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Cognition and learning

Kuniyoshi Toyoshima, Yuki Kako, Atsuhito Toyomaki, Yusuke Shimizu, Teruaki Tanaka, Shin Nakagawa, Takeshi Inoue, Anabel Martinez-Aran, Eduard Vieta, Ichiro Kusumi
During the euthymic state in bipolar disorder, cognitive functions often remain affected. Specifically, subjective and objective cognitive impairment might distinctly affect patients' quality of life (QoL); however, this question had not been examined previously in Japanese patients. Therefore, the current study investigated the associations between cognitive complaints, QoL, and objective cognitive functions. Forty patients in remission were recruited from the Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan and assessed with the translated version of the cognitive complaints in bipolar disorder rating assessment (COBRA), medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey version 2 (SF-36v2), and Sheehan disability scale (SDS)...
November 26, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Semil Selcen Gocmez, Tuğçe Demirtaş Şahin, Yusufhan Yazir, Gökhan Duruksu, Fatma Ceyla Eraldemir, Selen Polat, Tijen Utkan
Diabetes is one of the risk factors for the development of vascular dementia (VD), leading to endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Resveratrol has been shown to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. The previous studies have also reported that resveratrol improves cognitive and vascular endothelial functions in several pathological conditions. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on cognitive and vascular endothelial function and to explore the mechanisms of its effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model of VD...
December 11, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Evy Woumans, Sofie Ameloot, Emmanuel Keuleers, Eva Van Assche
We monitored the progress of 40 children when they first started to acquire a second language (L2) implicitly through immersion. Employing a longitudinal design, we tested them before they had any notions of an L2 (Time 0) and after 1 school year of L2 exposure (Time 1) to determine whether cognitive abilities can predict the success of L2 learning. Task administration included measures of intelligence, cognitive control, and language skills. Initial scores on measures of inhibitory control seemed predictive of L2 Dutch vocabulary acquisition...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Jacob L Mackey
A common view among ancient historians about Roman attentiveness to children's psychological development needs reconsideration. The view holds that Romans ignored children's cognitive ontogeny, perceiving early childhood as a largely undifferentiated life stage. A separate but related issue is the problematic claim that Roman childhood was entirely a matter of social construction. I present evidence from over four hundred years of Roman writing to make three points against Roman neglect of children and radical social construction...
December 13, 2018: History of Psychology
Christoph Sperber, Daniel Wiesen, Hans-Otto Karnath
Multivariate lesion behaviour mapping based on machine learning algorithms has recently been suggested to complement the methods of anatomo-behavioural approaches in cognitive neuroscience. Several studies applied and validated support vector regression-based lesion symptom mapping (SVR-LSM) to map anatomo-behavioural relations. However, this promising method, as well as the multivariate approach per se, still bears many open questions. By using large lesion samples in three simulation experiments, the present study empirically tested the validity of several methodological aspects...
December 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Hamde Nazar, Usmaan Omer, Zachariah Nazar, Andy Husband
OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation and assess the effect of a blended learning approach to teach pharmacy law. METHODS: Twenty didactic pharmacy law lectures were redeveloped to 9 h of flipped classroom sessions. Presession online videos delivered factual content created in-house. In-class activities explored the application and nuances of law through simulated cases. Stage 2 Pharmacy undergraduate students (n = 69) were administered the Community of Inquiry Survey, measuring the social, teaching and cognitive presence of online learning experiences across 34 items on a Likert scale 1-5 (1 = 'strongly agree', to 5 = 'strongly disagree')...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Mohamad Nasser, Pia Chedid, Ali Salami, Mariam Khalifeh, Said El Shamieh, Wissam H Joumaa
Rapid growing of mobile phones users has raised about the possible effects of these electromagnetic waves (EMW) on human health. Many studies have examined the role of these EMW on biological systems, but the results are still contradictory and controversial. In addition to EMW, over-activation of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) has been associated with cognitive decline, incidence and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Candesartan, an AT1R blocker, is well recognized for treatment of hypertension...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Si-Jing Fan, An-Bang Sun, Lian Liu
The hippocampus is located in the limbic system and is vital in learning ability, memory formation and emotion regulation, and is associated with depression, epilepsy and mental retardation in an abnormal developmental situation. Several factors have been found to modulate the development of the hippocampus, and epigenetic modification have a crucial effect in this progress. The present review summarizes the epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and non-coding RNAs, regulating all stages of hippocampal development, focusing on the growth of Ammons horn and the dentate gyrus in humans and rodents...
December 2018: Biomedical Reports
Susana López-Ornat, Alexandra Karousou, Carlos Gallego, Leire Martín, Raquel Camero
The use of the task-evoked pupillary responses (TEPRs) methodology is emerging in the psycholinguistics literature, as a sensitive, reliable and dynamic psychophysiological measure of the cognitive effort produced by various aspects of language processing. This preliminary study aimed to assess the functionality and effectiveness of a TEPRs design for measuring the cognitive effort required for the processing and spontaneous (non-explicitly prompted) short-term retention of novel phonological forms presented auditorily...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Danielle Abatemarco, Sujan Perera, Sheng Hua Bao, Sameen Desai, Bruno Assuncao, Niki Tetarenko, Karolina Danysz, Ruta Mockute, Mark Widdowson, Nicole Fornarotto, Sheryl Beauchamp, Salvatore Cicirello, Edward Mingle
Introduction: Regulations are increasing the scope of activities that fall under the remit of drug safety. Currently, individual case safety report (ICSR) collection and collation is done manually, requiring pharmacovigilance professionals to perform many transactional activities before data are available for assessment and aggregated analyses. For a biopharmaceutical company to meet its responsibilities to patients and regulatory bodies regarding the safe use and distribution of its products, improved business processes must be implemented to drive the industry forward in the best interest of patients globally...
