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Exercise and cognitive function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326283/exercise-induced-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expression-therapeutic-implications-for-alzheimer-s-dementia
#1
REVIEW
Rosy Wang, R M Damian Holsinger
Emerging evidence indicates that moderate intensity aerobic exercise is positively correlated with cognitive function and memory. However, the exact mechanisms underlying such improvements remain unclear. Recent research in animal models allows proposition of a pathway in which brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator. This perspective draws upon evidence from animal and human studies to highlight such a mechanism whereby exercise drives synthesis and accumulation of neuroactive metabolites such as myokines and ketone bodies in the periphery and in the hippocampus to enhance BDNF expression...
October 13, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323772/can-long-term-regular-practice-of-physical-exercises-including-taichi-improve-finger-tapping-of-patients-presenting-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Lingli Zhang, Yilong Zhao, Chao Shen, Le Lei, Junjie Dong, Dongchen Zou, Jun Zou, Miao Wang
Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a brain disease with both anatomical and functional alterations. There is clear evidence that individuals that are diagnosed with MCI have a high risk to develop dementia in the next 2-5 years compared to an age-matched population with a non-MCI diagnosis. The present study aimed to investigate whether the finger tapping frequency of patients with MCI was different from that of healthy individuals without MCI, and whether Tai Chi, a traditional Chinese movement discipline, could improve the finger tapping frequency of MCI patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320459/ergonomic-interventions-for-preventing-musculoskeletal-disorders-in-dental-care-practitioners
#3
REVIEW
Priti Mulimani, Victor Cw Hoe, Melanie J Hayes, Jose Joy Idiculla, Adinegara Bl Abas, Laxminarayan Karanth
BACKGROUND: Dentistry is a profession with a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) among practitioners, with symptoms often starting as early in the career as the student phase. Ergonomic interventions in physical, cognitive, and organisational domains have been suggested to prevent their occurrence, but evidence of their effects remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of ergonomic interventions for the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental care practitioners...
October 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319397/a-16-week-aerobic-exercise-intervention-does-not-affect-hippocampal-volume-and-cortical-thickness-in-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Kristian Steen Frederiksen, Christian Thode Larsen, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch, Anders Nymark Christensen, Peter Høgh, Lene Wermuth, Birgitte Bo Andersen, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Ellen Garde
Introduction: Brain imaging studies in healthy elderly subjects suggest a positive effect of aerobic exercise on both brain structure and function, while the effects of aerobic exercise in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has been scarcely investigated. Methods: In a single-blinded randomized MRI study, we assessed the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on brain volume as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its correlation to cognitive functioning in patients with AD. The study was a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial (ADEX study)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318265/cortical-activity-and-network-organization-underlying-physical-and-cognitive-exertion-in-active-young-adult-athletes-implications-for-concussion
#5
Shaun Porter, Noah D Silverberg, Naznin Virji-Babul
OBJECTIVES: To examine the neurophysiological correlates and brain network organization underlying physical and cognitive exertion in active young adults. DESIGN: Repeated measures. METHODS: Thirteen healthy adults completed three exertion tasks in a counterbalanced order: a graded working memory task (anti-saccade and serial addition task (ASAT)), a graded exercise task (cycling on a stationary bicycle) (EX) and a combined graded working memory and exercise task (ASAT+EX)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315375/treatment-of-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-pppd-and-related-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Stoyan Popkirov, Jon Stone, Dagny Holle-Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a newly defined disorder of functional dizziness that in the International Classification of Diseases in its 11th revision (ICD-11) supersedes phobic postural vertigo and chronic subjective dizziness. Despite efforts to unify the diagnosis of functional (somatoform) dizziness, patients will present with a variety of triggers, perpetuating factors, and comorbidities, requiring individualized treatment. This article will review different treatment strategies for this common functional neurological disorder and provide practical recommendations for tailored therapy...
October 13, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314729/steroid-secretion-in-healthy-aging
#7
REVIEW
Serena Fiacco, Andreas Walther, Ulrike Ehlert
Nowadays, people spend a considerable amount of their lives as older adults, but this longer lifespan is often accompanied by an increase in chronic conditions and disease, resulting in reduced quality of life and unprecedented societal and economic burden. Healthy aging is therefore increasingly recognized as a healthcare priority. Physical and mental adaptations to changes over the life course, and the maintenance of well-being, represent pivotal challenges in healthy aging. To capture the complexity of healthy aging, we propose a specific phenotype based on body composition, cognition, mood, and sexual function as indicators of different dimensions of healthy aging...
