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Bayesian analysis

Daniël E van Loggerenberg, Pete N Laver, Jan G Myburgh, Christo J Botha
There are no data available on the use of hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry to determine trace element concentrations in veterinary diagnostics. The hand-held XRF spectrometer is easy to use and does not require extensive training for the operator. In Sub-Saharan Africa with few centralised analytical laboratories equipped with expensive apparatus or mass spectrometry capabilities, trace element analysis using the hand-held XRF spectrometer provides an alternative. The objective of this study was to compare ovine hepatic copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) concentrations as obtained with the hand-held XRF spectrometer to those of a reference laboratory using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)...
October 13, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Wei Song, Li-Jun Cao, Bing-Yan Li, Ya-Jun Gong, Ary Anthony Hoffmann, Shu-Jun Wei
BACKGROUND: Refugial populations in Quaternary glaciations are critical to understanding the evolutionary history and climatic interactions of many extant species. Compared with the well-studied areas of Europe and Northern America, refugia of species in eastern Asia remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the phylogeographic history of a globally important insect pest, the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta, in its native range of China. RESULTS: Genetic structure analyses unveiled three distinct groups and a set of populations with admixture...
October 11, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Lenka Neal, Madeleine J Brasier, Helena Wiklund
Increased sampling efforts in unexplored regions of the Southern Ocean (including depths >500 m) combined with the use of an epibenthic sledge resulted in a large collection of mobile, scale-bearing worms from the family Polynoidae Kinberg, 1856. The greatest taxonomic novelty was found in the genus Macellicephala McIntosh, 1885, the type genus of the exclusively deep-sea polynoid sub-family Macellicephalinae Hartmann-Schröder, 1971. Recently collected material from the Amundsen Sea led to discovery of four new species based on morphology and COI, 16S and 18S genes-Macellicephala gloveri sp...
August 1, 2018: Zootaxa
Leidys Murillo-Ramos, Renzo hernÁndez Torres, Rayner nÚÑez Águila, Roger Ayazo
Phoebis Hübner (1819) is a genus of the Neotropical subfamily Coliadinae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). The highest diversity is found in the Greater Antilles islands in the Caribbean region. Although from the taxonomic point of view, Phoebis seems to be a stable genus, there is no phylogenetic hypothesis corroborating the monophyly of the genus. In this study, we used both morphological characters and a genetic dataset consisting of one mitochondrial (COI) and three nuclear markers (RpS5, MDH, Wingless). The matrix was concatenated and analysed with parsimony under implied weights (IW)...
August 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Ya-Zhen Chen, Wei-An Deng, Jia-Min Wang, Li-Liang Lin, Shan-Yi Zhou
Scelimeninae is an important subfamily of Tetrigoidea; however, the phylogenetic relationships within Scelimeninae are poorly understood, and its generic classification has remained unstable. In this study, the COI, 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes from 24 species in 9 genera within Scelimeninae were amplified and sequenced, the base composition and inter-species genetic distance of the combined sequence of COI, 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes were analyzed, and the molecular phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods...
September 18, 2018: Zootaxa
David C Marshall, Max Moulds, Kathy B R Hill, Benjamin W Price, Elizabeth J Wade, Christopher L Owen, Geert Goemans, Kiran Marathe, Vivek Sarkar, John R Cooley, Allen F Sanborn, Krushnamegh Kunte, Martin H Villet, Chris Simon
A molecular phylogeny and a review of family-group classification are presented for 137 species (ca. 125 genera) of the insect family Cicadidae, the true cicadas, plus two species of hairy cicadas (Tettigarctidae) and two outgroup species from Cercopidae. Five genes, two of them mitochondrial, comprise the 4992 base-pair molecular dataset. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic results are shown, including analyses to address potential base composition bias. Tettigarcta is confirmed as the sister-clade of the Cicadidae and support is found for three subfamilies identified in an earlier morphological cladistic analysis...
