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Early fetal growth restriction

Yehudit Michelson, Yaniv Lustig, Shira Avivi, Eli Schwartz, Amos Danielli
Background: Zika virus has created global alarm as it has been associated with catastrophic fetal abnormalities, including microcephaly, spontaneous abortion, and intrauterine growth restriction. Current serological assays that detect antiviral antibodies suffer from low sensitivity and high cross-reactivity among different flaviviruses. Methods: Here, utilizing a novel Magnetic Modulation Biosensing (MMB) system and the Zika non-structural 1 (NS1) protein, we show highly sensitive and specific Zika serological assays...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Viola Seravalli, Mariarosaria Di Tommaso, Felice Petraglia
The main challenges in pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction consist in identifying signs of disease progression and determining the appropriate timing of delivery. The risk of continuing the pregnancy must be balanced with the risk of prematurity, which depends on gestational age. To allow appropriate monitoring of the growth-restricted fetus, several surveillance tests are available. These include ultrasound Doppler velocimetry of feto-placental vessels, cardiotocography, and amniotic fluid evaluation...
October 11, 2018: Minerva Ginecologica
Jie Hu, Yang Peng, Tongzhang Zheng, Bin Zhang, Wenyu Liu, Chuansha Wu, Minmin Jiang, Joseph M Braun, Simin Liu, Stephen L Buka, Aifen Zhou, John Pierce Wise, Yiming Zhang, Yangqian Jiang, Chen Hu, Xiaomei Chen, Zheng Huang, Dan Zheng, Kunchong Shi, Xichi Zhang, Ashley Truong, Zhengmin Qian, Wei Xia, Yuanyuan Li, Shunqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Identification of windows of heightened vulnerability to environmental factors has substantial public health implications. Prenatal exposure to vanadium has been linked to adverse birth outcomes; however, critical windows for such exposure during fetal growth remain unknown. We aimed to assess trimester-specific associations of vanadium exposure with ultrasound measures of fetal growth and birth size in a Chinese longitudinal cohort. METHODS: The present study was embedded in our ongoing prospective prenatal cohort study at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Care Center (Wuhan, Hubei, China)...
October 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Ina Olmer Specht, Inge Huybrechts, Peder Frederiksen, Eva Steliarova-Foucher, Veronique Chajes, Berit Lilienthal Heitmann
BACKGROUND: Causes of most childhood hematopoietic neoplasms are unknown. Early age of occurrence suggests prenatal etiology. Positive associations have been reported between industrially produced trans-fatty acids (iTFAs) and risks of some cancers in adults. iTFAs are pro-inflammatory and adversely affect the beneficial effects of essential fatty acids, the latter is diminishing tumor growth. In 2004 Denmark legislated against the use of iTFA in foodstuffs. Using the entire population, we investigated if the changes in the legislation as a proxy to the reduced exposure to iTFA had affected the incidence of childhood hematopoietic neoplasms...
October 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Andrea Busnelli, Debora Lattuada, Stefania Ferrari, Marco Reschini, Barbara Colciaghi, Edgardo Somigliana, Luigi Fedele, Enrico Ferrazzi
Inflammation and oxidative stress are intrinsically linked to early poor placentation, typical of pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia associated with intrauterine growth restriction (PE-IUGR). Low mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in peripheral blood constitutes a good peripheral surrogate marker of inflammation and oxidative stress. On these basis, we explored a possible correlation between mtDNAcn in peripheral blood in the first trimester of pregnancy and the PE-IUGR onset. To shed light on this issue, we setup a nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of pregnant women undergoing first-trimester aneuploidies screening...
October 8, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Georgios Valsamakis, George Chrousos, George Mastorakos
Stress is one of the commonest and underappreciated causes of reproductive frailty in women. The stress system leads to adaptive responses via mobilization of hormonal systems. Adaptability and resistance to stress are fundamental to life. The response to stressors depends on the type of stressor, the timing and duration of stress, the genetic predisposition, personality characteristics, and the way of coping with stress. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has a direct inhibitory action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis at multiple levels...
