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Cognition and learning

Fatemeh Babaei, Mohammadreza Mirzababaei, Marjan Nassiri-Asl
Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is found in vegetables and fruits. It is one of the major flavonoids that is part of human diets. Quercetin has several pharmacological effects in the nervous system as a neuroprotective agent. In this review, we summarize the research on quercetin and its role in memory in both animals and humans. Articles were chosen from the Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. In this review, we describe and summarize the importance of quercetin's presence in the body, particularly in the brain; its kinetics, including its absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion; its behavioral effects; and some of the possible mechanisms of action of quercetin on memory in different animal models...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Alena G Esposito, Patricia J Bauer
Self-derivation of new factual knowledge through integration of separate episodes of learning is one means by which children build knowledge. Content generated in this manner becomes incorporated into the knowledge base and is retained over time; successful self-derivation predicts academic achievement. Yet the component processes on which self-derivation through integration depends are as yet unknown. In parallel studies with 6- and 8-year-olds (N = 41; Experiment 1) and 8- and 10-year-olds (N = 40; Experiment 2), we tested a number of predictors related to other productive processes and learning (reasoning, executive functions, verbal comprehension, and long-term retrieval)...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Yang Jiang, Bing Xu, Jing Chen, Yi Sui, Li Ren, Jing Li, Huiyu Zhang, Liqing Guo, Xiaohong Sun
BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in cognitive impairment. The calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha-1 C CACNA1C gene encodes an alpha-1 C subunit of L-type calcium channel (LTCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of micro-RNA-137 (miR-137) and the CACNA1C gene in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) double-transgenic AD mice and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS Six-month-old APP/PS1 double-transgenic AD mice (N=6) and age-matched normal C57BL/6 mice (N=6) underwent a Morris water maze (MWM) test, expression levels of amyloid-β (Aβ), LTCC, the CACNA1C gene, and miR-137 were measured in the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex in both groups of mice...
August 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Amit Kumar, Nirmal Singh
AIM: The present study was designed to investigate the outcome of combination of Calcineurin (CaN) inhibitor (Tacrolimus) and Protein Kinase A (PKA) activator (Forskolin), in mouse models of experimental dementia. METHODS: Streptozotocin [STZ, 3mg/kg, injected intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)] was used to induce memory deficits in NIH mice, while aged mice separately taken served as a natural model of dementia. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to evaluate learning and memory of the animals...
August 13, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Aazam Doustmohammadian, Nastaran Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nasrin Omidvar, Maryam Amini, Morteza Abdollahi, Hassan Eini-Zinab, Zeinab Amirhamidi, Saeed Esfandiari, Don Nutbeam
This study used a locally designed and validated questionnaire to describe the distribution of food and nutrition literacy (FNLIT) in a cross-sectional sample of 803 students aged 10-12 years from elementary schools in Tehran city, Iran. Logistic regression was used to assess the extent to which various independent covariates were associated with low FNLIT. The data were used to identify significant differences using a range of social and cultural variables relevant to the context of school students in Iran...
August 7, 2018: Health Promotion International
Yufeng Lin, Kaiyuan Wang, Chunchao Ma, Xuesong Wang, Zhongying Gong, Rui Zhang, Dawei Zang, Yan Cheng
Objective: Recent studies have suggested that metformin can penetrate the blood-brain barrier, protecting neurons via anti-inflammatory action and improvement of brain energy metabolism. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of metformin on cognitive function in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism and non-dementia vascular cognitive impairment (NDVCI). Methods: One hundred patients with NDVCI and abnormal glucose metabolism were randomly allocated into two groups: metformin and donepezil ( n = 50) or acarbose and donepezil ( n = 50)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
James J Annesi
OBJECTIVES: Self-regulation is thought to play a role in overcoming barriers to weight management behaviour changes. This research assessed the extent that relationship is manifested through associated changes in self-efficacy, and effects based on degree of obesity. DESIGN: Data sets from three previous studies of the present research group were utilized. After assessment of change scores using repeated-measures ANOVA, mediation and moderation analyses assessed effects of changes in self-regulatory skill usage on changes in physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake through self-efficacy changes...
August 11, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Sherry A Said, Rachel Isedowo, Christilynn Guerin, Navreek N Nar, Leesa Lillie, Shawn Bukovac, Jonathan J Simone, Matthew R Green, Cheryl M McCormick, Jeffrey A Stuart
Diarylpropionitrile (DPN) is an estrogen receptor-β-specific agonist that has been linked to neuroprotection, preserving cognitive function with age, the suppression of anxiety-like behaviors, inhibition of cancer growth, and other positive properties. We hypothesized that DPN may have pro-longevity properties. DPN was administered via feed at a dose corresponding to approximately 3 mg/kg/day to ovariectomized female mice beginning at 7 months of age. Mice were followed for the duration of their lifespans while monitoring body mass, aspects of behavior, learning, memory, and frailty...
August 11, 2018: GeroScience
Adam D Richard, Xin-Li Tian, Madison W El-Saadi, Xiao-Hong Lu
Cognitive decline is a feature of aging. Accumulating evidence suggests that the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in the process of aging-dependent cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration by regulating synaptic neurotransmission and affecting neuroplasticity. Age-related changes in brain structure and cognition are not uniform across the whole brain. Being one of the most vulnerable brain regions to aging-dependent alterations, striatum is integral to several central nervous system functions, such as motor, cognition, and affective control...
July 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Miri Gitik, Erica D Holliday, Ming Leung, Qiaoping Yuan, Sheree F Logue, Roope Tikkanen, David Goldman, Thomas J Gould
Earlier initiation of smoking correlates with higher risk of nicotine dependence, mental health problems, and cognitive impairments. Additionally, exposure to nicotine and/or tobacco smoke during critical developmental periods is associated with lasting epigenetic modifications and altered gene expression. This study examined whether adolescent nicotine exposure alters adult hippocampus-dependent learning, involving persistent changes in hippocampal DNA methylation and if choline, a dietary methyl donor, would reverse and mitigate these alterations...
