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Bayesian analysis

Efthymia Nikita, Panagiota Xanthopoulou, Elena Kranioti
Pelvic morphology is highly reflective of both sex and age changes in humans, making it a popular research focus in forensic anthropology. Relevant studies range from traditional descriptive to more complicated approaches involving statistical modeling, with the latter having become excessively popular in the last decades. The present study examines the performance of Bayesian statistics in age estimation based on the morphological changes observed on the iliac auricular surface. The aim is two-fold: a) to test whether a Bayesian approach can improve age-at-death estimation compared to the original Lovejoy et al...
August 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
Yu Liu, Pei-Dong Wu, Dai-Zhen Zhang, Hua-Bin Zhang, Bo-Ping Tang, Qiu-Ning Liu, Li-Shang Dai
The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) can provide important information for understanding phylogenetic analysis and thus molecular evolution. Herein, we amplified the complete mitogenome sequence of Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The mitogenome was 16,526 bp in length and included 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop). Both the organization and location of genes in the mitogenome were consistent with those from Siluriformes fishes previously published in GenBank...
August 14, 2018: Genomics
Aleksander Kusina, Jean-Philippe Lansberg, Ingo Schienbein, Hua-Sheng Shao
We study the relevance of experimental data on heavy-flavor [D^{0}, J/ψ, B→J/ψ and ϒ(1S) mesons] production in proton-lead collisions at the LHC to improve our knowledge of the gluon-momentum distribution inside heavy nuclei. We observe that the nuclear effects encoded in both most recent global fits of nuclear parton densities at next-to-leading order (nCTEQ15 and EPPS16) provide a good overall description of the LHC data. We interpret this as a hint that these are the dominant ones. In turn, we perform a Bayesian-reweighting analysis for each particle data sample which shows that each of the existing heavy-quark(onium) data set clearly points-with a minimal statistical significance of 7σ-to a shadowed gluon distribution at small x in the lead...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Babikir Kheiri, Mohammed Osman, Ahmed Abdalla, Tarek Haykal, Sahar Ahmed, Mustafa Hassan, Ghassan Bachuwa, Mohammed Al Qasmi, Deepak L Bhatt
Tenecteplase is a genetically mutated variant of alteplase with superior pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. However, its efficacy and safety in acute ischemic strokes are limited. Hence, we conducted a study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenecteplase compared with alteplase in acute ischemic stroke. Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing tenecteplase with alteplase in acute ischemic stroke patients eligible for thrombolysis. We evaluated various efficacy and safety outcomes using random-effects models for both pairwise and Bayesian network meta-analyses along with meta-regression analyses...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Oscar Jalnefjord, Mats Andersson, Mikael Montelius, Göran Starck, Anna-Karin Elf, Viktor Johanson, Johanna Svensson, Maria Ljungberg
OBJECTIVE: Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) shows great potential in many applications, e.g., tumor tissue characterization. To reduce image-quality demands, various IVIM analysis approaches restricted to the diffusion coefficient (D) and the perfusion fraction (f) are increasingly being employed. In this work, the impact of estimation approach for D and f is studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four approaches for estimating D and f were studied: segmented IVIM fitting, least-squares fitting of a simplified IVIM model (sIVIM), and Bayesian fitting of the sIVIM model using marginal posterior modes or posterior means...
