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Obsessive-compulsive disorders

Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Liselotte Petersen, Christiane Gasse, Preben B Mortensen, Soren Dalsgaard, Robert H Yolken, Ole Mors, Michael E Benros
Importance: Infections have been associated with increased risks for mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. However, the association between all infections requiring treatment and the wide range of mental disorders is unknown to date. Objective: To investigate the association between all treated infections since birth and the subsequent risk of development of any treated mental disorder during childhood and adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Srinivas Balachander, Prabhath Gujjadi Kodancha, Shyam Sundar Arumugham, Jaisoorya T Sekharan, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Y C Janardhan Reddy
BACKGROUND: Despite its favorable pharmacological profile and efficacy in major depression and anxiety disorders, evidence for the use of venlafaxine in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is limited. We sought to examine the real-world effectiveness of venlafaxine from a large database of an OCD clinic in India. METHODS: A total of 1704 consecutive patients who registered at the OCD clinic between June 2014 and December 2016 were evaluated with structured interviews and scales...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Darrin J Lee, Robert F Dallapiazza, Philippe De Vloo, Gavin J B Elias, Anton Fomenko, Alexandre Boutet, Peter Giacobbe, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Several different surgical procedures targeting the limbic circuit have been utilized for severe, treatment resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder; however, there has only been limited exploration of the inferior thalamic peduncle (ITP). The aim of this study was to determine the safety and initial efficacy of ITP deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder. METHODS: Patients with severe, treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder were enrolled into this open-label phase 1 DBS pilot study...
November 27, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Jeffrey F Cohn, Michael S Okun, Laszlo A Jeni, Itir Onal Ertugrul, David Borton, Donald Malone, Wayne K Goodman
Automated measurement of affective behavior in psychopathology has been limited primarily to screening and diagnosis. While useful, clinicians more often are concerned with whether patients are improving in response to treatment. Are symptoms abating, is affect becoming more positive, are unanticipated side effects emerging? When treatment includes neural implants, need for objective, repeatable biometrics tied to neurophysiology becomes especially pressing. We used automated face analysis to assess treatment response to deep brain stimulation (DBS) in two patients with intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)...
October 2018: Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction
Carina Brown, Rebbia Shahab, Katherine Collins, Lazar Fleysher, Wayne K Goodman, Katherine E Burdick, Emily R Stern
Sensory phenomena (SP) are aversive or uncomfortable sensations that accompany and/or drive repetitive behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although SP are associated with significant distress and may respond less well to standard treatments than harm-related obsessions, little is known about their underlying neurobiology. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain functioning related to severity of SP during a "body-focused" videos task designed to elicit activation in sensorimotor brain regions...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Fady Rachid
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions and compulsions. It has a lifetime prevalence of 1-3% in the general population and commonly has a chronic course. First-line treatments consist of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive-behavioral therapy but up to 60% of patients respond partially or not at all to these treatments. This paper reviewed the literature on the safety and efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and discussed future directions for research and clinical application...
November 16, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Nina Dittmer, Corinna Jacobi, Ulrich Voderholzer
Background: Compulsive exercise has been recognized as a highly prevalent symptom in eating disorders (ED) for over 100 years and is associated with poor short-term and long-term treatment outcome. Progress in understanding and treatment of compulsive exercise will remain limited as long as no consensus framework for definition and assessment of compulsive exercise exists, as results cannot be compared across clinical studies.Based on existing literature, it was our aim to propose a transdiagnostic definition and a clinical assessment for compulsive exercise, that can be applied to adolescent and adult patients with ED...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
Isabella Berardelli, Massimo Pasquini, Antonella Conte, Matteo Bologna, Alfredo Berardelli, Giovanni Fabbrini
This paper reviews studies that have assessed the treatment of psychiatric disturbances in dystonia, tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, Huntington's disease and essential tremor. Areas covered: We searched for papers in English in Pubmed using the following keywords: blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, arm dystonia, laryngeal dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, Huntington's chorea, essential tremor, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, psychosis, apathy...
December 1, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Sanchai Kuladee, Thanavadee Prachason, Porntip Srisopit, Dussanee Trakulchang, Apisit Boongird, Pattarabhorn Wisajan, Sudawan Jullagate
BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy (PWE) appears higher than that in general population. However, most epidemiological studies regarding psychiatric comorbidities among PWE were conducted in Western countries. This work aimed to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Thai PWE, including potential variables that could be associated with psychiatric disorders. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Ramathibodi Hospital...
November 27, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Lucia Capano, Annie Dupuis, Jessica Brian, Deepali Mankad, Lisa Genore, Rianne Hastie Adams, Sharon Smile, Toni Lui, Dina Odrobina, Jane A Foster, Evdokia Anagnostou
Background: Pioglitazone is a promising compound for treatment of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms as it targets multiple relevant pathways, including immune system alterations. Objective: This pilot study aimed to elucidate the maximum tolerated dose, safety, preliminary evidence of efficacy, and appropriate outcome measures in autistic children ages 5-12 years old. Methods: We conducted a 16-week prospective cohort, single blind, single arm, 2-week placebo run-in, dose-finding study of pioglitazone...