September 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Nicoletta Charolidi, Amanda J Host, Sandra Ashton, Zoe Tryfonos, Karin Leslie, Baskaran Thilaganathan, Judith E Cartwright, Guy S Whitley
Failure of the placental capillary network to develop normally is associated with early onset fetal growth restriction (FGR) and pre-eclampsia (PE). Although the symptoms are observed at term, the problem begins in the first trimester. However, investigations at this clinically relevant time are hindered by difficulties in identifying earlystage pregnancies that are at risk of developing FGR/PE. Using uterine artery Doppler ultrasound in the first trimester as a proxy measure of poor placentation, we have identified pregnancies at increased risk of developing early onset FGR/PE...
October 5, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Julia Hartkopf, Franziska Schleger, Jana Keune, Cornelia Wiechers, Jan Pauluschke-Froehlich, Magdalene Weiss, Annette Conzelmann, Sara Brucker, Hubert Preissl, Isabelle Kiefer-Schmidt
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which is already known to be a risk factor for pathological intrauterine development, perinatal mortality, and morbidity, is now also assumed to cause both physical and cognitive alterations in later child development. In the current study, effects of IUGR on infantile brain function were investigated during the fetal period and in a follow-up developmental assessment during early childhood. During the fetal period, visual and auditory event-related responses (VER and AER) were recorded using fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Steven J Millership, Simon J Tunster, Mathew Van de Pette, Agharul I Choudhury, Elaine E Irvine, Mark Christian, Amanda G Fisher, Rosalind M John, James Scott, Dominic J Withers
OBJECTIVE: Imprinted genes are crucial for the growth and development of fetal and juvenile mammals. Altered imprinted gene dosage causes a variety of human disorders, with growth and development during these crucial early stages strongly linked with future metabolic health in adulthood. Neuronatin (Nnat) is a paternally expressed imprinted gene found in neuroendocrine systems and white adipose tissue and is regulated by the diet and leptin. Neuronatin expression is downregulated in obese children and has been associated with stochastic obesity in C57BL/6 mice...
September 15, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Sivlia Visentin, Ambrogio P Londero, Maria Calanducci, Enrico Grisan, Maria Caterina Bongiorno, Loris Marin, Erich Cosmi
PURPOSE:  The human aorta stores strain energy in the distended wall during systole through the extracellular matrix of the tunica media that could be influenced by blood pressure, flow, or increased peripheral resistance. In intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) fetuses, the increased aorta intima media thickness (aIMT) could reflect a different extracellular matrix composition and, therefore, functionality. The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance to flow in the fetal descending aorta and its relation to aIMT and systolic and diastolic fetal abdominal aorta diameters in IUGR fetuses and controls...
September 25, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Anna M Nuzzo, Emily J Camm, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Thomas J Ashmore, Hong-Wa Yung, Tereza Cindrova-Davies, Ana-Mishel Spiroski, Megan R Sutherland, Angela Logan, Shani Austin-Williams, Graham J Burton, Alessandro Rolfo, Tullia Todros, Michael P Murphy, Dino A Giussani
The placenta responds to adverse environmental conditions by adapting its capacity for substrate transfer to maintain fetal growth and development. The effects of early-onset hypoxia on placental morphology and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) were determined using an established rat model in which fetal growth restriction is minimized. We further established whether maternal treatment with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (MitoQ) confers protection during hypoxic pregnancy. Wistar dams were exposed to normoxia (21% O2 ) or hypoxia (13% to 14% O2 ) from days 6 to 20 of pregnancy with and without MitoQ treatment (500 μmol/L in drinking water)...
September 22, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Alessandra Martins Heringer de Lima, Paulo Roberto Nassar de Carvalho, Saint Clair Gomes Junior, Ana Carolina Costa Carioca, José Maria de Andrade Lopes
OBJECTIVE:  To assess 11 formulae commonly used to estimate fetal weight in a population of premature fetuses who had abnormal Doppler velocimetry due to early-onset placental insufficiency. The performance of each formula was evaluated in subgroups of fetuses with expected growth and intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS:  Data were collected from fetuses and mothers who delivered at three Brazilian hospitals between November 2002 and December 2013. We used the following formulae: Campbell; Hadlock I, II, III, IV and V; Shepard; Warsof; Weiner I and II; and Woo III...