August 16, 2018: Magma
Sayed M Hosseini-Vardanjani, Mohammad M Shariati, Hossein Moradi Shahrebabak, Mojtaba Tahmoorespur
Genomic prediction using a large number of markers is challenging, due to the curse of dimensionality as well as multicollinearity arising from linkage disequilibrium between markers. Several methods have been proposed to solve these problems such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) that is commonly used to reduce the dimension of predictor variables by generating orthogonal variables. Usually, the knowledge from PCA is incorporated in genomic prediction, assuming equal variance for the PCs or a variance proportional to the eigenvalues, both treat variances as fixed...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Claudia Palladino, Ifeanyi Jude Ezeonwumelu, Rute Marcelino, Verónica Briz, Inês Moranguinho, Fátima Serejo, José Fernando Velosa, Rui Tato Marinho, Pedro Borrego, Nuno Taveira
Any successful strategy to prevent and control HCV infection requires an understanding of the epidemic behaviour among the different genotypes. Here, we performed the first characterization of the epidemic history and transmission dynamics of HCV subtypes in Portugal. Direct sequencing of NS5B was performed on 230 direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAA)-treatment naïve patients in Lisbon. Phylogenetic analysis was used for subtyping and transmission cluster identification. Bayesian methods were used to reconstruct the epidemic history of HCV subtypes...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Helen A Dakin, Alastair M Gray, Graeme S MacLennan, Richard W Morris, David W Murray
BACKGROUND: Partial factorial trials compare two or more pairs of treatments on overlapping patient groups, randomising some (but not all) patients to more than one comparison. The aims of this research were to compare different methods for conducting and analysing economic evaluations on partial factorial trials and assess the implications of considering factors simultaneously rather than drawing independent conclusions about each comparison. METHODS: We estimated total costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) within 10 years of surgery for 2252 patients in the Knee Arthroplasty Trial who were randomised to one or more comparisons of different surgical types...
August 16, 2018: Trials
Horace C W Choi, Mark Jit, Gabriel M Leung, Kwok-Leung Tsui, Joseph T Wu
BACKGROUND: Although routine vaccination of females before sexual debut against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found to be cost-effective around the world, its cost-benefit has rarely been examined. We evaluate both the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of routine female adolescent nonavalent HPV vaccination in Hong Kong to guide its policy, and by extension that of mainland China, on HPV vaccination. One major obstacle is the lack of data on assortativity of sexual mixing. Such difficulty could be overcome by inferring sexual mixing parameters from HPV epidemiologic data...
August 17, 2018: BMC Medicine
Amin Eimanifar, Samantha A Brooks, Tomas Bustamante, James D Ellis
BACKGROUNDS: Apis mellifera scutellata and A.m. capensis (the Cape honey bee) are western honey bee subspecies indigenous to the Republic of South Africa (RSA). Both bees are important for biological and economic reasons. First, A.m. scutellata is the invasive "African honey bee" of the Americas and exhibits a number of traits that beekeepers consider undesirable. They swarm excessively, are prone to absconding (vacating the nest entirely), usurp other honey bee colonies, and exhibit heightened defensiveness...
August 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
Vincenzo De Luca, Gianfranco Spalletta, Renan P Souza, Ariel Graff, Luciana Bastos-Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Camargos Bicalho
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 influencing the age at onset (AAO) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, the AAO of dementia varies from 40 to 90 years. Usually, AD patients who develop symptoms before the age of 65 are considered as early-onset AD (EOAD). However, considering the heterogeneity of the AD onset, the definition of late-onset AD (LOAD) cannot rely on an arbitrary cut-off. Thus, we aim to validate the anticipation effect of the APOE e4 allele in LOAD...
August 15, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Michael J Andres, Eric E Pulis, Stephen S Curran, Robin M Overstreet
Megasolena mikra sp. nov. is described from the queen angelfish, Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus), off Florida, USA. The new species can be differentiated from all other species of Megasolena Linton, 1910 except Megasolena littoralis Muñoz, George-Nascimento, and Bray, 2017 in possessing testes that are smaller in diameter than the ovary. The new species can be differentiated from M. littoralis in lacking tegumental spines and possessing oral sucker papillae. Molecular data are provided for two species each of Cadenatella Dollfus, 1946, Hapladena Linton, 1910, and Megasolena Linton, 1910...
