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Cognition and learning

Luz Yaqueline Ladino, Johanna Galvis, Diana Yasnó, Adriana Ramírez, Orietta Ivonne Beltrán
The Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder with vast locus heterogeneity that belongs to the so-called ciliopathies, whose proteins are localized in the primary cilia and present functional deficiency. The multisystemic features of the disease include ocular, renal, cognitive, skeletal, as well as gonadal involvement and obesity, among others, with high inter- and intrafamilial variability. We describe the clinical case of an adolescent male patient with Bardet-Biedl syndrome, including the approach, the results from a 22-gene sequencing panel, and the analysis of updated scientific literature...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Qiaoli Huang, Jianrong Jia, Qiming Han, Huan Luo
Storing temporal sequences of events (i.e., sequence memory) is fundamental to many cognitive functions. However, how the sequence order information is maintained and represented in working memory and its behavioral significance, particularly in human subjects, remains unknown. Here, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in combination with a temporal response function (TRF) method to dissociate item-specific neuronal reactivations. We demonstrate that serially remembered items are successively reactivated during memory retention...
October 18, 2018: ELife
Mónica Rosselli, David A Loewenstein, Rosie E Curiel, Ailyn Penate, Valeria L Torres, Merike Lang, Maria T Greig, William W Barker, Ranjan Duara
OBJECTIVES: Maintaining two active languages may increase cognitive and brain reserve among bilingual individuals. We explored whether such a neuroprotective effect was manifested in the performance of memory tests for participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: We compared 42 bilinguals to 25 monolinguals on verbal and nonverbal memory tests. We used: (a) the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scales for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), a sensitive test that taps into proactive, retroactive, and recovery from proactive semantic interference (verbal memory), and (b) the Benson Figure delayed recall (nonverbal memory)...
October 18, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Yuri I Alexandrov, Alexey A Sozinov, Olga E Svarnik, Alexander G Gorkin, Evgeniya A Kuzina, Vladimir V Gavrilov
Despite the years of studies in the field of systems neuroscience, functions of neural circuits and behavior-related systems are still not entirely clear. The systems description of brain activity has recently been associated with cognitive concepts, e.g. a cognitive map, reconstructed via place-cell activity analysis and the like, and a cognitive schema, modeled in consolidation research. The issue we find of importance is that a cognitive unit reconstructed in neuroscience research is mainly formulated in terms of environment...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
Shraddha Sapkota, Tao Huan, Tran Tran, Jiamin Zheng, Richard Camicioli, Liang Li, Roger A Dixon
Background : Among the neurodegenerative diseases of aging, sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent and perhaps the most feared. With virtually no success at finding pharmaceutical therapeutics for altering progressive AD after diagnosis, research attention is increasingly directed at discovering biological and other markers that detect AD risk in the long asymptomatic phase. Both early detection and precision preclinical intervention require systematic investigation of multiple modalities and combinations of AD-related biomarkers and risk factors...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Miguel Aguilera, Manuel G Bedia
The activity of many biological and cognitive systems is not poised deep within a specific regime of activity. Instead, they operate near points of critical behavior located at the boundary between different phases. Certain authors link some of the properties of criticality with the ability of living systems to generate autonomous or intrinsically generated behavior. However, these claims remain highly speculative. In this paper, we intend to explore the connection between criticality and autonomous behavior through conceptual models that show how embodied agents may adapt themselves toward critical points...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Tuukka O Piiponniemi, Teija Parkkari, Taneli Heikkinen, Jukka Puoliväli, Larry C Park, Roger Cachope, Maksym V Kopanitsa
Cognitive disturbances often predate characteristic motor dysfunction in individuals with Huntington's disease (HD) and place an increasing burden on the HD patients and caregivers with the progression of the disorder. Therefore, application of maximally translational cognitive tests to animal models of HD is imperative for the development of treatments that could alleviate cognitive decline in human patients. Here, we examined the performance of the Q175 mouse knock-in model of HD in the touch screen version of the paired associates learning (PAL) task...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Rebecca L Stephens, Benjamin Langworthy, Sarah J Short, Barbara D Goldman, Jessica B Girault, Jason P Fine, J Steven Reznick, John H Gilmore
The study of executive function (EF) has become increasingly popular in multiple areas of research. A wealth of evidence has supported the value of EF in shaping notable outcomes across typical and atypical development; however, little evidence has supported the cognitive contributors to early EF development. The current study used data from a large longitudinal sample of healthy children to investigate the differential influence of verbal and nonverbal cognition on later EF. Participants were assessed at 2 years of age using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, and Mullen scores were used to calculate nonverbal and verbal developmental quotients...
