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J Muñoz-Arnanz, A D Chirife, B Galletti Vernazzani, E Cabrera, M Sironi, J Millán, C R M Attard, B Jiménez
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed for the first time in blue whales from the South Pacific Ocean. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its main metabolites (DDTs), were determined in 40 blubber samples from 36 free-ranging individuals and one stranded, dead animal along the coast of southern Chile between 2011 and 2013. PCBs were the most abundant pollutants (2.97-975 ng/g l...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
María Belén Pildain, Rodrigo Reinoso Cendoya, Beatriz Ortiz-Santana, José Becerra, Mario Rajchenberg
Fomitiporella has traditionally been delimited based on the gross morphology of the basidiomes, hyphal structure and basdiospores. Recently, phylogenetic studies supported the incorporation of an extensive number of species within the genus. Although most of its species are nested in the 'Phellinotus clade' (Hymenochaetaceae, Basidiomycota), genera such as Arambarria , Inocutis and Phellinotus were not included in previous analysis. To further our understanding of the genus, new sequences from 28S and ITS nuc rDNA genes were jointly analysed with a large selection of taxa in the 'Phellinotus clade', also with re-examination of morphological and ecological data...
2018: MycoKeys
Sajjad Ali Khuhro, Qi Yan, Hui Liao, Guan-Heng Zhu, Jia-Bin Sun, Shuang-Lin Dong
The high sensitivity of the olfactory system is essential for feeding and oviposition in moth insects, and some chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are thought to play roles in this system by binding and carrying hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillar lymph. In this study, to identify the olfactory CSPs from a repertoire of 21 CSP members in the notorious rice pest Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), tissue expression patterns were firstly examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Yuan Zhou, Dan Sun, Wei-Li Quan, Nan Ding, Wen Liu, Wei-Hua Ma, Xiao-Ping Wang
Differences in diapause traits can result in the seasonal reproductive isolation of host plant-associated insect populations and thereby facilitate the population divergence. The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, has two host plant-associated populations: rice population and water-oat population. Several studies have found evidence that seasonal reproductive isolation between these populations is at least partially due to interpopulation differences in diapause. However, there still lack unambiguous evidence comparing characteristics of diapause induction for both populations...
October 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yanhui Lu, Yanyan Zhao, Han Lu, Qi Bai, Yajun Yang, Xusong Zheng, Zhongxian Lu
Chilo supprressalis is one of the most important rice pests that causes serious damage to production in the rice growth area of Asia. Vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides ) was previously found to effectively attract female adults of C. suppressalis laying eggs on vetiver leaves, while the larvae cannot complete their life cycles by feeding on vetiver, indicating a potential means of controlling this pest. In the present study, the transcriptomes of midguts of rice-fed and vetiver-fed C. suppressalis larvae were profiled, which aimed to clarify the molecular mechanism of vetiver as a dead-end trap plant preliminarily...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lu Xu, Jun Zhao, Sun Yang, Dejin Xu, Guangchun Xu, Xiaolong Xu, Yueliang Zhang, Huang Shuijin, Zhaojun Han, Zhongyan Gu
BACKGROUND: The rice striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker), which is one of the most economically important phytophagous pests, has developed resistance to multiple insecticides. The resistance of SSB against chlorantraniliprole has been investigated in detail. However, the mechanism of its metabolic resistance has rarely been studied. RESULTS: A field population from Wuhu city, China was used to establish chlorantraniliprole resistant and susceptible strains (WHR and WHS) by laboratory continuous selection...
August 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Gladys Bichang'a, Jean-Luc Da Lage, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Michel Zivy, Thierry Balliau, Kevin Sambai, Bruno Le Ru, Laure Kaiser, Gerald Juma, Esther Njoki Mwangi Maina, Paul-André Calatayud
Foraging parasitoids use chemical signals in host recognition and selection processes. Although, the volatiles play a relevant role in the localization by parasitoids of their hosts feeding on plants, the host identification process for acceptance occurs mainly during contact between the parasitoid and its host where host products related to feeding activities, fecal pellets and oral secretions, play a crucial role. The purpose of this study was to identify the nature of the contact kairomone(s) that mediate the acceptance for oviposition of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), which was released in Kenya in 1993 to control the invasive crambid Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)...
