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Kazutsune Harada, Aiko Fujioka, Masakazu Konno, Atsuto Inoue, Hiroyuki Yamada, Yasushi Hirota
Etelcalcetide hydrochloride (Parsabiv® , ONO-5163/AMG 416) is an allosteric modulator of the calcium (Ca)-sensing receptor that was originally produced by KAI Pharmaceuticals Inc. (now Amgen Inc.). It has recently been approved as the first intravenous calcimimetic agent for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in many countries. Etelcalcetide is an intravenous injectable drug that can be administered and eliminated through the dialysis circuit in chronic kidney disease patients. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro pharmacological profile and in vivo parathyroid hormone (PTH)- and Ca-lowering activities of etelcalcetide in a rat 5/6 nephrectomy model of chronic renal insufficiency with SHPT...
October 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Henrik Quanz, Peter R Schreiner
Tunneling in experiments (TUNNEX) is a free open-source program with an easy-to-use graphical user interface to simplify the process of Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) computations. TUNNEX aims at experimental chemists with basic knowledge of computational chemistry, and it offers the computation of tunneling half-lives, visualization of data, and exporting of graphs. It also provides a helper tool for executing the zero-point vibrational energy correction along the path. The program also enables computing high-level single points along the intrinsic reaction path...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Takashi Kawakami, Koichi Miyagawa, Sandeep Sharma, Toru Saito, Mitsuo Shoji, Satoru Yamada, Shusuke Yamanaka, Mitsutaka Okumura, Takahito Nakajima, Kizashi Yamaguchi
Both direct exchange and super-exchange interactions cooperate to realize inter-spin magnetic interaction in binuclear manganese complex Mn(IV)2 O2 (NHCHCO2 )4 with a di-μ-oxo path. We revisited this spin system using DMRG CAS methods and CAS selection procedures. Our results indicate that our previous "dynamically extended spin polarization" (DE-SP) procedure for organic polyradicals and so forth does not work well. Thus, we have examined another selection procedure, the "dynamically extended super-exchange" (DE-SE) procedure...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Griffin Boll, Ariel Fischer, Navin Kapur, Payam Salehi
BACKGROUND: Impella 5.0 is a powerful mechanical circulatory support device placed into the left ventricle of patients in cardiogenic shock not responding to pharmacologic support alone. This therapy can support patient hemodynamics from weeks to several months, and patients can potentially ambulate with the device implanted while awaiting destination therapy. METHODS: From July 2012 to September 2017, twenty-two Impella 5.0 devices (Abiomed Inc., Danvers, MA) were implanted via right axillary artery at our center...
October 16, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Benedict Paul Samuel, Joy Sarojini Michael, J Chandrasingh, Santosh Kumar, Antony Devasia, Nitin Sudhakar Kekre
Introduction: The aim was to study the accuracy of Xpert® (Cepheid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) Mycobacterium tuberculosis /rifampicin (MTB/RIF) assay as compared to a composite gold standard (urine culture, imaging, and biopsy) and to asses its utility as the initial test compared to smear microscopy to diagnose urinary tuberculosis. Methods: This prospective study included adult patients suspected to have urinary tuberculosis from March 2014 to December 2017. Three urine samples were collected from each patient and were subjected to Xpert MTB/RIF assay, acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear microscopy, and liquid media (BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube [MGIT] 960) culture...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
Weilong Li, Michael F Murray, Monica A Giovanni
Family health history has long been known to be a powerful predictor of individual disease risk. It can be obtained prior to DNA sequencing in order to examine inheritance patterns, to be used as a proxy for genetic information, or as a tool to guide decision-making on the utility of diagnostic genetic testing. Increasingly, it is also being obtained retrospectively from sequenced individuals to examine familial disease penetrance and to identify at-risk relatives for cascade testing. The collection of adequate family history information to screen patients for disease risk and guide decision-making is a time-consuming process that is difficult to accomplish exclusively through discussion between patients and their providers...
