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Exercise and cognitive function

J O'Flynn, T G Dinan, J R Kelly
OBJECTIVES: Stress is an event that threatens homoeostasis and thus causes physiological and behavioural responses to reinstate equilibrium. Excessive and/or chronic stress can be psychologically and physiologically detrimental. Examinations can represent a significant source of stress for students. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is the core endocrine stress system. Investigations into the HPA response to examinations have yielded inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to further explore the relationship between examination stress, HPA axis activity, mood, sleep and exercise in students undergoing a naturalistic examination period stressor...
March 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Nadia Gosselin, Andrée-Ann Baril, Ricardo S Osorio, Marta Kaminska, Julie Carrier
Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation and affects at least 20% of individuals after the age of 65. There is accumulating evidence that obstructive sleep apnea may impact brain structure and function. Recent cohort studies suggest that it is a risk factor for stroke, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Because prevention through treatment of risk factors is currently the main intervention for reducing the incidence of dementia, how obstructive sleep apnea affects brain health and whether its treatment can slow neurodegeneration are relevant questions...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Marelle Heesterbeek, Eddy A Van der Zee, Marieke J G van Heuvelen
BACKGROUND: Dementia affects cognitive functioning, physical functioning, activities of daily living (ADLs), and quality of life (QOL). Pharmacological treatments to manage, cure or prevent dementia remain controversial. Therefore development of non-pharmacological approaches to prevent, or at least delay the onset and progression of dementia is urgently needed. Passive exercise is proposed to be such a non-pharmacological alternative. This study primarily aims to investigate the effects of three different forms of passive exercise on QOL and ADLs of institutionalized patients with dementia...
August 14, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Nacera Belala, Michael Schwenk, Anna Kroog, Clemens Becker
Erratum to: Z Gerontol Geriat (2018) In the online version of this article the following acknowledgement was missing:"This study was supported by a doctoral scholarship from the Robert Bosch Foundation (RBS). The content is solely the responsibility of the ….
August 13, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Joyce Gomes-Osman, Danylo F Cabral, Timothy P Morris, Katalina McInerney, Lawrence P Cahalin, Tatjana Rundek, Augusto Oliveira, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Purpose of review: We systematically appraised randomized controlled trials proposing exercise to influence cognition in older adults to (1) assess the methodologic quality using Cochrane criteria; (2) describe various exercise dose measures and assess their relationship with improved cognitive performance; and (3) identify consistent patterns of reported effects on cognition. Recent findings: There was overall good methodologic quality in all 98 included studies...
June 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Gabrielle L Davidson, Amy C Cooke, Crystal N Johnson, John L Quinn
Research into proximate and ultimate mechanisms of individual cognitive variation in animal populations is a rapidly growing field that incorporates physiological, behavioural and evolutionary investigations. Recent studies in humans and laboratory animals have shown that the enteric microbial community plays a central role in brain function and development. The 'gut-brain axis' represents a multi-directional signalling system that encompasses neurological, immunological and hormonal pathways. In particular it is tightly linked with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), a system that regulates stress hormone release and influences brain development and function...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Nicholas Bott, Shefali Kumar, Caitlyn Krebs, Jordan M Glenn, Erica N Madero, Jessie L Juusola
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence supports the use of lifestyle interventions for preventing or delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease and other forms of dementia in at-risk individuals. The development of internet-delivered programs would increase the scalability and reach of these interventions, but requires validation to ensure similar effectiveness to brick-and-mortar options. OBJECTIVE: We describe the study design, recruitment process, and baseline participant characteristics of the sample in the Virtual Cognitive Health (VC Health) study...
August 13, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Nicole A Guitar, Denise M Connelly, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Joseph B Orange, Susan W Muir-Hunter
Executive function deficit is an indicator of Alzheimer's-type dementia and manifests as disruptions of attentional control, memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, and reasoning, among other cognitive problems. Physical exercise is suggested to have a protective effect on global cognition with aging. However, whether it influences executive function in people living with Alzheimer's-type dementia specifically is unknown. The current systematic review examined the efficacy of physical exercise on executive function performance in community-dwelling older adults living with Alzheimer's-type dementia...
August 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
P Bouzat, G Séchaud, P Banco, K Davranche, L Casini, S Baillieul, P Manhes, F Botrè, M Mazzarino, X De la Torre, P Robach, S Verges
Study objectives: Sleep is altered at high altitude leading many mountaineers to use hypnotics in order to improve sleep efficiency. While after a full night at altitude the short-acting hypnotic zolpidem does not appear to alter cognitive function, residual adverse effects should be considered following early waking-up as performed by mountaineers. We hypothesized that zolpidem intake at high altitude would alter cognitive function 4 hours after drug intake. Methods: In a randomized double-blind controlled cross-over study, 22 subjects were evaluated during 2 nights at sea level and 2 nights at 3,800m, 4 hours after zolpidem (10mg) or placebo intake at 22:00pm...
August 7, 2018: Sleep
Jean-Frederic Colombel, Andrea Shin, Peter R Gibson
DESCRIPTION: The purpose of this clinical practice update review is to describe key principles in the diagnosis and management of functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: The evidence and best practices summarized in this manuscript are based on relevant scientific publications, systematic reviews, and expert opinion where applicable. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 1: A stepwise approach to rule-out ongoing inflammatory activity should be followed in IBD patients with persistent GI symptoms (measurement of fecal calprotectin, endoscopy with biopsy, cross-sectional imaging)...
