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big data analysis

Peter Savadjiev, Jaron Chong, Anthony Dohan, Maria Vakalopoulou, Caroline Reinhold, Nikos Paragios, Benoit Gallix
The recent explosion of 'big data' has ushered in a new era of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms in every sphere of technological activity, including medicine, and in particular radiology. However, the recent success of AI in certain flagship applications has, to some extent, masked decades-long advances in computational technology development for medical image analysis. In this article, we provide an overview of the history of AI methods for radiological image analysis in order to provide a context for the latest developments...
August 13, 2018: European Radiology
Yunyi Wu, Guanyu Wang
Toxicity prediction is very important to public health. Among its many applications, toxicity prediction is essential to reduce the cost and labor of a drug's preclinical and clinical trials, because a lot of drug evaluations (cellular, animal, and clinical) can be spared due to the predicted toxicity. In the era of Big Data and artificial intelligence, toxicity prediction can benefit from machine learning, which has been widely used in many fields such as natural language processing, speech recognition, image recognition, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics, with excellent performance...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ruiqiao Bai, Jacqueline C K Lam, Victor O K Li
Over the last three decades, rapid industrialization in China has generated an unprecedentedly high level of air pollution and associated health problems. Given that China accounts for one-fifth of the world population and suffers from severe air pollution, a comprehensive review of the indicators accounting for the health costs in relation to air pollution will benefit evidence-based and health-related environmental policy-making. This paper reviews the conventional static and the new dynamic approach adopted for air pollution-related health cost accounting in China and analyzes the difference between the two in estimating GDP loss...
August 10, 2018: Environment International
Marco Masseroli, Arif Canakoglu, Pietro Pinoli, Abdulrahman Kaitoua, Andrea Gulino, Olha Horlova, Luca Nanni, Anna Bernasconi, Stefano Perna, Eirini Stamoulakatou, Stefano Ceri
Motivation: We previously proposed a paradigm shift in genomic data management, based on the Genomic Data Model (GDM) for mediating existing data formats and on the GenoMetric Query Language (GMQL) for supporting, at a high level of abstraction, data extraction and the most common data-driven computations required by tertiary data analysis of Next Generation Sequencing datasets. Here, we present a new GMQL-based system with enhanced accessibility, portability, scalability and performance...
August 7, 2018: Bioinformatics
Xue Li, Pankaj Kumar Choudhary, Swati Biswas, Xinlei Wang
In genomic research, it is becoming increasingly popular to perform meta-analysis, the practice of combining results from multiple studies that target a common essential biological problem. Rank aggregation, a robust meta-analytic approach, consolidates such studies at the rank level. There exists extensive research on this topic, and various methods have been developed in the past. However, these methods have two major limitations when they are applied in the genomic context. First, they are mainly designed to work with full lists, whereas partial and/or top-ranked lists prevail in genomic studies...
August 9, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Dan-Dan Xiong, Yi-Wu Dang, Peng Lin, Dong-Yue Wen, Rong-Quan He, Dian-Zhong Luo, Zhen-Bo Feng, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have received increasing attention in human tumor research. However, there are still a large number of unknown circRNAs that need to be deciphered. The aim of this study is to unearth novel circRNAs as well as their action mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A combinative strategy of big data mining, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and computational biology was employed to dig HCC-related circRNAs and to explore their potential action mechanisms...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jeff Gauthier, Antony T Vincent, Steve J Charette, Nicolas Derome
It is easy for today's students and researchers to believe that modern bioinformatics emerged recently to assist next-generation sequencing data analysis. However, the very beginnings of bioinformatics occurred more than 50 years ago, when desktop computers were still a hypothesis and DNA could not yet be sequenced. The foundations of bioinformatics were laid in the early 1960s with the application of computational methods to protein sequence analysis (notably, de novo sequence assembly, biological sequence databases and substitution models)...
August 3, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
(no author information available yet)
This article looks at the use of large health records datasets, typically linked with other data sources, and their use in mental health research. The most comprehensive examples of this kind of big data are typically found in Scandinavian countries however there are also many useful sources in the UK. There are a number of promising methodological innovations from studies using big data in UK mental health research, including: hybrid study designs, examples of data linkage and enhanced study recruitment. It is, though, important to be aware of the limitations of research using big data, particularly the various analysis pitfalls...
July 2018: BJPsych Advances
A Núñez Reiz
The introduction of clinical information systems (CIS) in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) offers the possibility of storing a huge amount of machine-ready clinical data that can be used to improve patient outcomes and the allocation of resources, as well as suggest topics for randomized clinical trials. Clinicians, however, usually lack the necessary training for the analysis of large databases. In addition, there are issues referred to patient privacy and consent, and data quality. Multidisciplinary collaboration among clinicians, data engineers, machine-learning experts, statisticians, epidemiologists and other information scientists may overcome these problems...
August 1, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Caglar Koylu, Selman Delil, Diansheng Guo, Rahmi Nurhan Celik
BACKGROUND: Patient mobility can be defined as a patient's movement or utilization of a health care service located in a place or region other than the patient's place of residence. Mobility provides freedom to patients to obtain health care from providers across regions and even countries. It is essential to monitor patient choices in order to maintain the quality standards and responsiveness of the health system, otherwise, the health system may suffer from geographic disparities in the accessibility to quality and responsive health care...