2018: Pharmaceutical Medicine
Ehab Ragaa Abdelraouf, Ayman Kilany, Adel F Hashish, Ola Hosny Gebril, Suzette Ibrahim Helal, Haytham Mohamad Hasan, Neveen Hassan Nashaat
Background: Ubiquinone has antioxidant properties and has been linked to cognitive performance in some neuropsychiatric disorders. Its role in specific learning disorder manifestations has not been previously investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the blood levels of ubiquinone in a group of children with specific learning disorder in comparison to typically developing children and to investigate the correlation between ubiquinone levels in children with specific learning disorder and some of their intellectual capabilities, reading, spelling and writing performance...
2018: The Egyptian journal of neurology, psychiatry and neurosurgery
Arie W Kruglanski, Jessica R Fernandez, Adam R Factor, Ewa Szumowska
This paper considers the cognitive underpinnings of violent extremism. We conceptualize extremism as stemming from a motivational imbalance in which a given need "crowds out" other needs and liberates behavior from their constraints. In the case of violent extremism, the dominant need in question is the quest for personal significance and the liberated behavior is aggression employed as means to the attainment of significance. The cognitive mechanisms that enable this process are ones of learning and inference, knowledge activation, selective attention, and inhibition...
December 10, 2018: Cognition
Anja Kretzschmar, Jan-Philip Schülke, Mercè Masana, Katharina Dürre, Marianne B Müller, Andreas R Bausch, Theo Rein
Cytoskeletal dynamics are pivotal to memory, learning, and stress physiology, and thus psychiatric diseases. Downregulated in renal cell carcinoma 1 (DRR1) protein was characterized as the link between stress, actin dynamics, neuronal function, and cognition. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we undertook a domain analysis of DRR1 and probed the effects on actin binding, polymerization, and bundling, as well as on actin-dependent cellular processes. METHODS: DRR1 domains were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins to perform in vitro analysis of actin dynamics (binding, bundling, polymerization, and nucleation)...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luis Miguel Dos Santos
The researcher employed personal belief system (PBS) theory as the theoretical foundation for this study because it holds that teachers' PBSs may influence their teaching behaviours, teaching styles, and pedagogies in classroom practice due to cultural influences. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how teachers' personal beliefs influence how they teach and how their approach may align with or diverge from cultural expectations in a private adult learning facility for English learning in Macau Special Administrative Region, China...
December 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
Yanjie Zhang, Chunxiao Li, Liye Zou, Xiaolei Liu, Wook Song
Background : As the situation of cognitive aging is getting worse, preventing or treating cognitive decline through effective strategies is highly important. This systematic review aims to investigate whether mind-body exercise is an effective approach for treating cognition decline. Methods : Searches for the potential studies were performed on the eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PsycArtilces, CNKI, and Wanfang). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of mind-body exercise on cognitive performance in older adults were included...
December 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tianyuan Ye, Xiangbao Meng, Ruiying Wang, Chenyang Zhang, Shuaibing He, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) suffer more risks from diabetic encephalopathy such as cognitive dysfunction and depressive-like behaviors. Numerous studies show that ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress and inflammation play important roles in the development of diabetic encephalopathy. Gastrodin (Gas) , one major component of Gastrodia elata , is traditionally used in central nervous system disorders and is believed to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and other neuroprotective effects. This present study aims to explore the protective effects of Gas on diabetic encephalopathy...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matthew G Buckley, Alastair D Smith, Mark Haselgrove
A number of influential spatial learning theories posit that organisms encode a viewpoint independent (i.e. allocentric) representation of the global boundary shape of their environment in order to support spatial reorientation and place learning. In contrast to the trial and error learning mechanisms that support domain-general processes, a representation of the global-shape of the environment is thought to be encoded automatically as part of a cognitive map, and without interference from other spatial cues...
December 10, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
Luofang Peng, Maoen Zhu, Yong Yang, Yingqi Weng, Wangyuan Zou, Xiaoyan Zhu, Qulian Guo, Tao Zhong
Neonatal inflammation induces long-term effects on brain function. We investigated the effects of systematic neonatal inflammation using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection at postnatal day 3 (P3) and P5 in a mouse model of spatial memory capacity measured using a Morris water maze (MWM) task in adulthood. Subsequently, we assessed histone acetylation and immediate-early response gene expression (c-Fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the hippocampus in response to MWM acquisition training. The LPS-treated mice exhibited a significant spatial cognitive impairment, which was accompanied by insufficient histone acetylation of the H4K12 specific lysine residue and repressed c-Fos gene expression immediately after acquisition training...
December 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Motoyasu Honma, Yuri Masaoka, Shinichi Koyama, Takeshi Kuroda, Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Yasuo Terao, Kenjiro Ono, Mitsuru Kawamura
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with various cognitive impairments. However, the nature of cognitive modification in patients with PD remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined whether patients with PD could correct and maintain subjective time duration and line length estimation. After training sessions, in which participants repeatedly memorized either a duration or a length, we compared a learning performance in 20 PD patients with 20 healthy controls. In the case of duration in the PD patients, the learned durations immediately returned to baseline of pre-training within a few minutes...
2018: PloS One
Stefanie Hoehl, Gabriela Markova
Infants' cognitive development and learning rely profoundly on their interactions with other people. In the first year, infants become increasingly sensitive to others' gaze and use it to focus their own attention on relevant visual input. However, infants are not passive observers in early social interactions, and these exchanges are characterized by high levels of contingency and reciprocity. Wass and colleagues offer first insights into the neurobehavioral dynamics of caregiver-infant interactions, demonstrating that caregivers' scalp-recorded theta band activity responds to their infant's changes in attention, and parental brain activation is associated with infants' sustenance of attention...
December 2018: PLoS Biology
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