October 18, 2018: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
Melissa L D Rayner, Simão Laranjeira, Rachael E Evans, Rebecca J Shipley, Jess Healy, James B Phillips
Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) have a high prevalence and can be debilitating, resulting in life-long loss or disturbance in end-organ function, which compromises quality of life for patients. Current therapies use microsurgical approaches but there is the potential for enhancing recovery through other therapeutic modalities such as; cell-based conduits, gene therapy and small molecules. A number of molecular targets and drugs which have the potential to improve nerve regeneration have been identified, however, there are challenges associated with moving therapies toward clinical translation...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Papon Muangsanit, Rebecca J Shipley, James B Phillips
Vascularization plays a significant role in treating nerve injury, especially to avoid the central necrosis observed in nerve grafts for large and long nerve defects. It is known that sufficient vascularization can sustain cell survival and maintain cell integration within tissue-engineered constructs. Several studies have also shown that vascularization affects nerve regeneration. Motivated by these studies, vascularized nerve grafts have been developed using various different techniques, although donor site morbidity and limited nerve supply remain significant drawbacks...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Tyler Alioto, Enrique Blanco, Genís Parra, Roderic Guigó
This unit describes the usage of geneid, an efficient gene-finding program that allows for the analysis of large genomic sequences, including whole mammalian chromosomes. These sequences can be partially annotated, and geneid can be used to refine this initial annotation. Training geneid is relatively easy, and parameter configurations exist for a number of eukaryotic species. geneid produces output in a variety of standard formats. The results, thus, can be processed by a variety of software tools, including visualization programs...
October 17, 2018: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
Anna-Karin Gustavsson, Amin A Banaeiyan, David D van Niekerk, Jacky L Snoep, Caroline B Adiels, Mattias Goksör
In this unit, we provide a clear exposition of the methodology employed to study dynamic responses in individual cells, using microfluidics for controlling and adjusting the cell environment, optical tweezers for precise cell positioning, and fluorescence microscopy for detecting intracellular responses. This unit focuses on the induction and study of glycolytic oscillations in single yeast cells, but the methodology can easily be adjusted to examine other biological questions and cell types. We present a step-by-step guide for fabrication of the microfluidic device, for alignment of the optical tweezers, for cell preparation, and for time-lapse imaging of glycolytic oscillations in single cells, including a discussion of common pitfalls...
October 17, 2018: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
Petra Anheuser, Sandra Mühlstädt, Jennifer Kranz, Laila Schneidewind, Joachim Steffens, Paolo Fornara
INTRODUCTION: Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO), in addition to anti-infective and surgical therapy, seems to be a key treatment point for Fournier's gangrene. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of HBO therapy on the outcome and prognosis of Fournier's gangrene. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present multicenter, retrospective observational study, we evaluated the data of approximately 62 patients diagnosed with Fournier's gangrene between 2007 and 2017...
October 16, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
Chau-Minh Phan, Hendrik Walther, Donald Riederer, Charis Lau, Kathrine Osborn Lorenz, Lakshman Nagapatnam Subbaraman, Lyndon Jones
The purpose of this work was to determine the release of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from etafilcon A, omafilcon A, and nelfilcon A daily disposable hydrogel contact lenses using a novel in vitro model. PVA is an ocular lubricant that can be found in multiple formulations of artificial tears. Nelfilcon A innately contains PVA, so only the release of PVA from this lens was evaluated. Etafilcon A and omafilcon A lenses were incubated in a PBS solution containing PVA. The release of PVA was evaluated using a novel in vitro blink platform with Milli-Q water and PBS under various blink conditions and flow rates...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Christina Luckhardt, Anne Kröger, Leyla Elsuni, Hannah Cholemkery, Stephan Bender, Christine M Freitag
Abnormalities in neurophysiological correlates of social perception are a well-known feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known if and how ASD specific behavioral interventions may affect neural processing in ASD. The aim of the current study was to investigate for the first time, whether the group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA would elicit changes in neurophysiological correlates of social perception in high-functioning ASD individuals aged 8-17 years. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of a facial emotion recognition (FER) and a biological motion perception task were examined...
October 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Sarah J Michelson, Marina R Ciongoli, Victor M Elner, Alon Kahana
Microphthalmia is defined by a globe axial length greater than or equal to 2 standard deviations below the age-adjusted mean and can occur as part of a broader syndrome. The presence of a colobomatous cyst with microphthalmia signifies failure of the embryonic neuroectodermal fissure to close appropriately during development of the globe, creating a protuberant globular appendage that inhibits normal growth and development of the eye itself. Cystic reaccumulation of fluid is common after aspiration or surgical removal...