September 20, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Fieke Terstappen, Nina D Paauw, Thomas Alderliesten, Jaap A Joles, Daniel C Vijlbrief, A Titia Lely, Petra M A Lemmers
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with an increased risk for kidney disease in later life. Studies reporting on early signs of renal disturbances in FGR are sparse and mostly include invasive measurements, which limit the possibility for early identification and prevention. We aim to investigate whether renal tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the derived value fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) differ between premature FGR and control neonates in the first three days after birth...
2018: PloS One
Kutaiba Alhaj Hussen, Emna Chabaane, Bruno Canque
Due to difficulties to access primary bone marrow samples, human hematopoiesis has long remained far less characterized than in the mouse. Using an in vivo modeling approach of fetal hematopoiesis in humanized mice, we recently showed that human lymphoid cells stem from two functionally specialized populations of CD127- and CD127+ early lymphoid progenitors (ELP) that differentiate independently, respond differently to growth factors, undergo divergent modes of lineage restriction and generate distinct lymphoid populations...
August 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Ping Zhu, Wangsheng Wang, Rujuan Zuo, Kang Sun
The fetus is shielded from the adverse effects of excessive maternal glucocorticoids by 11β-HSD2, an enzyme which is expressed in the syncytial layer of the placental villi and is capable of converting biologically active cortisol into inactive cortisone. Impairment of this placental glucocorticoid barrier is associated with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and development of chronic diseases in later life. Ontogeny studies show that the expression of 11β-HSD2 is initiated at a very early stage after conception and increases with gestational age but declines around term...
September 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Norberto Perico, David Askenazi, Monica Cortinovis, Giuseppe Remuzzi
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and life-threatening complication in critically ill neonates. Gestational risk factors for AKI include premature birth, intrauterine growth restriction and low birthweight, which are associated with poor nephron development and are often the consequence of pre-gestational and gestational factors, such as poor nutritional status. Our understanding of how to best optimize renal development and prevent AKI is in its infancy; however, the identification of pre-gestational and gestational factors that increase the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes and the implementation of interventions, such as improving nutritional status early in pregnancy, have the potential to optimize fetal growth and reduce the risk of preterm birth, thereby improving kidney health...
November 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Ran Li, Xilu Wang, Bo Wang, Jian Li, Yaping Song, Biao Luo, Yuanhua Chen, Cheng Zhang, Hua Wang, Dexiang Xu
1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) is a widely distributed pollutant in the environment and is best known for its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 1-NP exposure in different gestational stages on the pregnant outcomes. Pregnant mice were administered with 1-NP by gavage daily in early (GD1-GD6), middle (GD7-GD12) or late pregnancy (GD13-GD17), respectively. We found that gestational 1-NP exposure had no effect on implantation sites per litter, preterm delivery and fetal death. Interestingly, mice exposed to 1-NP in late pregnancy showed a significant reduction in fetal weight and crown-rump length...
December 2018: Chemosphere
Scott A Booth, Glenn D Wadley, Francine Z Marques, Mary E Wlodek, Fadi J Charchar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fetal and postnatal growth restriction predispose to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. Telomeres are repetitive DNA-protein structures that protect chromosome ends, and the loss of these repeats (a reduction in telomere length) is associated with CVD. As exercise preserves telomere length and cardiovascular health, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of growth restriction and exercise training on cardiac telomere length and telomeric genes...
September 7, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Johanna E W Leijnse, Roel de Heus, Wilco de Jager, Wendy Rodenburg, Louis L H Peeters, Arie Franx, Niels Eijkelkamp
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders, fetal growth restriction and preterm birth are major obstetrical complications and are related to impaired placentation. Early identification of impaired placentation can advance clinical care by preventing or postpone adverse pregnancy outcome. OBJECTIVES: Determine whether sonographic assessed placental vascular development and concomitant changes in inflammation- and/or angiogenesis-related serumproteins differ in the first trimester between uncomplicated pregnancies and pregnancies with adverse outcome...
July 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
I Herraiz, E Simón, P I Gómez-Arriaga, M S Quezada, A García-Burguillo, E A López-Jiménez, A Galindo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the usefulness of a clinical protocol for early detection of preeclampsia and/or fetal growth restriction (PE/FGR) using, in previously selected pregnancies, the measurement of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at 24-28 weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study carried out in a single tertiary hospital in Spain. 5601 consecutive singleton pregnancies with complete follow-up were included. High-risk women for PE/FGR were selected by combining data from maternal history and second trimester uterine artery Doppler...
July 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
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