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Obsessive-compulsive disorders

Vathsala Sagayadevan, Siau Pheng Lee, Clarissa Ong, Edimansyah Abdin, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
INTRODUCTION: Literature has shown that individuals with various psychiatric disorders experience a lower quality of life (QoL). However, few have examined QoL across disorders. The current study explored differences in QoL and symptom severity across 4 psychiatric diagnostic groups: anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder [OCD]), depressive disorders, schizophrenia, and pathological gambling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data analysed was from a previous study that examined the prevalence of hoarding symptoms among outpatients (n = 500) in a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore...
July 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Kristen M Crosley
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a life-changing surgical treatment. More than 150,000 patients worldwide have been treated with DBS, primarily for Parkinson disease and medically refractory tremor and dystonia. However, the use of DBS has recently expanded beyond traditional movement disorders to include the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and other neurological and psychological diseases. Considering this expanded use of DBS, it is essential to understand the role that each member of the multidisciplinary health care team plays and how to avoid possible complications during this procedure...
August 2018: AORN Journal
Athanasios Apostolopoulos, Ioannis Michopoulos, Ioannis Zachos, Emmanouil Rizos, Georgios Tzeferakos, Vasiliki Manthou, Charalambos Papageorgiou, Athanasios Douzenis
Background: Personality disorders (PDs) have been associated with both violent crimes and homicides in many studies. The proportion of PDs among prisoners reaches up to 80%. For male prisoners, the most common PD in the literature is antisocial PD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between PDs and violent crimes/homicides of male prisoners in Greece. Methods: A sample of 308 subjects was randomly selected from a population of 1300 male prisoners incarcerated in two Greek prisons, one urban and one rural...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Sameer A Sheth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Naomi A Fineberg, David S Baldwin, Lynne M Drummond, Solange Wyatt, Jasmine Hanson, Srinivas Gopi, Sukhwinder Kaur, Jemma Reid, Virender Marwah, Ricky A Sachdev, Ilenia Pampaloni, Sonia Shahper, Yana Varlakova, Davis Mpavaenda, Christopher Manson, Cliodhna O'Leary, Karen Irvine, Deela Monji-Patel, Ayotunde Shodunke, Tony Dyer, Amy Dymond, Garry Barton, David Wellsted
Established treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) include cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication. Combined treatment may outperform monotherapy, but few studies have investigated this. A total of 49 community-based adults with OCD were randomly assigned to CBT, SSRI, or SSRI+CBT. Sertraline (50-200 mg/day) was given as the SSRI for 52 weeks. A 16-h-manualized individual CBT was delivered over 8 weeks with four follow-up sessions. Assessors were 'blinded' to treatment allocation...
August 15, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Gustavo Provensi, Maria Beatrice Passani, Alessia Costa, Ivan Izquierdo, Patrizio Blandina
In this review, we describe the experimental paradigms used in preclinical studies to unravel the histaminergic brain circuits that modulate the formation and retrieval of memories associated with aversive events. Emotionally arousing events, especially bad ones, are remembered more accurately, clearly and for longer periods of time than neutral ones. Maladaptive elaborations of these memories may eventually constitute the basis of psychiatric disorders such as generalized anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Alex Ferrer, Javier Costas, Javier Labad, Neus Salvat-Pujol, Cinto Segalàs, Mikel Urretavizcaya, Eva Real, Aida de Arriba-Arnau, Pino Alonso, José M Crespo, Marta Barrachina, Carles Soriano-Mas, Ángel Carracedo, José M Menchón, Virginia Soria
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have both been linked to abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Polymorphisms in the genes involved in HPA axis activity, such as FKBP5, and their interactions with childhood trauma have been associated with stress-related mental disorders. Our goal was to study the role of FKBP5 genetic variants in HPA axis negative feedback regulation as a possible risk factor for different mental disorders such as MDD and OCD, while controlling for childhood trauma, anxiety and depressive symptoms...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Willem Bruin, Damiaan Denys, Guido van Wingen
As of yet, no diagnostic biomarkers are available for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and its diagnosis relies entirely upon the recognition of behavioural features assessed through clinical interview. Neuroimaging studies have shown that various brain structures are abnormal in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. However, the majority of these results are based on average differences between groups, which limits diagnostic usage in clinical practice. In recent years, a growing number of studies have applied multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques on neuroimaging data to extract patterns of altered brain structure, function and connectivity typical for OCD...