2018: Molecular Autism
Michele Fornaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Sina Naderi, Heidar Faghih, Ali Aqamolaei, Seyyed Hosein Mortazavi, Amirhosein Mortezaei, Erfan Sahebolzamani, Farzin Rezaei, Shahin Akhondzadeh
AIM: Role of the glutamatergic system in pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been shown by numerous studies. The aim of the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of amantadine as an adjuvant to fluvoxamine in treatment of patients with moderate to severe OCD. METHODS: One hundred patients diagnosed with moderate to severe OCD were randomized into two parallel groups to receive fluvoxamine (100 mg twice a day) plus placebo or fluvoxamine (100 mg twice a day) plus amantadine (100 mg daily) for 12 weeks...
November 28, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Eduard Maron, Chen-Chia Lan, David Nutt
This chapter was inadvertently published with Fig. 1 which do not belong to this chapter and hence Fig. 1 is deleted from this chapter later.
October 24, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Evgenia Stefanopoulou, David Lewis, Matthew Taylor, James Broscombe, Jan Larkin
Digital interventions for anxiety disorders have been well-researched over the past two decades. However, reviews to date have focused on internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT), whereas other psychological interventions have received less attention. The aim of this review was therefore to evaluate the effectiveness of digitally delivered psychological therapies (CBT, Attention Bias Modification, Exposure Therapy, Applied Relaxation, Bibliotherapy, Psychodynamic Therapy, Mindfulness, Behavioural Stress Management, Counselling) compared with control conditions and/or other psychological interventions for anxiety disorders (Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), Health Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Specific Phobias, Panic Disorder (PD), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD)]...
November 28, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
Belén Pascual-Vera, Amparo Belloch
Unwanted mental intrusions (UMIs) are the normal variants of obsessions in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), preoccupations about defects in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), images about illness in Hypochondriasis (HYP), and thoughts about eating in Eating Disorders (EDs). The aim was to examine the similarities and differences in the functional links of four UMI contents, adopting a within-subject perspective. Method : 438 university students and community participants ( M age  = 29.84, SD  = 11.41; 70...
January 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology: IJCHP
Nicole K Horst, Bianca Jupp, Angela C Roberts, Trevor W Robbins
Behavioral flexibility, which allows organisms to adapt their actions in response to environmental changes, is impaired in a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder and addiction. Studies in human subjects and monkeys have reported correlations between individual differences in dopamine D2-type receptor (D2R) levels in the caudate nucleus and performance in a discrimination reversal task, in which established contingent relationships between abstract stimuli and rewards (or punishments) are reversed...
November 15, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Nina Rouhani, George Elliott Wimmer, Franklin R Schneier, Abby J Fyer, Daphna Shohamy, Helen Blair Simpson
BACKGROUND: Generalizing from past experiences can be adaptive by allowing those experiences to guide behavior in new situations. Generalizing too much, however, can be maladaptive. For example, individuals with pathological anxiety are believed to overgeneralize emotional responses from past threats, broadening their scope of fears. Whether individuals with pathological anxiety overgeneralize in other situations remains unclear. METHODS: The present study (N = 57) used a monetary sensory preconditioning paradigm with rewards and losses to address this question in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD), comparing them to healthy comparison subjects (HC)...
November 28, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Randi J Hagerman, Dragana Protic, Akash Rajaratnam, Maria J Salcedo-Arellano, Elber Yuksel Aydin, Andrea Schneider
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the full mutation (>200 CGG repeats) in the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 ( FMR1 ) gene. It is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability (ID) and autism. This review focuses on neuropsychiatric disorders frequently experienced by premutation carriers with 55 to 200 CGG repeats and the pathophysiology involves elevated FMR1 mRNA levels, which is different from the absence or deficiency of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) seen in FXS. Neuropsychiatric disorders are the most common problems associated with the premutation, and they affect approximately 50% of individuals with 55 to 200 CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Matti Cervin, Sean Perrin, Elin Olsson, Emma Claesdotter-Knutsson, Magnus Lindvall
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be sub-typed along different symptom dimensions. These dimensions may help explain responsiveness to current treatments. The Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS) is a validated instrument involving a self-report screening tool followed by a structured interview in which the presence/absence and severity of OCD symptom dimensions are assessed and rated. The present study investigated the validity of a briefer, interview-only version of the DY-BOCS modified for use in routine care...
November 20, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Arezoo Rezazadeh, Eduard Bercovici, Tim-Rasmus Kiehl, Eva W Chow, Timo Krings, Anne S Bassett, Danielle M Andrade
Objective: We aimed to delineate the distribution of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) in patients with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and place this in the context of other genetic forms of PNH. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed brain imaging and postmortem data available for adult patients with 22q11.2DS. We included only those with good quality MRI data ( n  = 29) in addition to two patients with PNH identified through postmortem studies...
November 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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