August 9, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
J M Beasley, M A Sevick, L Kirshner, M Mangold, J Chodosh
BACKGROUND: Through diet and exercise interventions, community centers offer an opportunity to address health-related issues for some of the oldest, most vulnerable members of our society. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this investigation is to draw upon nationwide data to better characterize the population served by the congregate meals program and to gather more detailed information on a local level to identify opportunities for service enhancement to improve the health and well-being of older adults...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan, Darren Mah, Gabor Gyenes
Cardiac rehabilitation program is an evidence-based intervention and established model of exercise delivery following myocardial infarction and heart failure. Although it forms an important part of recovery and helps to prevent future events and complications, there has been little focus on its potential cognitive benefits. Areas covered: Coronary artery disease and heart failure are common heart problems associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and cognitive decline is commonly seen in affected individuals...
August 9, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Ji Hyun Kim, Quan Feng Liu, Enerelt Urnuhsaikhan, Ha Jin Jeong, Mi Yang Jeon, Songhee Jeon
Exercise increases the levels of neurogenic factors and enhances neurogenesis, memory, and learning. However, the molecular link between exercise and neurogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise intensity on cognitive function and protein expression in the hippocampus of old mice. To compare the effects of aerobic exercise intensity on cognition in old mice, we exposed 18-month-old mice to low- and moderate-intensity treadmill exercise for 4 weeks. Moderate-intensity exercise improved cognitive function in the old mice, while low-intensity exercise did not...
August 8, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Matthew C Shake, K Jason Crandall, Rilee P Mathews, Dustin G Falls, A Kathryn Dispennette
OBJECTIVE: A significant barrier to improving the health and well-being of older adults is that they often do not adhere to health-promoting programs. The present study examined whether Bingocize® , a game-centered mobile app that can combine bingo with healthy activities such as exercise and/or health topic education, could (1) engender high rates of adherence among sedentary community-dwelling older adults, and (2) potentially improve aspects of physical and cognitive performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants used the app for ∼1 hour, twice per week, for 10 weeks...
August 8, 2018: Games for Health
Felipe Stigger, Miriam A Zago Marcolino, Karin M Portela, Rodrigo Della Méa Plentz
Although the effects of physical exercise (PE) on cognitive function in dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been largely studied, its biochemical effect is still poorly explored. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of PE on inflammatory, oxidative and neurotrophic biomarkers of subjects with MCI or dementia. Six electronic databases, (Pubmed, Cochrane Central, Embase, PEDro, PsycINFO and SportDiscus) were searched for randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of PE on serum/plasma biomarkers of elderly with MCI or dementia...
July 31, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jae-Hoon Jeong, Jung-Hoon Koo, Joon-Yong Cho, Eun-Bum Kang
Obesity induces oxidative stress by causing hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, while contributing to cognitive and memory decline by inducing insulin resistance in the brain and hyperphosphorylation of Tau proteins. We aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise in improving these obesity-induced pathological phenomena. Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20 weeks were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks to induce obesity. The rats were subsequently subjected to treadmill exercise (progressively increasing load intensity) for 8 weeks...
August 3, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Guohua Zheng, Bingzhao Ye, Yuhui Zheng, Zhenyu Xiong, Rui Xia, Pingting Qiu, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen
Numerous previous studies have suggested that physical activity or exercise may play an important role in both structural integrity of the brain and cognitive function. However, it is unclear what effect exercise has on cognitive related brain structure. The present study comprehensively reviews the effect of exercise on cognitive related brain regions of the healthy elderly by using activation likelihood estimation (ALE). Seven electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials published up to September 2017...
August 3, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Vicki Anderson, Vicky Manikas, Franz E Babl, Stephen Hearps, Julian Dooley
Resolution of post-concussive symptoms (PCS) is a marker of recovery. However, it is unclear whether subtle impairments re-emerge in the context of increased demands. This study examined the effect of strenuous exercise on clinical symptoms and cognitive efficiency in children and adolescents after PCS resolution following concussion. We recruited concussed children and adolescents (n=30) on presentation to an Emergency Department (ED), and compared them to community-sourced non-injured controls (n=30), matched for age, and cognitive function...
September 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Whitney Duff, Natasha Haskey, Gillian Potter, Jane Alcorn, Paulette Hunter, Sharyle Fowler
We performed a scoping review on sought-after complementary therapies for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), specifically diet, physical activity and exercise (PA/E), and psychotherapy. We aim to update patients with IBD on therapies for self-care and provide physicians with guidance on how to direct their patients for the management of IBD. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PUBMED was completed in Sept 2016. Studies on diet, PA/E, or psychotherapy in patients with IBD were included. Medical Subject Heading terms and Boolean operators were used...
July 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Wang Bo, Mao Lei, Shen Tao, Liu Tuan Jie, Li Qian, Fang Qi Lin, Wang Xiao Ping
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the possible effect of the combined intervention of physical exercise and cognitive training on cognitive function in stroke survivals with vascular cognitive impairment. DESIGN: A single-blind (investigator-blinded but not subject-blinded) randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Medical Rehabilitation Center of Shanghai General Hospital, China. SUBJECTS: A total of 225 patients (mean age 64...
August 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
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