September 29, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308984/effects-of-probiotic-bifidobacterium-longum-35624-supplementation-on-exercise-performance-immune-modulation-and-cognitive-outlook-in-division-i-female-swimmers
#8
Aaron F Carbuhn, Shelby M Reynolds, Clark W Campbell, Luke A Bradford, Jake A Deckert, Andreas Kreutzer, Andrew C Fry
Our aim was to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation ( Bifidobacterium longum 35624; 1 billion CFU·d-1 ) on exercise performance, immune modulation, and cognitive outlook in collegiate female athletes during six weeks of offseason training. Seventeen National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 collegiate female swimmers participated in this two-group matched, double-blind, placebo controlled design. Via stratified randomization, participants were assigned to probiotic ( B. longum 35624; n = 8) or placebo ( n = 9) groups...
October 10, 2018: Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305151/aerobic-exercise-program-with-or-without-motor-complexity-as-an-add-on-to-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-depression-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Lucas Melo Neves, Carla Silva-Batista, Raquel Marquesini, Telma Fátima da Cunha, Elisa Dimateo, Luciana Nascimento, Acácio Moreira-Neto, Angelo Corrêa de Lima Miliatto, Sheila das Chagas Mendes, Flavia Saad, Jamile Sanches Codogno, Renato Hoffmann Nunes, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Valeria Juday, Beny Lafer, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
BACKGROUND: Patients with major depression disorder presents increased rates of cognitive decline, reduced hippocampal volume, poor sleep quality, hypertension, obesity, suicidal ideation and behavior, and decreased functionality. Although continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) improves some of the aforementioned symptoms, comorbidities, and conditions, recent studies have suggested that performing aerobic exercise with motor complexity (AEMC) may be more beneficial for cognitive decline, hippocampal volume, and functionality...
October 10, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304806/controversial-impact-of-sirtuins-in-chronic-non-transmissible-diseases-and-rehabilitation-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Alessia Mongelli, Carlo Gaetano
A large body of evidence reports about the positive effects of physical activity in pathophysiological conditions associated with aging. Physical exercise, alone or in combination with other medical therapies, unquestionably causes reduction of symptoms in chronic non-transmissible diseases often leading to significant amelioration or complete healing. The molecular basis of this exciting outcome-however, remain largely obscure. Epigenetics, exploring at the interface between environmental signals and the remodeling of chromatin structure, promises to shed light on this intriguing matter possibly contributing to the identification of novel therapeutic targets...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304785/strengthening-the-brain-is-resistance-training-with-blood-flow-restriction-an-effective-strategy-for-cognitive-improvement
#11
Alexander Törpel, Fabian Herold, Dennis Hamacher, Notger G Müller, Lutz Schega
Aging is accompanied by a decrease in physical capabilities (e.g., strength loss) and cognitive decline. The observed bidirectional relationship between physical activity and brain health suggests that physical activities could be beneficial to maintain and improve brain functioning (e.g., cognitive performance). However, the exercise type (e.g., resistance training, endurance training) and their exercise variables (e.g., load, duration, frequency) for an effective physical activity that optimally enhance cognitive performance are still unknown...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304037/strength-exercise-weakens-aerobic-exercise-induced-cognitive-improvements-in-rats
#12
Yongsheng Lan, Zhaoyuan Huang, Yanjie Jiang, Xuehua Zhou, Jingyu Zhang, Dianyu Zhang, Bo Wang, Guangqing Hou
Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the effects of aerobic exercise combined with strength exercise on cognitive function and adult hippocampal neurogenesis are still unknown. In this study, we established exercise paradigms in rats to mimic aerobic exercise combined with low- and high-intensity strength exercise. We found that aerobic exercise improved spatial learning and memory as well as adult hippocampal neurogenesis, whereas strength exercise suppressed aerobic exercise-induced cognitive improvements and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in an intensity-dependent manner...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302342/frailty-and-exercise-training-how-to-provide-best-care-after-cardiac-surgery-or-intervention-for-elder-patients-with-valvular-heart-disease
#13
REVIEW
Egle Tamuleviciute-Prasciene, Kristina Drulyte, Greta Jurenaite, Raimondas Kubilius, Birna Bjarnason-Wehrens
The aim of this literature review was to evaluate existing evidence on exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) as a treatment option for elderly frail patients with valvular heart disease (VHD). Pubmed database was searched for articles between 1980 and January 2018. From 2623 articles screened, 61 on frailty and VHD and 12 on exercise-based training for patients with VHD were included in the analysis. We studied and described frailty assessment in this patient population. Studies reporting results of exercise training in patients after surgical/interventional VHD treatment were analyzed regarding contents and outcomes...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296402/high-intensity-interval-exercise-impairs-neuroelectric-indices-of-reinforcement-learning
#14
Jeremy J Walsh, Francisco L Colino, Olave E Krigolson, Stephen Luehr, Brendon J Gurd, Michael E Tschakovsky
A single bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) improves behavioural measures of cognitive function; however, investigations using event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the systems that underlie these cognitive improvements are lacking. The reward positivity is a positive-going ERP component that indexes reward processing evoked by 'win' feedback and is a candidate marker of an underlying human reinforcement learning system. While HIIE improves behavioural measures of learning, it is unknown how HIIE affects the amplitude of the reward positivity...