2018: Journal of Cognition and Development: Official Journal of the Cognitive Development Society
Elena Oliveros, Enrique Vázquez, Alejandro Barranco, María Ramírez, Agnes Gruart, Jose María Delgado-García, Rachael Buck, Ricardo Rueda, María J Martín
Sialic acids (Sia) are postulated to improve cognitive abilities. This study evaluated Sia effects on rat behavior when administered in a free form as N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) or conjugated as 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL). Rat milk contains Sia, which peaks at Postnatal Day 9 and drops to a minimum by Day 15. To bypass this Sia peak, a cohort of foster mothers was used to raise the experimental pups. A group of pups received a daily oral supplementation of Neu5Ac to mimic the amount naturally present in rat milk, and another group received the same molar amount of Sia as 6'-SL...
October 16, 2018: Nutrients
Kathryn A Fuller, Nilushi S Karunaratne, Som Naidu, Betty Exintaris, Jennifer L Short, Michael D Wolcott, Scott Singleton, Paul J White
Student engagement during classes includes behavioural, cognitive and emotional components, and is a pre-requisite for successful active learning environments. A novel approach to measuring student engagement was developed, involving triangulation of real-time student-self report, observation by trained observers and heart rate measurement. The self-report instrument was evaluated in four separate cohorts (n = 123) at Monash University and the University of North Carolina. The six item self-report demonstrated good reliability (Cronbach's alpha values ranged from 0...
2018: PloS One
Justin L Sewell, Lauren A Maggio, Olle Ten Cate, Tamara van Gog, John Q Young, Patricia S O'Sullivan
AIM: Cognitive load theory (CLT) is of increasing interest to health professions education researchers. CLT has intuitive applicability to workplace settings, yet how CLT should inform teaching, learning, and research in health professions workplaces is unclear. METHOD: To map the existing literature, we performed a scoping review of studies involving cognitive load, mental effort and/or mental workload in professional workplace settings within and outside of the health professions...
October 17, 2018: Medical Teacher
Sabrina Briefer Freymond, Alice Ruet, Maurine Grivaz, Camille Fuentes, Klaus Zuberbühler, Iris Bachmann, Elodie F Briefer
Stereotypies in animals are thought to arise from an interaction between genetic predisposition and sub-optimal housing conditions. In domestic horses, a well-studied stereotypy is crib-biting, an abnormal behaviour that appears to help individuals to cope with stressful situations. One prominent hypothesis states that animals affected by stereotypies are cognitively less flexible compared to healthy controls, due to sensitization of a specific brain area, the basal ganglia. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis in crib-biting and healthy controls, using a cognitive task, reversal learning, which has been used as a diagnostic for basal ganglia dysfunction...
October 17, 2018: Animal Cognition
Katie L Barfoot, Gabrielle May, Daniel J Lamport, Jessie Ricketts, Patricia M Riddell, Claire M Williams
PURPOSE: Previous evidence suggests consumption of flavonoids, a sub-class of polyphenols, is associated with improved cognitive function across the lifespan. In particular, acute intervention of a flavonoid-rich wild blueberry (WBB) drink has been shown to boost executive function (EF), short-term memory and mood 2-6 h post-consumption in 7-10-year-old children. However, confirmation of the aspects of EF and memory susceptible to WBB ingestion is required, particularly during childhood, a critical period of neurological development...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Carola Romberg, Susan Bartko, Jürgen Wess, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey
RATIONALE: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are known to play key roles in mediating cognitive processes, and impaired muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmission is associated with normal ageing processes and Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific contributions of the individual muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1-M5) to cognition are presently not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of M2-type muscarinic receptor signalling to sustained attention, executive control and learning and memory...