August 12, 2018: Parasitology International
Ilaria Paparella, Alessandro Palci, Umberto Nicosia, Michael W Caldwell
A new marine lizard showing exceptional soft tissue preservation was found in Late Cretaceous deposits of the Apulian Platform (Puglia, Italy). Primitivus manduriensis gen. et sp. nov. is not only the first evidence of the presence of dolichosaurs in a southern Italian Carbonate Platform, filling a palaeogeographic gap in the Mediterranean Tethys, but also extends the range of this group to the upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian. Our parsimony analysis recovers a monophyletic non-ophidian pythonomorph clade, including Tetrapodophis amplectus at the stem of Mosasauroidea + Dolichosauridae, which together represent the sister group of Ophidia (modern and fossil snakes)...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Cora A Johnston, Erin E Wilson Rankin, Daniel S Gruner
Invasive predators can profoundly impact native communities, especially in insular ecosystems where functionally equivalent predators were evolutionarily absent. Beyond direct consumption, predators can affect communities indirectly by creating or altering food web linkages among existing species. Where invasive predators consume prey from multiple distinct resource channels, novel links may couple the dynamics of disjunct modules and create indirect interactions between them. Our study focuses on invasive populations of Eleutherodactylus coqui (Anura: Leptodactylidae) on Hawaii Island...
2018: PloS One
Emmanuel S Adabor, Wilfred Ndifon
Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are typically used for comparing and characterizing influenza viruses. Data obtained from the assays (titres) are used quantitatively to determine antigenic differences between influenza strains. However, the use of these titres has been criticized as they sometimes fail to capture accurate antigenic differences between strains. Our previous analytical work revealed how antigenic and non-antigenic variables contribute to the titres. Building on this previous work, we have developed a Bayesian method for decoupling antigenic and non-antigenic contributions to the titres in this paper...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Robert Ian Bowers, William Timberlake
Conceiving of stimuli and responses as causes and effects, and assuming that rats acquire representational models of causal relations from Pavlovian procedures, previous work by causal model theory proponents attempted to train rat subjects to represent stimulus A as a cause of both stimulus B and food. By these assumptions, with formal help from Bayesian networks, self-production of stimulus B should reduce expectation of alternative causes, including stimulus A, and their effects, including food. Reduced feeder-directed responding to stimulus B when self-produced has been taken as evidence for a general causal reasoning capacity among rats involving mental maps of causal relations...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
D H Thai, C Gottschlich
We consider the very challenging task of restoring images (i) that have a large number of missing pixels, (ii) whose existing pixels are corrupted by noise, and (iii) that ideally contain both cartoon and texture elements. The combination of these three properties makes this inverse problem a very difficult one. The solution proposed in this manuscript is based on directional global three-part decomposition (DG3PD) (Thai, Gottschlich. 2016 EURASIP. J. Image Video Process. 2016 , 1-20 (doi:10.1186/s13640-015-0097-y)) with a directional total variation norm, directional G-norm and ℓ∞ -norm in the curvelet domain as key ingredients of the model...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Siyi Zhu, Jiaxin Bing, Xiaoping Min, Chen Lin, Xiangxiang Zeng
Heterogeneous information networks (HINs) currently play an important role in daily life. HINs are applied in many fields, such as science research, e-commerce, recommendation systems, and bioinformatics. Particularly, HINs have been used in biomedical research. Algorithms have been proposed to calculate the correlations between drugs and targets and between diseases and genes. Recently, the interaction between drugs and human genes has become an important subject in the research on drug efficacy and human genomics...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Gonzalo Bello, Mathieu Nacher, Flavia Divino, Edith Darcissac, Daiana Mir, Vincent Lacoste
The HIV-1 subtype B epidemic in French Guiana and Suriname is characterized by the co-circulation of the globally disseminated "BPANDEMIC " lineage and of non-pandemic subtype B lineages of Caribbean origin (BCAR ). To reconstruct the spatiotemporal pattern of spread of those viral lineages circulating in these two countries, a total of 361 HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences recovered from treatment-naive adult patients from French Guiana and Suriname between 2006 and 2012 were combined with BPANDEMIC and BCAR reference sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maryam Yazdi, Hamidreza Roohafza, Awat Feizi, Nizal Sarafzadegan
Objectives : The current study aimed at evaluating the major domains of stressful life events and their association with psychological problems profile in a large sample of Iranian industrial manufacturing employees. Methods : In a cross-sectional study, 3,063 participants were randomly selected from 16,000 employees working in a big industrial company in Isfahan, Iran. Three common psychological problems i.e. depression, anxiety and psychological distress were evaluated using Persian validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), respectively...
2018: EXCLI Journal
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