November 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
X Zhao, G Situ, K He, H Xiao, C Su, F Li
Insect chitinases participate in numerous physiological processes such as nutrition, parasitism, morphogenesis and immunity. These properties make chitinases good targets for pest control. Rice striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is one of the most destructive pests of rice causing huge yield losses. In our previous work, we reported the identification of 12 SSB chitinase (CsCht) genes, and studied the functions of CsCht1 to 4. Here, we have extended our study to investigate the expression patterns and functions of CsCht5 to 12...
July 30, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Yaoyu Jiao, Xiaoyun Hu, Yufa Peng, Kongming Wu, Jörg Romeis, Yunhe Li
The area planted with insect-resistant genetically engineered crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) genes has greatly increased in many areas of the world. Given the nearby presence of non- Bt crops (including those planted as refuges) and non-crop habitats, pests targeted by the Bt trait have a choice between Bt and non- Bt crops or weeds, and their host preference may greatly affect insect management and management of pest resistance to Bt proteins. In this study, we examined the oviposition preference of the target pest of Bt rice, Chilo suppressalis , for Bt versus non- Bt rice plants as influenced by previous damage caused by C...
July 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Kang He, Huamei Xiao, Yang Sun, Simin Ding, Gongming Situ, Fei Li
Rice stem borer (RSB, Chilo suppressalis) is an insect pest that causes huge economic losses every year. Control efforts rely heavily on chemical insecticides, which leads to serious problems such as insecticide resistance, environment pollution, and food safety issues. Therefore, developing alternative pest control methods is an important task. Here, we identified an insect-specific microRNA, miR-14, in RSB, which was predicted to target Spook (Spo) and Ecdysone receptor (EcR) in the ecdysone signalling network...
July 25, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Nainai Fang, Yuwei Hu, Bin Mao, Jie Bi, Ya Zheng, Chuxiong Guan, Yufeng Wang, Jihu Li, Yongkai Mao, Hui Ai
Insect pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) have been proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic sex pheromone components emitted by con-specific insects to pheromone receptors in the hemolymph of male antennal sensilla. In this study, field trapping results indicate that a mixture of E11-16: Ald and Z11-16: Ald can effectively attract a great number of male Tryporyza intacta. Real-time PCR results suggest that the transcript levels of three TintPBP1-3 genes are mainly expressed in the adult antennae. Fluorescence competitive binding experiments show that TintPBP1-3 proteins have great binding affinities to their major sex pheromones...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kai-Li Zhang, Qing-Song Liu, Hou-Xiang Kang, Xiao-Mei Liu, Xiu-Ping Chen, Yu-Fa Peng, Yun-He Li
In agro-ecosystems, plants are important mediators of interactions between their associated herbivorous insects and microbes, and any change in plants induced by one species may lead to cascading effects on interactions with other species. Often, such effects are regulated by phytohormones such as jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Here, we investigated the tripartite interactions among rice plants, three insect herbivores (Chilo suppressalis, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis or Nilaparvata lugens), and the causal agent of rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae...
July 12, 2018: Insect Science
Thomas Weitzel, Ju Jiang, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Constanza Martínez-Valdebenito, Javier López, Allen L Richards, Katia Abarca
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a potentially life-threatening vector-borne infection caused by Orientia species. It occurs mainly in the Asian-Pacific region, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, an endemic focus of scrub typhus has been described in South America, on Chiloé Island in southern Chile. Dogs have been used as sentinel hosts to determine the presence and spatial distribution of various vector-borne infections. Their suitability to gain insight into human exposure to Orientia tsutsugamushi has been suggested in studies from Asia...