August 11, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Ioannis Angelakis, Venessa Lewis, Jennifer L Austin, Maria Panagioti
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Engaging in safety behaviors in the absence of actual threat is a key feature of many psychological disorders, including OCD and depression. Failure to discriminate between threatening and safe environments may make these behaviors resistant to change. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the conditions under which avoidance and safety behaviors are developed and maintained. METHODS: In experiment 1, sixty-seven participants who were initially screened for low obsessive-compulsive behavior were invited to play a computerized game to gain points and avoid their potential loss...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Thomas W Flanagan, Charles D Nichols
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)2A receptor agonists have recently emerged as promising new treatment options for a variety of disorders. The recent success of these agonists, also known as psychedelics, like psilocybin for the treatment of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction, has ushered in a renaissance in the way these compounds are perceived in the medical community and populace at large. One emerging therapeutic area that holds significant promise is their use as anti-inflammatory agents...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Antonio Del Casale, Serena Sorice, Alessio Padovano, Maurizio Simmaco, Stefano Ferracuti, Dorian A Lamis, Chiara Rapinesi, Gabriele Sani, Paolo Girardi, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with affective and cognitive symptoms causing personal distress and reduced global functioning. These have considerable societal costs due to healthcare service utilization. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the efficacy of pharmacological interventions in OCD and clinical guidelines, providing a comprehensive overview of this field. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with drug treatment of OCD, with a specific focus on clinical guidelines, treatments with antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, off-label medications, and pharmacogenomics...
August 13, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Elyse Stewart, Breanna Grunthal, Lindsey Collins, Meredith Coles
Previous research has indicated that the public's knowledge on obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is poor. Public understanding and perception of OCD may be one contributor to this issue. Given that mental health literacy is an important first step for those to receive the appropriate care, we sought to understand more about the public's awareness and perceptions of OCD. Data regarding knowledge of OCD were collected through a New York statewide telephone survey (N = 806). Results indicated that those who had never heard of OCD were more likely to be ethnic minorities, have a lower income, and less education...
August 12, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Lisa-Marie Emerson, Connor Heapy, Gemma Garcia-Soriano
Obsessive intrusive thoughts (OITs) are experienced by the majority of the general population, and in their more extreme forms are characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These cognitions are said to exist on a continuum that includes differences in their frequency and associated distress. The key factors that contribute to an increased frequency and distress are how the individual appraises and responds to the OIT. Facets of mindfulness, such as nonjudgment and nonreactivity, offer an alternative approach to OITs than the negative appraisals and commonly utilised control strategies that often contribute to distress...
2018: Mindfulness
A E Cavanna
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic tic disorder characterised by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics with onset during development. Tics are the most common hyperkinetic symptoms in childhood and co-morbid behavioural conditions (especially obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, affective symptoms, and impulsivity) are present in the majority of patients. Although GTS is no longer considered a rare medical curiosity, its exact pathophysiology remains elusive...
August 8, 2018: Revue Neurologique
Adriano H Moffa, Andre R Brunoni, Stevan Nikolin, Colleen K Loo
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been gaining favor as a viable tool in Psychiatry. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence of tDCS as a treatment of disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Current findings indicate that tDCS is probably effective in non-treatment-resistant depressive patients. Regarding schizophrenia and OCD, present evidence is not robust enough, although preliminary results indicate that tDCS is a promising technique...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Darin D Dougherty
Deep brain stimulation has been used for decades in neurology to treat movement disorders. More recent work has focused on developing applications for deep brain stimulation in psychiatric illness. Initial studies have demonstrated positive results for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Initial open-label studies of deep brain stimulation at targets for treatment-resistant depression have been encouraging. However, the only 2 published controlled trials that were conducted for potential FDA approval for treatment-resistant depression were both negative...
September 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Nira Liberman, Reuven Dar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In recent years we have proposed and investigated the Seeking Proxies for Internal States (SPIS) model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which postulates that deficient access to internal states is a key feature of the disorder. According to this model, rules and rituals that often characterize people with OCD can be understood as proxies for deficiently accessible internal states. Here we compliment this earlier experimental work by examining whether reliance on proxies for internal states in everyday life is associated with OCD...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Hugues Lamothe, Jean-Marc Baleyte, Pauline Smith, Antoine Pelissolo, Luc Mallet
Obsessive⁻compulsive disorder (OCD) affects about 2% of the general population, for which several etiological factors were identified. Important among these is immunological dysfunction. This review aims to show how immunology can inform specific etiological factors, and how distinguishing between these etiologies is important from a personalized treatment perspective. We found discrepancies concerning cytokines, raising the hypothesis of specific immunological etiological factors. Antibody studies support the existence of a potential autoimmune etiological factor...
August 9, 2018: Brain Sciences
Giordano DʼUrso, Antonio Mantovani, Sara Patti, Elena Toscano, Andrea de Bartolomeis
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders share the basic clinical feature of anxiety, which probably explains their common response to similar pharmacological and psychological interventions. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique that has proved effective in reducing the symptoms of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. It was also used in healthy subjects to modulate neuropsychological processes that are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety...
August 8, 2018: Journal of ECT
Swarndeep Singh, Saurabh Kumar, Ankit Gupta, Rohit Verma, Nand Kumar
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment targeting either supplementary motor area (SMA) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) among patients with OCD in real-world clinical practice settings. Also, the present study explored for potential predictors of response to rTMS treatment. METHODS: Retrospective review and analysis of records of 79 patients with medication-refractory OCD, all of whom had received 20 sessions of 1-Hz rTMS as part of routine clinical care...
August 7, 2018: Journal of ECT
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