August 2, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Roberto R Expósito, Jorge González-Domínguez, Juan Touriño
Nowadays, the analysis of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data has become the standard method for quantifying the levels of gene expression. In RNA-seq experiments, the mapping of short reads to a reference genome or transcriptome is considered a crucial step that remains as one of the most time-consuming. With the steady development of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, unprecedented amounts of genomic data introduce significant challenges in terms of storage, processing and downstream analysis...
2018: PloS One
Miren García-Cortés, Aida Ortega-Alonso, M Isabel Lucena, Raúl J Andrade
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains one of the most important causes of drug attrition both in the early phases of clinical drug development and in the postmarketing scenario. This is because, in spite of emerging data on genetic susceptibility variants associated to the risk of hepatotoxicity, the precise identification of the individual who will develop DILI when exposed to a given drug remains elusive. Areas covered: In this review, we have addressed recent progress made and initiatives taken in the field of DILI from a safety perspective through a comprehensive search of the literature...
July 30, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Qun Zhang, Xiuyun Wu, Xukai Jiang, Yue Zhao, Lushan Wang
The high efficiency and stability of enzymes are the basis for industrial application. Hybrid enzyme suitable for industrial applications could be constructed by many molecular biology technologies including tandem fusion, domain insertion and post-translational protein conjugation. However, the low expression and activity of hybrid enzyme limit its application in industrial production, and multifunctional design of a specific protein domain has been becoming a new trend. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing, biologists are starting to wrestling with massive data sets...
July 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Matthew P Siljander, Kade S McQuivey, Adam M Fahs, Lisa A Galasso, Kevin J Serdahely, Mark S Karadsheh
BACKGROUND: More emphasis is being placed on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), but the myriad of PROMs makes standardization and cross-study comparison difficult. As the era of big data and massive total joint registries matures, it will be critical to identify and implement the best PROMs. METHODS: All abstracts published in the years 2004, 2009, 2014, and 2016 in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American volume, the Bone and Joint Journal, Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, and the Journal of Arthroplasty were reviewed...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Kyle Wang, Ronald C Chen, Brent L Kane, Clinton A Medbery, Kelly J Underhill, James R Gray, Anuj V Peddada, Donald B Fuller
PURPOSE: SBRT is an emerging option for localized prostate cancer. However, there are no standard dosimetric guidelines and normal tissue tolerances for extreme hypofractionation are not well defined. We analyzed dosimetric correlations with patient-reported urinary and bowel quality of life (QOL) on a prospective trial. METHODS: Patients with low/intermediate-risk prostate cancer from 18 institutions were enrolled on a Phase II trial from 2007-2012 and treated using robotic SBRT to 38 Gy in 4 fractions on consecutive days...
July 26, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Masih Sherafatian
Breast cancer is a complex disease and its effective treatment needs affordable diagnosis and subtyping signatures. While the use of machine learning approach in clinical computation biology is still in its infancy, the prevalent approach in identifying molecular biomarkers remains to be screening of all biomarkers by differential expression analysis. Many of these attempts used miRNAs expression data in breast cancer and amounted to the multitude of differentially expressed miRNAs in this cancer; hence, the minimal set of miRNA biomarkers to classify breast cancer is yet to be identified...
July 25, 2018: Gene
Alan G Palestine, Pauline T Merrill, Sophia M Saleem, Douglas A Jabs, Jennifer E Thorne
Importance: Electronic health record (EHR) systems based on International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) coding of disease entities are increasingly being used to generate large data sets for analysis. However, the reproducibility of ICD-10 coding in uveitis has not been assessed across EHR platforms, and imprecision in coding may lead to improper conclusions in big-data analyses. Objective: To compare ICD-10 coding of uveitis using 2 EHR systems...
July 26, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Amparo Alonso-Betanzos, Verónica Bolón-Canedo
Medicine will experience many changes in the coming years because the so-called "medicine of the future" will be increasingly proactive, featuring four basic elements: predictive, personalized, preventive, and participatory. Drivers for these changes include the digitization of data in medicine and the availability of computational tools that deal with massive volumes of data. Thus, the need to apply machine-learning methods to medicine has increased dramatically in recent years while facing challenges related to an unprecedented large number of clinically relevant features and highly specific diagnostic tests...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Forouzan Farnia, Fredrick M Nafukho, K V Petrides
The current study evaluated the relationship between positive and negative emotions, trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and difficulties in career decision-making. We examined whether trait EI could predict career indecisiveness, a type of career decision-making difficulty, over and above the "Big Five" personality traits. We also examined the mechanism through which trait EI affected career indecisiveness by investigating the mediating role of positive and negative emotions. Survey data were collected from a sample of 600 undergraduate students in a university in southwest United States, who completed questionnaires measuring trait EI, positive emotions, negative emotions, personality traits, and career indecisiveness...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rafael Manzanera, Diego Moya, Mercedes Guilabert, Manel Plana, Gloria Gálvez, Jordi Ortner, José Joaquín Mira
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether the results on quality assurance and safety culture in a healthcare organization are related to and affected by the actions implemented. SETTING: Health Insurance of Work-related Accidents and Occupational Diseases. METHODS: The study was conducted as a longitudinal observational study that analyzed the relationship of the Safety Culture and Quality Assurance measurements. Participants who were involved came from small centers with less than eight workers ( N = 52), big centers (eight and more workers) ( N = 707), and those centers with quality coordinators ( N = 91)...
July 24, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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