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Qing-Hua Chen, Feng Zhu, Zhihua Tian, Wan-Min Zhang, Rong Guo, Wancai Liu, Lieming Pan, Yongjun Du
Several lepidopteran species share the same pheromone blend consisting of (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16:Ald) at different ratios and active doses. In rice pest Chilo suppressalis , (Z)-11-hexadecenol, (Z11-16:OH) and octadecanal (18:Ald) were identified as minor components in the pheromone gland of female moths, and these components were previously not considered as part of the sex pheromone of C. suppressalis . Z11-16:Ald, Z9-16:Ald and (Z)-13-octadecenal (Z13-18:Ald) frequently trapped other lepidopteran species, such as rice pests Scirpophaga incertulas and Mythimna separate , corn and vegetable pests Helicoverpa armigera in the field, suggesting a lack of specificity in the pheromone blend...
December 12, 2018: Insects
Mukesh K Dhillon, Aditya K Tanwar, Fazil Hasan
We investigated the effects of mating among different-aged males and females on reproductive physiology, progeny production, and longevity of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) adults under laboratory conditions. Present studies involved virgin males (M) and females (F) of three different ages namely, on the day of emergence (1D), next day (2D), and further next day (3D), thus comprising of a total of nine mating treatments (1DM × 1DF, 1DM × 2DF, 1DM × 3DF, 2DM × 1DF, 2DM × 2DF, 2DM × 3DF, 3DM × 1DF, 3DM × 2DF, and 3DM × 3DF)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Aydın Yesilyurt, Hacer Muratoglu, Zihni Demirbag, Remziye Nalcacioglu
The genome of Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) has two open reading frames (ORFs) with matrix metalloprotease (MMP) domains. The protein encoded by ORF 136R contains 178 amino acids with over 40% amino acid sequence identity to hypothetical metalloproteases of other viruses, and the protein 165R contains 264 amino acids with over 40% amino acid sequence identity to metalloproteases of a large group of organisms, primarily including a variety of Drosophila species. These proteins possess conserved zinc-binding motifs in their catalytic domains...
November 29, 2018: Archives of Virology
Alejandro Vera, Constanza Schapheer
We describe a new genus and species of Chilean Blattodea (Ectobiidae), collected on Isla Grande de Chiloé and associated with Fascicularia bicolor (Bromeliaceae). We study the morphology of both sexes with SEM. The new taxon is brachypterous, with tiny ellipsoid tegmina and hind wings absent. The female presents strongly sclerotized genital sclerites and spermathecal plate developed. The male without tergal specializationsand asymmetrical styles. Medium phallomere with modified sclerites, compose a sclerotized complex that includes a long ejaculatory duct...
October 15, 2018: Zootaxa
Chao Xu, Jiahui Cheng, Haiyan Lin, Chaoyang Lin, Jianhua Gao, Zhicheng Shen
Management of resistance development of insect pests is of great importance for continued utilization of Bt crop. The high-dose/refuge and pyramid (gene stacking) strategy are commonly employed to delay the evolution of insect resistance. Due to the anticipated difficulty for deployment of mandatory refuge for transgenic crops in China, where the size of farmer is quite small, stacking of genes with different modes of action is a more feasible strategy. Here we report the development of transgenic rice expressing a fusion protein of Cry1Ab and Vip3A toxin...
October 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Muñoz-Arnanz, A D Chirife, B Galletti Vernazzani, E Cabrera, M Sironi, J Millán, C R M Attard, B Jiménez
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed for the first time in blue whales from the South Pacific Ocean. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its main metabolites (DDTs), were determined in 40 blubber samples from 36 free-ranging individuals and one stranded, dead animal along the coast of southern Chile between 2011 and 2013. PCBs were the most abundant pollutants (2.97-975 ng/g l...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
María Belén Pildain, Rodrigo Reinoso Cendoya, Beatriz Ortiz-Santana, José Becerra, Mario Rajchenberg
Fomitiporella has traditionally been delimited based on the gross morphology of the basidiomes, hyphal structure and basdiospores. Recently, phylogenetic studies supported the incorporation of an extensive number of species within the genus. Although most of its species are nested in the 'Phellinotus clade' (Hymenochaetaceae, Basidiomycota), genera such as Arambarria , Inocutis and Phellinotus were not included in previous analysis. To further our understanding of the genus, new sequences from 28S and ITS nuc rDNA genes were jointly analysed with a large selection of taxa in the 'Phellinotus clade', also with re-examination of morphological and ecological data...