May 28, 2018: Zootaxa
Jacqueline Abrunhosa, Jose L Sindeaux-Neto, Sidney Santos, Igor Hamoy, Edilson Matos
A new myxozoan was found parasitizing the freshwater catfish, Rhamdia quelen (Quoy Gaimard), in the Marajó island, Amazon region, Brazil. The new species is described based on the results of morphological and molecular analyses. The parasite is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter and develops in the musculature of the host in the form of spherical, whitish cysts, which are visible macroscopically between the epaxial and hypaxial layers. When ruptured, these cysts produced ellipsoidal spores with a mean length of 11...
September 17, 2018: Zootaxa
Zijian Li
Exploring better models for evaluating the distribution of pesticide residues in soil and sediment is necessary to assess and avoid population health risk. Frequentist philosophy and probability are widely used in many studies to apply a log-normal distribution associated with the maximum likelihood estimation, which assumes fixed parameters and relies on a large sample size for long-run frequency. However, frequentist probability might not be suitable for analyzing pesticide residue distribution, whose parameters are affected by many complex factors and should be treated as unfixed...
October 9, 2018: Environment International
Matthew Martinez, Phillip L De Leon, David Keeley
BACKGROUND: Prior research in falls risk prediction often relies on qualitative and/or clinical methods. There are two challenges with these methods. First, qualitative methods typically use falls history to determine falls risk. Second, clinical methods do not quantify the uncertainty in the classification decision. In this paper, we propose using Bayesian classification to predict falls risk using vectors of gait variables shown to contribute to falls risk. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: (1) Using a vector of risk ratios for specific gait variables shown to contribute to falls risk, how can older adults be classified as low or high falls risk? and (2) how can the uncertainty in the classifier decision be quantified when using a vector of gait variables? METHODS: Using a pressure sensitive walkway, biomechanical measurements of gait were collected from 854 adults over the age of 65...
October 1, 2018: Gait & Posture
M Neckebroek, C M Ionescu, K van Amsterdam, T De Smet, P De Baets, J Decruyenaere, R De Keyser, M M R F Struys
PURPOSE: We evaluated the feasibility and robustness of three methods for propofol-to-bispectral index (BIS) post-operative intensive care sedation, a manually-adapted target controlled infusion protocol (HUMAN), a computer-controlled predictive control strategy (EPSAC) and a computer-controlled Bayesian rule-based optimized control strategy (BAYES). METHODS: Thirty-six patients undergoing short lasting sedation following cardiac surgery were included to receive propofol to maintain a BIS between 40 and 60...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Mark W Perlin
Natural variation in biological evidence leads to uncertain genotypes. Forensic comparison of a probabilistic genotype with a person's reference gives a numerical strength of DNA association. The distribution of match strength for all possible references usefully represents a genotype's potential information. But testing more genetic loci exponentially increases the number of multi-locus possibilities, making direct computation infeasible. At each locus, Bayesian probability can quickly assemble a match strength random variable...
October 2018: Heliyon
Hyochol Ahn, Robert Suchting, Adam J Woods, Hongyu Miao, Charles Green, Raymond Y Cho, Eunyoung Choi, Roger B Fillingim
Purpose: Previous studies have indicated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with the anode over the motor cortex and the cathode over the contralateral supraorbital region is effective in reducing clinical pain in patients with chronic pain, but these studies have not focused on experimental pain sensitivity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of tDCS on experimental pain sensitivity in older adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients and methods: Forty community-dwelling participants aged 50-70 years with knee OA pain were randomly assigned to receive five daily sessions of 2 mA tDCS for 20 minutes (n = 20) or sham tDCS (n = 20) using a parallel group design...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Zhicheng Du, Wayne R Lawrence, Wangjian Zhang, Dingmei Zhang, Shicheng Yu, Yuantao Hao
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) remains a significant public health and economic burden in parts of China, particularly Guangdong Province. Although the association between meteorological factors and HFMD has been well documented, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the potential impact of environmental factors. Using county-level monthly HFMD data from China CDC and environmental data from multiple sources, we used spatiotemporal Bayesian models to evaluate the association between HFMD and environmental factors including vegetation index, proportion of artificial surface, road capacity, temperature and humidity, and assessed the spatial and temporal dynamic of the association...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hiroyuki Sano, Katsuyuki Tomita, Akiko Sano, Shou Saeki, Yusaku Nishikawa, Osamu Nishiyama, Takashi Iwanaga, Yuji Tohda
BACKGROUND: We obtain summary estimates of the accuracy of additional objective tests for the diagnosis of adult asthma using systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and other relevant electronic databases were searched for papers published between January 1989 and December 2016. Studies were included if they evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of objective tests, including airway reversibility (AR), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) for the diagnosis of adult asthma in patients with symptoms suggestive of asthma...