October 9, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Josi Herron, Kelly M Hines, Libin Xu
Cholesterol and cholesterol-derived oxysterols are critical for embryonic development, synapse formation and function, and myelination, among other biological functions. Indeed, alterations in levels of cholesterol, sterol precursors, and oxysterols result in a variety of developmental disorders, emphasizing the importance of cholesterol homeostasis. The ability of xenobiotics to reproduce similar phenotypes by altering cholesterol homeostasis has increasingly become of interest. Therefore, the ability to quantitatively assess alterations in cholesterol homeostasis resulting from exposure to xenobiotics is of value...
October 15, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Xian Chen, Jian Song, Zhe-Ning Chen, Tan Jin, Fengqin Long, Hua Xie, Yisong Zheng, Wei Zhuang, Lu Zhang
Engineering fluorescent proteins to be the customized in vivo labels for monitoring cellular dynamic events is critical in biochemical and biomedical studies. The design and development of novel red fluorescent proteins is one of the most important fronts in this field due to their potential of imaging the entire organism. A recent fluorescent protein mutant eqFP650-67-HqAla with the 8-hydroxyquinolin-imidazolinone (HQI) chromophore has the plausible bathochromic shift of ~30 nm in its emission spectrum wavelength comparing to the parent fluorescent protein eqFP650...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Thiago Castilho Elias, Humberto César Brandão de Oliveira, Nelson José Freitas da Silveira
Bioisosterism is a technique used in medicinal chemistry to optimize lead compounds in drug research. One can replace a substituent group in original molecule by another with similar physical chemistry properties and then test how this replacement affects biological activity. To help researchers in their bioisosteric replacement choose, computational efforts such as programs and databases was developed. In this article, it is presented MB-Isoster, a software that draws bioisosteric molecules. Starting from an input molecule, user selects a molecular subregion formed by connected atoms to be replaced and MB-Isoster queries an internal library to find bioisosteric substituents for selected subregion, and makes the bioisosteres...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Lifeng Zhang, Bo Liang, Giovanni Barbera, Sarah Hawes, Yan Zhang, Kyle Stump, Ira Baum, Yupeng Yang, Yun Li, Da-Ting Lin
Visualizing neural activity from deep brain regions in freely behaving animals through miniature fluorescent microscope (miniscope) systems is becoming more important for understanding neural encoding mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. Here we present our custom-designed miniscope GRadient INdex (GRIN) lens system that enables simultaneously recording from hundreds of neurons for months. This article includes miniscope design, the surgical procedure for GRIN lens implantation, miniscope mounting on the head of a mouse, and data acquisition and analysis...
October 13, 2018: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
Muhammad Shafiq, Lina Wang, Dengke Zhi, Qiuying Zhang, Kai Wang, Lianyong Wang, Dong-Hwee Kim, Deling Kong, Soo Hyun Kim
In situ blood vessel regeneration through host stem/progenitor cell mobilization may hold great promise for vascular reconstruction. Neuropeptide substance P (SP) has been shown to accelerate tissue repair by endogenous cell mobilization and recruitment. This study was aimed to evaluate the vascular regeneration potential of SP and heparin co-tethered vascular grafts. Polycaprolactone (PCL), PCL/SP-conjugated poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL-SP) (SP), and PCL/PLCL-SP/heparin-conjugated PLCL (Hep/SP) vascular grafts were implanted as rat abdominal aorta substitutes for up to 2 weeks and 4 weeks...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Troy A Hackett
In the brain, purines such as ATP and adenosine can function as neurotransmitters and co-transmitters, or serve as signals in neuron-glial interactions. In thalamocortical (TC) projections to sensory cortex, adenosine functions as a negative regulator of glutamate release via activation of the presynaptic adenosine A1 receptor (A1 R). In the auditory forebrain, restriction of A1 R-adenosine signaling in medial geniculate (MG) neurons is sufficient to extend LTP, LTD, and tonotopic map plasticity in adult mice for months beyond the critical period...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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