2018: MycoKeys
Sajjad Ali Khuhro, Qi Yan, Hui Liao, Guan-Heng Zhu, Jia-Bin Sun, Shuang-Lin Dong
The high sensitivity of the olfactory system is essential for feeding and oviposition in moth insects, and some chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are thought to play roles in this system by binding and carrying hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillar lymph. In this study, to identify the olfactory CSPs from a repertoire of 21 CSP members in the notorious rice pest Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), tissue expression patterns were firstly examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Yuan Zhou, Dan Sun, Wei-Li Quan, Nan Ding, Wen Liu, Wei-Hua Ma, Xiao-Ping Wang
Differences in diapause traits can result in the seasonal reproductive isolation of host plant-associated insect populations and thereby facilitate the population divergence. The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, has two host plant-associated populations: rice population and water-oat population. Several studies have found evidence that seasonal reproductive isolation between these populations is at least partially due to interpopulation differences in diapause. However, there still lack unambiguous evidence comparing characteristics of diapause induction for both populations...
October 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yanhui Lu, Yanyan Zhao, Han Lu, Qi Bai, Yajun Yang, Xusong Zheng, Zhongxian Lu
Chilo supprressalis is one of the most important rice pests that causes serious damage to production in the rice growth area of Asia. Vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides ) was previously found to effectively attract female adults of C. suppressalis laying eggs on vetiver leaves, while the larvae cannot complete their life cycles by feeding on vetiver, indicating a potential means of controlling this pest. In the present study, the transcriptomes of midguts of rice-fed and vetiver-fed C. suppressalis larvae were profiled, which aimed to clarify the molecular mechanism of vetiver as a dead-end trap plant preliminarily...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lu Xu, Jun Zhao, Sun Yang, Dejin Xu, Guangchun Xu, Xiaolong Xu, Yueliang Zhang, Huang Shuijin, Zhaojun Han, Zhongyan Gu
BACKGROUND: The rice striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker), which is one of the most economically important phytophagous pests, has developed resistance to multiple insecticides. The resistance of SSB against chlorantraniliprole has been investigated in detail. However, the mechanism of its metabolic resistance has rarely been studied. RESULTS: A field population from Wuhu city, China was used to establish chlorantraniliprole resistant and susceptible strains (WHR and WHS) by laboratory continuous selection...
August 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Gladys Bichang'a, Jean-Luc Da Lage, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Michel Zivy, Thierry Balliau, Kevin Sambai, Bruno Le Ru, Laure Kaiser, Gerald Juma, Esther Njoki Mwangi Maina, Paul-André Calatayud
Foraging parasitoids use chemical signals in host recognition and selection processes. Although, the volatiles play a relevant role in the localization by parasitoids of their hosts feeding on plants, the host identification process for acceptance occurs mainly during contact between the parasitoid and its host where host products related to feeding activities, fecal pellets and oral secretions, play a crucial role. The purpose of this study was to identify the nature of the contact kairomone(s) that mediate the acceptance for oviposition of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), which was released in Kenya in 1993 to control the invasive crambid Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)...
November 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
X Zhao, G Situ, K He, H Xiao, C Su, F Li
Insect chitinases participate in numerous physiological processes such as nutrition, parasitism, morphogenesis and immunity. These properties make chitinases good targets for pest control. Rice striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is one of the most destructive pests of rice causing huge yield losses. In our previous work, we reported the identification of 12 SSB chitinase (CsCht) genes, and studied the functions of CsCht1 to 4. Here, we have extended our study to investigate the expression patterns and functions of CsCht5 to 12...
