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Rumen methane emission

Roland Wirth, Gyula Kádár, Balázs Kakuk, Gergely Maróti, Zoltán Bagi, Árpád Szilágyi, Gábor Rákhely, József Horváth, Kornél L Kovács
The cow rumen harbors a great variety of diverse microbes, which form a complex, organized community. Understanding the behavior of this multifarious network is crucial in improving ruminant nutrient use efficiency. The aim of this study was to expand our knowledge by examining 10 Holstein dairy cow rumen fluid fraction whole metagenome and transcriptome datasets. DNA and mRNA sequence data, generated by Ion Torrent, was subjected to quality control and filtering before analysis for core elements. The taxonomic core microbiome consisted of 48 genera belonging to Bacteria (47) and Archaea (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gareth Frank Difford, Damian Rafal Plichta, Peter Løvendahl, Jan Lassen, Samantha Joan Noel, Ole Højberg, André-Denis G Wright, Zhigang Zhu, Lise Kristensen, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Goutam Sahana
Cattle and other ruminants produce large quantities of methane (~110 million metric tonnes per annum), which is a potent greenhouse gas affecting global climate change. Methane (CH4) is a natural by-product of gastro-enteric microbial fermentation of feedstuffs in the rumen and contributes to 6% of total CH4 emissions from anthropogenic-related sources. The extent to which the host genome and rumen microbiome influence CH4 emission is not yet well known. This study confirms individual variation in CH4 production was influenced by individual host (cow) genotype, as well as the host's rumen microbiome composition...
October 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
M Wang, R Wang, M Liu, K A Beauchemin, X Z Sun, S X Tang, J Z Jiao, Z L Tan, Z X He
Hydrogen is an important intermediate that is produced during carbohydrate fermentation to volatile fatty acid and utilized by methanogens to produce methane in the rumen. Ruminal volatile fatty acid and dissolved methane concentrations are more than 500 times greater than dissolved hydrogen concentration. Therefore, we hypothesized that dissolved hydrogen might have a higher sensitivity in response to dietary changes compared with volatile fatty acid and dissolved methane. Using goats, we investigated the effects of increasing dietary starch content (maize replaced with wheat bran) and supplementing with rhubarb rhizomes and roots on the relationships among dissolved hydrogen, dissolved methane and other fermentation end products...
October 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
S E Denman, D P Morgavi, C S McSweeney
Rumen microbiome profiling uses 16S rRNA (18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer) gene sequencing, a method that usually sequences a small portion of a single gene and is often biased and varies between different laboratories. Functional information can be inferred from this data, but only for those that are closely related to known annotated species, and even then may not truly reflect the function performed within the environment being studied. Genome sequencing of isolates and metagenome-assembled genomes has now reached a stage where representation of the majority of rumen bacterial genera are covered, but this still only represents a portion of rumen microbial species...
September 28, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
P Løvendahl, G F Difford, B Li, M G G Chagunda, P Huhtanen, M H Lidauer, J Lassen, P Lund
It may be possible for dairy farms to improve profitability and reduce environmental impacts by selecting for higher feed efficiency and lower methane (CH4) emission traits. It remains to be clarified how CH4 emission and feed efficiency traits are related to each other, which will require direct and accurate measurements of both of these traits in large numbers of animals under the conditions in which they are expected to perform. The ranking of animals for feed efficiency and CH4 emission traits can differ depending upon the type and duration of measurement used, the trait definitions and calculations used, the period in lactation examined and the production system, as well as interactions among these factors...
