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Obsessive-compulsive disorders

Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Björn Enzi, Saskia Steinmann, Christoph Mulert, Georg Juckel
OBJECTIVE: The so-called neuroanatomical hypothesis (with an increased activity of orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) and the serotonergic hypothesis (with low activity in this system) have been discussed regarding the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for decades. This study aimed to look for a relationship between the 2 pathogenetic concepts. METHODS: Nineteen OCD patients (8 female, 11 male, mean ± SD age = 33.37 ± 11.73 years, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: 21...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Marie Ødum Nielsen, Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Carsten Hjorthøj, Michael Eriksen Benros, Merete Nordentoft, Sonja Orlovska
BACKGROUND: The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) hypothesis suggests an association between group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) infections and subsequent onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis including longitudinal, prospective studies on exacerbations of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with GABHS infections in children with PANDAS...
October 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Daniel S Tylee, Jiayin Sun, Jonathan L Hess, Muhammad A Tahir, Esha Sharma, Rainer Malik, Bradford B Worrall, Andrew J Levine, Jeremy J Martinson, Sergey Nejentsev, Doug Speed, Annegret Fischer, Eric Mick, Brian R Walker, Andrew Crawford, Struan F A Grant, Constantin Polychronakos, Jonathan P Bradfield, Patrick M A Sleiman, Hakon Hakonarson, Eva Ellinghaus, James T Elder, Lam C Tsoi, Richard C Trembath, Jonathan N Barker, Andre Franke, Abbas Dehghan, Stephen V Faraone, Stephen J Glatt
Individuals with psychiatric disorders have elevated rates of autoimmune comorbidity and altered immune signaling. It is unclear whether these altered immunological states have a shared genetic basis with those psychiatric disorders. The present study sought to use existing summary-level data from previous genome-wide association studies to determine if commonly varying single nucleotide polymorphisms are shared between psychiatric and immune-related phenotypes. We estimated heritability and examined pair-wise genetic correlations using the linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) and heritability estimation from summary statistics methods...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Giacomo Grassi, Stefano Pallanti
Only 40-60% of obsessive-compulsive patients respond to first line treatments, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Several second-line treatments have been investigated in the last two decades, and most of them seem to work, at least in a subset of patients. However, since there is still a lack of treatment predictors, the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is still empirical and non-evidence based. Areas covered: In this paper, we review current and up-and-coming pharmacotherapy for OCD in adults, focusing on two emerging fields of research, inflammation and glutamate systems, since they have attracted the greatest attention in recent years in OCD pharmacological research...
October 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Zahra Zanjani, Hamid Yaghubi, Mohammadreza Shaeiri, Mohammad Gholami Fesharaki
Objective: In recent years, many researchers have been searching for effective cognitive factors in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One of the scales designed to measure this characteristic is the contamination cognition scale (CCS) that evaluates 2 dimensions: overestimating the likelihood and severity of contamination. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of CCS. Method : The study population of this descriptive psychometric study included students of Shahed University...
July 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Abhinav Nahar, Harish Thippeswamy, Mukku Shiva Shanker Reddy, M Thomas Kishore, Santosh K Chaturvedi
BACKGROUND: The literature on co-morbid psychiatric illnesses in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) spectrum disorder is sparse. PURPOSE: To examine the nature of psychiatric comorbidity and treatment response in adults with HFA spectrum disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case records of subjects (age ≥17 years) who presented over a period of 16 years with primary psychiatric symptoms and further detected to have an HFA spectrum disorder, were analyzed...