October 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296276/adolescent-binge-ethanol-induced-loss-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-and-neuroimmune-activation-are-prevented-by-exercise-and-indomethacin
#15
Ryan P Vetreno, Fulton T Crews
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons mature in adolescence coinciding with development of adult cognitive function. Preclinical studies using the rodent model of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-days on/2-days off from postnatal day [P]25 to P55) reveal persistent increases of brain neuroimmune genes that are associated with cognitive dysfunction. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure also reduces basal forebrain expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), an enzyme critical for acetylcholine synthesis in cholinergic neurons similar to findings in the post-mortem human alcoholic basal forebrain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281651/the-influence-of-hypoxia-and-prolonged-exercise-on-attentional-performance-at-high-and-extreme-altitudes-a-pilot-study
#16
Mirjam Limmer, Petra Platen
INTRODUCTION: Exposure to hypoxic conditions is reported to impair cognitive performance. Further, moderate physical exercise improves cognitive function, but little is known about the influence of exercise on cognitive function in hypoxia. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the influence of hypoxia (HYP) and prolonged exercise (EX) on attentional performance. METHODS: A total of 80 participants (female: n = 29; male: n = 51) were assigned to four groups: HYP + EX (n = 15), HYP (n = 25), EX (n = 21) and normoxia (NOR) (n = 21)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30278200/antidepressant-like-effects-of-insulin-and-igf-1-are-mediated-by-igf-1-receptors-in-the-brain
#17
Paul L Mueller, Carolyn E Pritchett, Tyler N Wiechman, Alevtina Zharikov, Andras Hajnal
Depression is associated with uncontrolled diabetes, which indicates a lack of insulin effect, yet the role of the insulin receptor in mediating depression is not clearly established because insulin receptors are not required for glucose entry into the brain. However, insulin receptors are important for brain function since insulin receptor knockout mice have depressive-like activity. Depression and cognitive problems are also associated with low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the elderly. Rodent studies showed chronic IGF-1 administration had antidepressant-like (AD) activity...
September 29, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276178/the-effects-of-whole-body-vibration-exercise-intervention-on-electroencephalogram-activation-and-cognitive-function-in-women-with-senile-dementia
#18
Ki-Hong Kim, Hyang-Beum Lee
This study conducted the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K) to women aged 65 or older residing in Gangwon-do Province and screened those who were suspicious to have mild dementia for receiving 23 points or lower in it. For eight weeks, this author tried to verify the effects of whole body vibration exercise intervention on electroencephalogram (EEG) activation and cognitive function in women with senile dementia. According to the results, both EEG activation and cognitive function indicated statistically significant difference in terms of the interactive effect between the measuring times and groups, and there was statistically significant improvement found after the whole body vibration exercise intervention...
August 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276171/the-combined-impacts-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-endurance-physical-exercise-and-prolonged-fasting-on-brain-function
#19
REVIEW
Yi-Sub Kwak, Sun Young Lim
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is highly enriched in the membrane phospholipids of the brain, neuronal tissue and retina. Accumulating evidence suggests that brain DHA is necessary for maintaining for optimal function of the cognition and the visual system, particularly the photoreceptor, the retina. Loss of brain DHA, especially during crucial brain development period, was highly associated with visual and cognitive defects. Here it would be addressed the effect of DHA on brain functions as assessed by spatial task performance using a first generation model which is similar to human nutrition case...
August 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272098/effects-of-resistance-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-and-physical-performance-in-cognitive-frailty-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
D H Yoon, J-Y Lee, W Song
BACKGROUND: Cognitive frailty is defined as the presence of both physical frailty and cognitive impairment (clinical dementia rating score = 0.5), in the absence of dementia. It is characterized by concurrent physical frailty and potentially reversible cognitive impairment. In this study, we sought to elucidate the effects of high-speed resistance exercise training on cognitive function and physical performance in older adults with cognitive frailty. METHODS: We conducted a parallel-group, randomized controlled trial involving community-living older adults with cognitive frailty...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
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