September 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Melanie Eger, Michael Graz, Susanne Riede, Gerhard Breves
The reduction of methane emissions by ruminants is a highly desirable goal to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Various feed additives have already been tested for their ability to decrease methane production; however, practical use is often limited due to negative effects on rumen fermentation or high costs. Organosulphur compounds from garlic ( Allium sativum ) and flavonoids have been identified as promising plant-derived compounds which are able to reduce methane production. Here, we evaluated the effects of a combination of garlic powder and bitter orange ( Citrus aurantium ) extracts, Mootral, on ruminal methane production, ruminal fermentation and the community of methanogenic Archaea by using the rumen simulation technique as ex vivo model...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Josef D V van Wyngaard, Robin Meeske, Lourens J Erasmus
The effect of concentrate feeding level on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing medium quality summer pasture is yet to be investigated. Sixty multiparous Jersey cows (9 rumen-cannulated) were used in a randomized complete block design study (with the cannulated cows in a 3 × 3 Latin square design) to investigate the effect of concentrate feeding level (0, 4, and 8 kg/cow per day; as-fed basis) on enteric CH4 emissions, production performance, and rumen fermentation of dairy cows grazing summer pasture (17 cows plus 3 cannulated cows per treatment)...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
I Vetharaniam, R E Vibart, D Pacheco
The sheep rumen sub-model MollyRum14 was evaluated on its methane and VFA predictions against data from respiration-chamber trials conducted with sheep fed perennial ryegrass, white clover, chicory, forage rape, turnip (leafy and bulb varieties), swedes, kale or forage radish. We assessed the model's response to substrate degradation rate (settings that affect the rate of cellulose and hemicellulose digestion) and to fermentation stoichiometry (settings that alter non-glucogenic to glucogenic short-chain fatty acid ratios)...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Rong Wang, Min Wang, Emilio M Ungerfeld, Xiu Min Zhang, Dong Lei Long, Hong Xiang Mao, Jin Ping Deng, André Bannink, Zhi Liang Tan
Generation of ammonia from nitrate reduction is slower compared with urea hydrolysis and may be more efficiently incorporated into ruminal microbial protein. We hypothesized that nitrate supplementation could increase ammonia incorporation into microbial protein in the rumen compared with urea supplementation of a low-protein diet fed to lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows were used in a crossover design to investigate the effect of nitrate or an isonitrogenous urea inclusion in the basal low-protein diet on rumen fermentation, milk yield, and ruminal microbial community in dairy cows fed a low-protein diet in comparison with an isonitrogenous urea control...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Stephanie A Terry, Gabriel de Oliveira Ribeiro, Robert J Gruninger, Martin Hunerberg, Sheng Ping, Alex V Chaves, Jake Burlet, Karen Ann Beauchemin, Tim Angus McAllister
Ruminants play an important role in food security, but there is a growing concern about the impact of cattle on the environment, particularly regarding greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of humic substances (HS) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, methane (CH4) emissions, and the rumen microbiome of beef heifers fed a barley silage-based diet. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using 8 ruminally cannulated Angus × Hereford heifers (758 ± 40...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
I A Aboagye, M Oba, A R Castillo, K M Koenig, K A Beauchemin
Sustainability of animal agriculture requires efficient use of energy and nitrogen (N) by ruminants fed high forage diets. Thus, there is a need to decrease methane (CH4) emissions and prevent excessive N release into the environment. Therefore, this experiment examined the long-term effects of feeding hydrolyzable tannin (HT) with or without condensed tannin (CT) on animal performance, rumen fermentation, N use and CH4 production in beef cattle fed a high forage diet. A total of 75 weaned crossbred steers (292 ± 4...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
I Mizrahi, E Jami
The rumen microbiome has the important task of supplying ruminants with most of their dietary requirements and is responsible for up to 90% of their metabolic needs. This tremendous feat is possible due to the large diversity of microorganisms in the rumen. The rumen is considered one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet in terms of species diversity and functional richness. From the moment the feed is ingested, it enters a vast cascade in which specialized microorganisms degrade specific components of the feed turning them into molecules, which in turn are utilized as anabolic precursors and energy sources for the animal...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
V Niderkorn, C Martin, M Bernard, A Le Morvan, Y Rochette, R Baumont
There is a lot of evidence that chicory could be a highly palatable and nutritious source of forage for ruminants, well adapted to climate change and dry conditions in summer, thanks to its resistance to drought and high water content. This study aimed to describe the effect of incorporating chicory to ryegrass or to a ryegrass-white clover mixture on feeding behaviour, digestive parameters, nitrogen (N) balance and methane (CH4) emissions in sheep. In total, three swards of ryegrass, white clover and chicory were established and managed in a manner ensuring the forage use at a constant vegetative stage throughout the experiment...
