyme kinetics...
July 20, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Alexander Koch, Eray Yagmur, Alexander Hoss, Lukas Buendgens, Ulf Herbers, Ralf Weiskirchen, Ger H Koek, Christian Trautwein, Frank Tacke
BACKGROUND: Copeptin, also termed C-terminal pre-pro-vasopressin or CTproAVP, mirrors endogenous vasopressin (anti-diuretic hormone, ADH) activity and might thereby serve as a biomarker reflecting the biological stress level. We therefore hypothesized that copeptin plasma concentrations are associated with disease severity in critically ill patients and could predict mortality. METHODS: We analyzed plasma copeptin levels in a prospective, single-center, observational study comprising 218 critically ill patients at admission to the medical intensive care unit (ICU)...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Muhammad Afzal, Sulman Shafeeq, Oscar P Kuipers
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD(H)) play a vital role in various biological processes, including keeping the cellular redox balance. In this study, we investigate the regulatory responses of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 to NADH and characterize the role of the Rex protein as a transcriptional repressor of the gapN, fba, pncB, adhB2, gap , and adhE genes. Transcriptomic analysis was used to observe the response of S. pneumoniae D39 to NADH. Our microarray studies revealed elevated expression of various genes/operons involved in transport and biosynthesis of niacin ( gapN, fba, pncB, adhB2, gap , and adhE )...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wojciech Jelski, Blanka Wolszczak-Biedrzycka, Elżbieta Zasimowicz-Majewska, Karolina Orywal, Tadeusz Wojciech Lapinski, Maciej Szmitkowski
BACKGROUND/AIM: Non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, and its prevalence and medical importance is increasing worldwide. Changes in enzyme activity in liver cells in various liver diseases are reflected by an increase in serum enzymatic activity. For example, alcohol dehydrogenase activity (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), that occur in the liver in large quantities, correlate with disease severity during cirrhosis. In the current study, the activity of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH in the serum of patients with NAFLD was investigated...
July 2018: Anticancer Research
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