July 30, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Yaoyu Jiao, Xiaoyun Hu, Yufa Peng, Kongming Wu, Jörg Romeis, Yunhe Li
The area planted with insect-resistant genetically engineered crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) genes has greatly increased in many areas of the world. Given the nearby presence of non- Bt crops (including those planted as refuges) and non-crop habitats, pests targeted by the Bt trait have a choice between Bt and non- Bt crops or weeds, and their host preference may greatly affect insect management and management of pest resistance to Bt proteins. In this study, we examined the oviposition preference of the target pest of Bt rice, Chilo suppressalis , for Bt versus non- Bt rice plants as influenced by previous damage caused by C...
July 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Kang He, Huamei Xiao, Yang Sun, Simin Ding, Gongming Situ, Fei Li
Rice stem borer (RSB, Chilo suppressalis) is an insect pest that causes huge economic losses every year. Control efforts rely heavily on chemical insecticides, which leads to serious problems such as insecticide resistance, environment pollution, and food safety issues. Therefore, developing alternative pest control methods is an important task. Here, we identified an insect-specific microRNA, miR-14, in RSB, which was predicted to target Spook (Spo) and Ecdysone receptor (EcR) in the ecdysone signalling network...
July 25, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Nainai Fang, Yuwei Hu, Bin Mao, Jie Bi, Ya Zheng, Chuxiong Guan, Yufeng Wang, Jihu Li, Yongkai Mao, Hui Ai
Insect pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) have been proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic sex pheromone components emitted by con-specific insects to pheromone receptors in the hemolymph of male antennal sensilla. In this study, field trapping results indicate that a mixture of E11-16: Ald and Z11-16: Ald can effectively attract a great number of male Tryporyza intacta. Real-time PCR results suggest that the transcript levels of three TintPBP1-3 genes are mainly expressed in the adult antennae. Fluorescence competitive binding experiments show that TintPBP1-3 proteins have great binding affinities to their major sex pheromones...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kai-Li Zhang, Qing-Song Liu, Hou-Xiang Kang, Xiao-Mei Liu, Xiu-Ping Chen, Yu-Fa Peng, Yun-He Li
In agro-ecosystems, plants are important mediators of interactions between their associated herbivorous insects and microbes, and any change in plants induced by one species may lead to cascading effects on interactions with other species. Often, such effects are regulated by phytohormones such as jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Here, we investigated the tripartite interactions among rice plants, three insect herbivores (Chilo suppressalis, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis or Nilaparvata lugens), and the causal agent of rice blast disease, the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae...
July 12, 2018: Insect Science
Thomas Weitzel, Ju Jiang, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Constanza Martínez-Valdebenito, Javier López, Allen L Richards, Katia Abarca
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a potentially life-threatening vector-borne infection caused by Orientia species. It occurs mainly in the Asian-Pacific region, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, an endemic focus of scrub typhus has been described in South America, on Chiloé Island in southern Chile. Dogs have been used as sentinel hosts to determine the presence and spatial distribution of various vector-borne infections. Their suitability to gain insight into human exposure to Orientia tsutsugamushi has been suggested in studies from Asia...
2018: PloS One
Xiao-Hui Tu, Yu-Li Zhuo, Xiu-Yun Jiang, Hong-Li Liu, Ye Cao, Su Liu
In insects, superoxide dismutases (SODs) play a critical role in the scavenging of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protecting against oxidative stress induced by various environmental stresses. The Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an economically important insect pest of rice crops. In this study, a mitochondrial manganese SOD (Cs-mMnSOD) gene was characterized in C. suppressalis. The deduced Cs-mMnSOD protein has typical highly conserved features of mitochondrial manganese SODs, including four manganese binding residues, the signature DVWEHAYY peptide, and a mitochondrial-targeting sequence at the N-terminus...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Trust Kasambala Donga, Richard Meadow
Sugarcane is one of the most valuable crops in the world. Native and exotic Lepidopteran stemborers significantly limit sugarcane production. However, the identity and genetic diversity of stemborers infesting sugarcane in Malawi is unknown. The main objectives for this study were to identify and determine genetic diversity in stemborers infesting sugarcane in Malawi. We conducted field surveys between June 2016 and March 2017 in the Lower Shire Valley district of Chikwawa and Nsanje, southern Malawi. Molecular identification was based amplification the partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region...
June 22, 2018: Insects
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