August 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Aaron Carass, Jennifer L Cuzzocreo, Shuo Han, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Paul E Rasser, Melanie Ganz, Vincent Beliveau, Jose Dolz, Ismail Ben Ayed, Christian Desrosiers, Benjamin Thyreau, José E Romero, Pierrick Coupé, José V Manjón, Vladimir S Fonov, D Louis Collins, Sarah H Ying, Chiadi U Onyike, Deana Crocetti, Bennett A Landman, Stewart H Mostofsky, Paul M Thompson, Jerry L Prince
The human cerebellum plays an essential role in motor control, is involved in cognitive function (i.e., attention, working memory, and language), and helps to regulate emotional responses. Quantitative in-vivo assessment of the cerebellum is important in the study of several neurological diseases including cerebellar ataxia, autism, and schizophrenia. Different structural subdivisions of the cerebellum have been shown to correlate with differing pathologies. To further understand these pathologies, it is helpful to automatically parcellate the cerebellum at the highest fidelity possible...
August 9, 2018: NeuroImage
Joseph J Fins, James L Bernat
This essay complements the scientific and practice scope of the American Academy of Neurology Guideline on Disorders of Consciousness by providing a discussion of the ethical, palliative, and policy aspects of the management of this group of patients. We endorse the renaming of "permanent" vegetative state to "chronic" vegetative state given the increased frequency of reports of late improvements but suggest that further refinement of this class of patients is necessary to distinguish late recoveries from patients who were misdiagnosed or in cognitive-motor dissociation...
August 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Yana Van Den Herrewegen, Lissa Denewet, An Buckinx, Giulia Albertini, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Ilse Smolders, Dimitri De Bundel
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is an acquired form of focal epilepsy, in which patients not only suffer from unprovoked, devastating seizures, but also from severe comorbidities, such as cognitive dysfunction. Correspondingly, several animal models of TLE exhibit memory dysfunction, especially spatial memory. The Morris water maze test is the most commonly used test for assessing spatial learning and memory in rodents. However, high stress and poor swimming abilities are common confounders and may contribute to misinterpretation...
August 10, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Merel Prikken, Mette J Konings, Wan U Lei, Marieke J H Begemann, Iris E C Sommer
BACKGROUND: Computerized methods for improving cognitive functioning in schizophrenia have gained popularity during the past decades. Therefore, this study evaluates the available evidence for the efficacy of computerized cognitive drill and practice training for patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. METHODS: A systematic search was carried out using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and PsycINFO. A meta-analysis was performed to compare cognitive drill and practice training in patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder with non-cognitively oriented control conditions...
August 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Lesley J Rogers
This chapter examines the importance of studying hand preference together with different expressions of behavior. Cognitive differences between left- and right-handed primates are discussed. As shown in several species of primate, eye preference, but not hand preference, is biased at the level of the population and reflects hemispheric asymmetry of processing. Hand preference, determined from simple grasping of pieces of food and taking them to the mouth, is consistent for individuals but it is not population biased...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Mohsen Salari, Amrollah Roozbehi, Abdolvahed Zarifi, Rohani Ahmad Tarmizi
BACKGROUND: Nursing education in Iran has conventionally focused on lecture-based strategies. Improvements in teaching and learning over the years have led to an expansion of the pedagogies available to educators. Likewise, there has been a suggestion for a move toward more learner-centered teaching strategies and pedagogies that can result in improvement in learning. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Problem-Based Learning in developing cognitive skills in learning Pediatric Nursing among university students...
August 10, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Andrea Schiavio, Dylan van der Schyff
Recent approaches in the cognitive and psychological sciences conceive of mind as an Embodied, Embedded, Extended, and Enactive (or 4E) phenomenon. While this has stimulated important discussions and debates across a vast array of disciplines, its principles, applications, and explanatory power have not yet been properly addressed in the domain of musical development. Accordingly, it remains unclear how the cognitive processes involved in the acquisition of musical skills might be understood through the lenses of this approach, and what this might offer for practical areas like music education...
August 9, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Anna Maria Górska, Krystyna Gołembiowska
BACKGROUND: According to the European Drug Report, the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) is constantly growing. NPS are widely abused by human adolescent subjects. 5-Methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) is one of the most frequently used hallucinogenic NPS. 5-MeO-DIPT intoxication results in hallucinations, vomiting, and tachycardia. Long-term exposure to 5-MeO-DIPT was reported to lead to development of post-hallucinogenic perception disorder. The aim of the present study was to determine whether repeated-intermittent administration of 5-MeO-DIPT during adolescence affects learning and memory in adult rats...
April 12, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Nathan M Murata, Ross Oshiro, Troy Furutani, William T Tsushima
Concussions have become a public health issue. This public health concern has drawn the attention of many states in which laws were created to address concussions safety, recognition of signs and symptoms, immediate removal, medical clearance, and return to play protocols. The vast majority of state legislation focused on student athletes participating in organized sports. However the rise in concussion can be directly attributed to children, youth and adolescents participating in non-sports related events...
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Aubrey H Wang, Caroline Fitzpatrick
OBJECTIVE: We examined how empirically and theoretically important predictors help explain the development of kindergarten working memory, an understudied predictor of school readiness and adjustment to schooling in early childhood. Our specific aim was to examine the extent to which antecedents, opportunity, and propensity variables directly and indirectly predict working memory development. METHODS: We conducted structural equation modeling on a nationally representative and longitudinal sample of 14,000 kindergarten students...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
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