September 26, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Setareh Abdolhosseinzadeh, Marzie Sina, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Sareh Asadi, Jamal Shams
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first line of medication for OCD treatment; however, 40%-60% of patients with OCD do not respond to SSRIs adequately. There are growing pieces of evidence which suggest a significant role for the glutamatergic system in the genesis of OCD and its consequent treatment. In the present study, we aimed to assess the association of SLC1A1 polymorphisms (rs301430, rs2228622 and rs3780413) with OCD and its clinical characteristics, as well as the importance of these SNPs in the response of OCD patients to SSRI pharmacotherapy...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Sinem Ilgin, Volkan Kilic, Merve Baysal, Gozde Aydogan-Kilic, Seyda Ucarcan, Begum Dermenci, Ozlem Atli
Sertraline is an antidepressant that is frequently prescribed to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and anxiety. This drug had a safe cardiotoxicity profile, until the reporting of cases of sertraline-associated cardiotoxicities in the early 2000s. Since then, there have been conflicting results on the cardiotoxicity of this drug. In the study reported here we aimed to identify the cardiotoxic effects of sertraline by evaluating serum cardiac biomarkers, such as serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine phosphokinase-myoglobin band (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cardiac troponin T (cTn-T) levels as well as electrocardiographic parameters, DNA damage in cardiomyocytes, and histological findings of heart tissue in rats that were administered oral doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg kg-1 of sertraline for 28 days...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Bunmi O Olatunji, Chad Ebesutani, David F Tolin
Although current cognitive-behavioral models suggest that maladaptive "obsessive beliefs" about threat, responsibility, uncertainty, perfectionism, importance, and control of thoughts contributes to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the structure of such beliefs is unclear. The current study evaluated a bifactor model of obsessive beliefs, as assessed by the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44), and its association with OCD symptoms in clinical (Study 1; N = 264) and nonclinical (Study 2; N = 437) samples...
October 11, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Nikolina Skandali, James B Rowe, Valerie Voon, Julia B Deakin, Rudolf N Cardinal, Francesca Cormack, Luca Passamonti, William R Bevan-Jones, Ralf Regenthal, Samuel R Chamberlain, Trevor W Robbins, Barbara J Sahakian
Serotonin is implicated in multiple executive functions including goal-directed learning, cognitive flexibility, response inhibition and emotional regulation. These functions are impaired in several psychiatric disorders, such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We tested the cognitive effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram, using an acute and clinically relevant dose (20 mg), in 66 healthy male and female volunteers in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Participants performed a cognitive test battery including a probabilistic and reversal learning task, the CANTAB intra-dimensional/extra-dimensional shift test of cognitive flexibility, a response inhibition task with interleaved stop-signal and No-Go trials and tasks measuring emotional processing...
September 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Junping Huang, Yeshambel T Nigatu, Rachel Smail-Crevier, Xin Zhang, Jianli Wang
Common mental health problems (CMHPs), such as depression, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are internalizing disorders with high comorbidity. University and college students are under many stressors and transitional events, and students fall within the age range when CMHPs are at their developmental peak. Compared to the expanded effort to explore and treat CMHPs, there has been no a meta-analysis that comprehensively reviewed the interventions for CMHPs and examined the effects of interventions for CMHPs in college students...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Katia Cristina de Oliveira, Lea Tenenholz Grinberg, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Helena Brentani, Claudia Kimie Suemoto, Fabiano Gonçalves Nery, Luzia Carreira Lima, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, José Marcelo Farfel, Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Elaine Paraizo Leite, Ariane Cristine Moretto, Alexandre Valotta da Silva, Beny Lafer, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Ricardo Nitrini, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Helmut Heinsen, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci
Neurobiological models have provided consistent evidence of the involvement of cortical-subcortical circuitry in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), involved in motivation and emotional responses, is an important regulatory node within this circuitry. However, OFC abnormalities at the cellular level have so far not been studied. To address this question, we have recruited a total of seven senior individuals from the Sao Paulo Autopsy Services who were diagnosed with OCD after an extensive post-mortem clinical evaluation with their next of kin...
October 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
JoEllen Schimmels, Wendi Waits
Although research for accelerated resolution therapy (ART) has been predominately for post-traumatic stress disorder, ART has shown promise as a treatment for other behavioral health conditions as well. ART is a brief, trauma-focused, eye movement-based therapy that has been successfully utilized to treat a wide array of behavioral health disorders, including obsessive compulsive disorder. This article will present an overview of the theory behind the reconsolidation concept used in ART and two cases of obsessive compulsive disorder treatment using ART with outcome measures visual trend analysis...