October 8, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Joseph G Ibrahim, Sungduk Kim, Ming-Hui Chen, Arvind K Shah, Jianxin Lin
We examine a class of multivariate meta-regression models in the presence of individual patient data. The methodology is well motivated from several studies of cholesterol-lowering drugs where the goal is to jointly analyze the multivariate outcomes, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. These three continuous outcome measures are correlated and shed much light on a subject's lipid status. One of the main goals in lipid research is the joint analysis of these three outcome measures in a meta-regression setting...
October 12, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Xiao-Chen Huang, Jin-Hui Su, Jie-Xiu Ouyang, Shan Ouyang, Chun-Hua Zhou, Xiao-Ping Wu
The Yangtze River Basin in China is one of the global hotspots of freshwater mussel (order Unionida) diversity with 68 nominal species. Few studies have tested the validity of these nominal species. Some taxa from the Yangtze unionid fauna have not been adequately examined using molecular data and well-positioned phylogenetically with respect to the global Unionida. We evaluated species boundaries of Chinese freshwater mussels, and disentangled their phylogenetic relationships within the context of the global freshwater mussels based on the multi-locus data and complete mitochondrial genomes...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Erin E Gabriel, Michael C Sachs, Michael J Daniels, M Elizabeth Halloran
We extend the method proposed in a recent work by the Authors for trial-level general surrogate evaluation to allow combinations of biomarkers and provide a procedure for finding the "best" combination of biomarkers based on the absolute prediction error summary of surrogate quality. We use a nonparametric Bayesian model that allows us to select an optimal subset of biomarkers without having to consider a large number of explicit model specifications for that subset. This dramatically reduces the number of model comparisons needed...
October 10, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
D Tsakogiannis, G D Moschonas, M Daskou, Z Stylianidou, Z Kyriakopoulou, C Kottaridi, T G Dimitriou, C Gartzonika, P Markoulatos
PURPOSE: The tumour suppressor protein RB plays a decisive role in negative control of the cell cycle, inhibiting tumour development. The present analysis investigated the prevalence of the nucleotide polymorphism A153104G, which is located at intron 18 of the RB1 gene, and investigated the impact of the polymorphic variability in the exon 19 and its flanking intronic sequences on the severity of cervical disease in HPV16-positive Greek women. METHODOLOGY: The nucleotide polymorphism A153104G was detected by PCR-RFLP assay, while the amplicons were further subjected to cloning and sequencing...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Maria Lorenzi, Baishali Ambegaonkar, Carl A Baxter, Jeroen Jansen, Michael J Zoratti, Glenn Davies
PURPOSE: While statins are used as first-line treatments for high-risk patients with hypercholesterolemia, statin monotherapy is often insufficient to achieve target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Second-line treatment options include up-titration of statin dose, switching to a more potent statin, or combination therapy, e.g., with ezetimibe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding ezetimibe to simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin monotherapy versus doubling the dosage or switching to a higher-potency statin in a population of patients with hypocholesterolemia at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and who had been previously treated with a statin...
October 9, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Sotheara Moeung, Christine Chevreau, Vianney Poinsignon, Jérôme Guitton, Bénédicte Lelièvre, Joseph Ciccolini, Laurence Gladieff, Christophe Massart, Aude Fléchon, Rémy Delva, Gwenaëlle Gravis, Jean-Pierre Lotz, Jacques-Olivier Bay, Marine Gross-Goupil, Julia Delahousse, Thomas Filleron, Isabelle Lochon, Etienne Chatelut, Fabienne Thomas
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring of carboplatin is based on its unbound clearance (CLU) determined by Bayesian analysis on unbound (U) concentrations. However, the ultrafiltration of plasma samples presents technical and time constraints. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate CLU using total plasma (P) concentrations. METHODS: U and P concentration data of 407 patients were obtained from two clinical studies in which actual CLU had been determined for each patient...
October 3, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
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