October 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Anette Wichman
Laying hens ( Gallus gallus ) are social birds with cognitive abilities related to having a functional interaction with their peers. Gaining knowledge about for example new food sources from other individuals can be a valuable complement to individual learning and probably even more so if one copies the behavior of successful individuals. In this study the aim was to investigate if a bird would identify another bird as being successful at gaining access to food. A social cognition feeding test was developed where birds could move freely together between several scattered food sources...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Elisabeth Jeanclos, Monique Albersen, Rúben J J Ramos, Annette Raab, Christian Wilhelm, Leif Hommers, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Nanda M Verhoeven-Duif, Antje Gohla
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is an essential cofactor in the catalysis of ~140 different enzymatic reactions. A pharmacological elevation of cellular PLP concentrations is of interest in neuropsychiatric diseases, but whole-body consequences of higher intracellular PLP levels are unknown. To address this question, we have generated mice allowing a conditional ablation of the PLP phosphatase PDXP. Ubiquitous PDXP deletion increased PLP levels in brain, skeletal muscle and red blood cells up to 3-fold compared to control mice, demonstrating that PDXP acts as a major regulator of cellular PLP concentrations in vivo...
August 16, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Qi Cheng, Rachel I Mayberry
Previous studies suggest that age of acquisition affects the outcomes of learning, especially at the morphosyntactic level. Unknown is how syntactic development is affected by increased cognitive maturity and delayed language onset. The current paper studied the early syntactic development of adolescent first language learners by examining word order patterns in American Sign Language (ASL). ASL uses a basic Subject-Verb-Object order, but also employs multiple word order variations. Child learners produce variable word order at the initial stage of acquisition, but later primarily produce canonical word order...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Child Language
Krista Christensen, Carey E Gleason, Julie A Mares
OBJECTIVES: Dietary carotenoids may limit neuronal damage from free radicals, potentially serving as a modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline. We examined intake of lutein and zeaxanthin (L and Z) in relation to cognitive performance among 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants aged ≥60 years. METHODS: L and Z intake from foods and supplements was estimated from two non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Outcomes included the CERAD Word Learning sub-test score, Animal Fluency test score, and Digit Symbol Substitution test score...
October 16, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Sushant K Shrivastava, Saurabh K Sinha, Pavan Srivastava, Prabhash N Tripathi, Piyoosh Sharma, Manish K Tripathi, Avanish Tripathi, Priyanka K Choubey, Digambar K Waiker, Lalit M Aggarwal, Manish Dixit, Subhash C Kheruka, Sanjay Gambhir, Sharmila Shankar, Rakesh K Srivastava
Based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), some novel p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives as promising cholinesterase enzyme inhibitors were designed, synthesized, characterized and evaluated to enhance learning and memory. The in vitro enzyme kinetic study of the synthesized compounds revealed the type of inhibition on the respective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. The in vivo studies of the synthesized compounds exhibited significant reversal of cognitive deficits in the animal models of amnesia as compared to standard drug donepezil...
October 9, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Max E Joffe, Chiaki I Santiago, Branden J Stansley, James Maksymetz, Rocco G Gogliotti, Julie L Engers, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn
Stress can precipitate or worsen symptoms of many psychiatric illnesses. Dysregulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamate system may underlie these disruptions and restoring PFC glutamate signaling has emerged as a promising avenue for the treatment of stress disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGlu3 ) induces a postsynaptic form of long-term depression (LTD) that is dependent on the activity of another subtype, mGlu5 . Stress exposure disrupted this plasticity, but the underlying signaling mechanisms and involvement in higher-order cognition have not yet been investigated...
October 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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