October 6, 2018: Military Medicine
Daryl Efron, Russell C Dale
Tourette syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder. The genetic basis is complex, and both in utero and ex utero environmental factors may modify the phenotypic expression of the disorder. Inflammation related to aberrations in immune activation appears to play a pathogenic role in some cases. Multiple neurochemical pathways are involved. Rather than being a pure movement problem, tics are now understood to also have a sensory component. This has resulted in new psychological therapeutic strategies and other potential treatments...
October 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Tricia Vause, Heather Jaksic, Nicole Neil, Jan C Frijters, Grazyna Jackiewicz, Maurice Feldman
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience obsessions and compulsions similar to those specified in DSM-5 for obsessive compulsive disorder yet little controlled research exists on treating these behaviours. Thirty-seven children (7-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a 9-week functional behavior-based cognitive behavior therapy (Fb-CBT) or Treatment As Usual. Independent assessors administered measures pre- and post-treatment and at 6-months. Two primary outcome measures indicated statistically significant differences between groups, with large corrected effect sizes (Hedge's g = 1...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Davíö R M A Højgaard, Katja A Hybel, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Tord Ivarsson, Judith Becker Nissen, Bernhard Weidle, Karin Melin, Nor Christian Torp, Kitty Dahl, Robert Valderhaug, Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Eric A Storch, Per Hove Thomsen
Our aims were to examine: (1) classes of comorbid disorders in a sample of children and adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), (2) how these classes relate to obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions, and (3) the extent to which obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions predict Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) outcome. Participants (N = 269) were assessed with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS-PL) and the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS)...
September 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Gerd Kvale, Bjarne Hansen, Thröstur Björgvinsson, Tore Børtveit, Kristen Hagen, Svein Haseth, Unn Beate Kristensen, Gunvor Launes, Kerry J Ressler, Stian Solem, Arne Strand, Odile A van den Heuvel, Lars-Göran Öst
BACKGROUND: Oslo University Hospital, Norway, had by autumn 2016, accumulated a waiting list of 101 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had a legal right to receive treatment by a specialized OCD team. In this challenging situation, the Bergen OCD-team suggested to solve the problem by offering all patients an option for the rapid Bergen 4-day treatment (B4DT). The B4DT is an individual treatment delivered during four consecutive days in a group of six patients with the same number of therapists...
October 4, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Sabri Aydın, Huseyin Canaz, Barıs Topcular, Zuzana Benackova
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a new alternative treatment for treatment-resistant major depression (MD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Various DBS targets were defined for MD and OCD. Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) comes out among the other targets in patients with MD and comorbid OCD when physiopathology and limited side effects are taken into account. We report a 27-year-old male with MD and OCD who was treated by bilateral NAcc-DBS. The aim of this study is to discuss NAcc as a DBS target in patients with MD and OCD and to report the first case of a psychiatric disorder treated with DBS in Turkey...
July 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Duncan A Carmichael, Rebecca Smees, Richard C Shillcock, Julia Simner
Synaesthesia has long been considered a benign alternative form of perception most often associated with positive rather than negative outcomes. The condition has been associated with a variety of cognitive and perceptual advantages, including benefits in memory, processing speed, and creativity. It is not currently recognized in the DSM-IV. Recently, however, several studies have raised the question of a possible link between synaesthesia and clinical conditions. Here, we present the first large-scale screening of the general population in which we (1) objectively identified grapheme-colour synaesthetes and (2) elicited information from our participants about a range of clinical conditions...
October 3, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Bo Tan, Qingxiao Liu, Chaoyang Wan, Zhenlan Jin, Yanchun Yang, Ling Li
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common inheritable psychiatric disorder characteristic of repetitive thinking, imagination (obsession), and stereotyped behaviors (compulsive). To explore whether there is an alteration of brain functional connectivity (BFC) in patients with OCD during rest, electroencephalogram (EEG) data of healthy controls (HCs) and patients with OCD were collected during rest in both eyes-closed and eyes-open states. Synchronization likelihood and graph theory were applied to construct and analyze brain functional networks of patients with OCD and HCs...
October 3, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
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