2018: PloS One
Xiao-Hui Tu, Yu-Li Zhuo, Xiu-Yun Jiang, Hong-Li Liu, Ye Cao, Su Liu
In insects, superoxide dismutases (SODs) play a critical role in the scavenging of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protecting against oxidative stress induced by various environmental stresses. The Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an economically important insect pest of rice crops. In this study, a mitochondrial manganese SOD (Cs-mMnSOD) gene was characterized in C. suppressalis. The deduced Cs-mMnSOD protein has typical highly conserved features of mitochondrial manganese SODs, including four manganese binding residues, the signature DVWEHAYY peptide, and a mitochondrial-targeting sequence at the N-terminus...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Trust Kasambala Donga, Richard Meadow
Sugarcane is one of the most valuable crops in the world. Native and exotic Lepidopteran stemborers significantly limit sugarcane production. However, the identity and genetic diversity of stemborers infesting sugarcane in Malawi is unknown. The main objectives for this study were to identify and determine genetic diversity in stemborers infesting sugarcane in Malawi. We conducted field surveys between June 2016 and March 2017 in the Lower Shire Valley district of Chikwawa and Nsanje, southern Malawi. Molecular identification was based amplification the partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region...
June 22, 2018: Insects
Lingfei Hu, Meng Ye, Peng Kuai, Miaofen Ye, Matthias Erb, Yonggen Lou
Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental stresses, including herbivory. How plants perceive herbivores on a molecular level is poorly understood. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), the largest subfamily of RLKs, are essential for plants to detect external stress signals, and may therefore also be involved in herbivore perception. Here, we employed RNA interference silencing, phytohormone profiling and complementation, as well as herbivore resistance assays, to investigate the requirement of an LRR-RLK for the initiation of rice (Oryza sativa) defenses against the chewing herbivore striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis...
August 2018: New Phytologist
Ye Cao, Qing Yang, Xiao-Hui Tu, Shi-Guang Li, Su Liu
In insects, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX) plays an important role in protecting against oxidative damage. However, studies on the molecular characteristics of TPXs in the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis, are limited. In this work, a cDNA sequence (CsTpx3) encoding a TPX was identified from C. suppressalis. The deduced CsTPX3 protein shares high sequence identity and two positionally conserved cysteines with orthologs from other insect species, and was classified as a typical 2-Cys TPX. CsTpx3 was expressed most highly during the fifth-instar larval stage, and transcripts were most abundant in the midgut...
September 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Zeyu Wang, Longfa Fang, Zishan Zhou, Sabino Pacheco, Isabel Gómez, Fuping Song, Mario Soberón, Jie Zhang, Alejandra Bravo
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces several insecticidal proteins, such as the crystal proteins (Cry) and the vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip). In this work, we report that a specific interaction between two B. thuringiensis toxins creates insecticidal synergism and unravel the molecular basis of this interaction. When applied together, the three-domain Cry toxin Cry9Aa and the Vip Vip3Aa exhibited high insecticidal activity against an important insect pest, the Asiatic rice borer ( Chilo suppressalis )...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Guangping Yang, Jihui Wen, Yongqiang Han, Maolin Hou
The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), overwinters as a diapausing larva. The diapausing larvae were tested for a rapid cold hardening (RCH) response and its role in the insect’s survival of sub-zero temperatures. When laboratory-reared diapausing larvae were transferred directly from the rearing temperature of 25 °C to −14 °C and maintained there for 2 h, 21% survived. Acclimation of diapausing larvae for 4 h at 5 °C before their exposure for 2 h to −14 °C increased survival to approximately 41%, indicating an RCH response...
May 9, 2018: Insects
Leila Shamakhi, Arash Zibaee, Azadeh Karimi-Malati, Hassan Hoda
The developmental rates of Chilo suppressalis (Walker; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were investigated at different constant temperatures of 11, 18, 22, 24, 26, 30, 32, 34, and 36°C to find out temperature thresholds, thermal requirements and larval antioxidant responses. The time to complete immature stages separately reduced by raising the rearing temperature except for eggs which showed no significant differences at 30-34°C. Data analysis by traditional and Ikemoto-Takai linear models determined Tmin of 10.0 and 9...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
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