August 23, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Andrea Söllinger, Alexander Tøsdal Tveit, Morten Poulsen, Samantha Joan Noel, Mia Bengtsson, Jörg Bernhardt, Anne Louise Frydendahl Hellwing, Peter Lund, Katharina Riedel, Christa Schleper, Ole Højberg, Tim Urich
Ruminant livestock is a major source of the potent greenhouse gas methane. The complex rumen microbiome, consisting of bacteria, archaea, and microbial eukaryotes, facilitates anaerobic plant biomass degradation in the cow rumen, leading to methane emissions. Using an integrated approach combining multidomain quantitative metatranscriptomics with gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiling, we aimed at obtaining the most comprehensive picture of the active rumen microbiome during feed degradation to date. Bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic biomass, but also methane emissions and VFA concentrations, increased drastically within an hour after feed intake...
July 2018: MSystems
Rajaraman Bharanidharan, Selvaraj Arokiyaraj, Eun Bae Kim, Chang Hyun Lee, Yang Won Woo, Youngjun Na, Danil Kim, Kyoung Hoon Kim
Few studies have examined the effects of feeding total mixed ration (TMR) versus roughage and concentrate separately (SF) on ruminant methane production. Therefore, this study compared differences in methane production, ruminal characteristics, total tract digestibility of nutrients, and rumen microbiome between the two feeding methods in Holstein steers. A total six Holstein steers of initial bodyweights 540 ± 34 kg were divided into two groups and assigned to a same experimental diet with two different feeding systems (TMR or SF) in a crossover design with 21 d periods...
2018: PloS One
Sieglinde Debruyne, Alexis Ruiz-González, Einar Artiles-Ortega, Bart Ampe, Wim Van Den Broeck, Ellen De Keyser, Leen Vandaele, Karen Goossens, Veerle Fievez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Andres N Haro, Maria Dolores Carro, Trinidad de Evan, Javier González
Ruminants have a low efficiency of nitrogen (N) utilization that has negative implications for animal production and the environment, but reducing the ruminal degradation of protein can help to reduce N losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of sunflower meal (SM) and sunflower seed (SS) protected against ruminal degradation in high-cereal diets on in vitro ruminal fermentation and CH4 production. Samples of SS and SM were sprayed with a solution of malic acid 1 M (400 ml/kg sample) and dried at 150°C for 1 hr as a protective treatment...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Seon-Ho Kim, Lovelia L Mamuad, Yeon-Jae Choi, Haguyn G Sung, Kwang-Keun Cho, Sang Suk Lee
Animal science nutrition studies are increasingly focusing on finding solutions to reduce methane (CH4) emissions. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of reductive acetogenic bacteria [acetogen probiotics (AP)] and lauric acid (LA) on in vivo rumen fermentation and microbial populations in Hanwoo steers. Four cannulated Hanwoo steers (392 ± 14 kg) were analyzed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and were placed in hood-type chambers. They were fed similar amounts of concentrate and rice straw within and experimental design as follows: control (Con; 40 g DM basal feed, nonaddition of AP or LA), T1 = LA (40 g DM basal feed mixed with 40 g LA), T2 = AP (40 g DM basal feed, fermented with AP), and T3 = LA + AP (40 g DM basal feed, fermented with AP and mixed with 40 g LA)...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Byeng Ryel Min, Sandra Solaiman
Comparative aspects of plant tannins on digestive physiology, nutrition and microbial community in sheep and goats are discussed in the context of differences due to feed intake, digestibility, utilization of nutrients and microbial community. The purpose of this review was to present an overview of the potential benefits of tannin-containing diets for sheep and goats and specie differences in their response to tannins. It is well established that moderate level of tannins in the diet (3%-4% tannins DM) can precipitate with soluble proteins and increase protein supply to the sheep, but comparative aspects of tannin-containing diets in sheep and goats on animal performance, digestive physiology, rumen microbial changes and potential benefits to sustainable animal production by those compounds have received little attention...
October 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
S J Waite, J Zhang, J E Cater, G C Waghorn, W E Bain, J C McEwan, V Suresh
Published studies have shown that methane yield (g CH4/kg dry matter) from sheep is positively correlated with the size (volume and surface area) of the reticulo-rumen (RR) and the weight of its contents. However, the relationship between CH4 yield and RR shape has not been investigated. In this work, shape analysis has been performed on a data set of computerised tomography (CT) scans of the RR from sheep having high and low CH4 yields (n=20 and n=17, respectively). The three-dimensional geometries of the RRs were reconstructed from segmented scan data and split into three anatomical regions...
July 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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