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Exercise and cognitive function

M L Woodward, K M Gicas, D E Warburton, R F White, A Rauscher, O Leonova, W Su, G N Smith, A E Thornton, A T Vertinsky, A A Phillips, V M Goghari, W G Honer, D J Lang
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with poor cognitive function and elevated cardiometabolic disease risk. These health concerns may exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction associated with hippocampal abnormalities, particularly hippocampal volume reductions. Regular exercise is thought to improve symptom severity, reduce depression, and improve cognition in schizophrenia, and may trigger exercise-mediated hippocampal growth. The potential for the benefits of exercise for treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients has not been clearly assessed...
December 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Chih-Chin Hsieh, Pay-Shin Lin, Wen-Chuin Hsu, Jong-Shyan Wang, Yu-Chen Huang, Ai-Yin Lim, Ya-Chuan Hsu
BACKGROUND: Tai Chi (TC) is a Chinese mind-body exercise with proven physical and psychological benefits. A modified TC via virtual reality (VR) may be suitable for the elderly owing to the immediate guidance and feedback regarding movement accuracy. This study explored the cognitive and physical effects of a VR-based TC (VRTC) exercise program on older adults with cognitive impairment (CI). METHODS: Sixty older adults with CI were cluster-assigned to either the VRTC or the control group; the intervention was conducted twice weekly for 6 months...
December 11, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Niklas Löfgren, David Conradsson, Conran Joseph, Breiffni Leavy, Maria Hagströmer, Erika Franzén
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although increasing evidence supports the benefit- of exercise among people with Parkinson disease (PwPD), it is unclear whether a given exercise modality suits all PwPD, given the heterogeneity of the disease. The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with responsiveness to a highly challenging training intervention that incorporated dual-task exercises. METHODS: Forty-seven PwPD (mean age: 73 years; 19 females, Hoehn and Yahr stages 2-3) who had participated in 10 weeks of highly challenging gait and balance training were included...
January 2019: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Tyler J Dause, Elizabeth D Kirby
Cognitive impairment is a consequence of the normal aging process that effects many species, including humans and rodent models. Decline in hippocampal memory function is especially prominent with age and often reduces quality of life. As the aging population expands, the need for interventional strategies to prevent cognitive decline has become more pressing. Fortunately, several major lifestyle factors have proven effective at combating hippocampal aging, the most well-known of which are environmental enrichment and exercise...
January 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Yftach Gepner, J R Hoffman, M W Hoffman, H Zelicha, H Cohen, I Ostfeld
INTRODUCTION: Intense military operations during deployment or training are associated with elevations in inflammatory cytokine markers. However, the influence of an inflammatory response on military-specific skills is unclear. This study examined the association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial fibrillar acidic protein, markers of inflammation, marksmanship and cognitive function following a week of intense military field training. METHODS: Twenty male soldiers (20...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Tom Langerud Holmen, John Abel Engh, Eivind Andersen, Ole Andreas Andreassen, Egil Wilhelm Martinsen, Therese Torgersen Bigseth, Gry Bang-Kittilsen, Jens Egeland
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the relationship between cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) and cognition in schizophrenia is general, or due to selective relationships between CRF and specific aspects of cognitive function. METHOD: Eighty outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders participated. Neurocognition was assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale version 4 General Ability Index (WAIS GAI), the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and the Emotion in Biological Motion (EBM) test...
December 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Luke D Kim, Ardeshir Z Hashmi
A review of articles on geriatric topics from 2017 and 2018 revealed evidence supporting exercise for the elderly, early mobility for hospitalized patients, and oral anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation to support cognitive function, and evidence against antipsychotic drugs for dementia-associated behaviors. No silver bullet was found for Alzheimer prevention or therapy.
December 2018: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Claudia Meyer, Fleur O'Keefe
OBJECTIVE: Aged care services increasingly respond to the needs of people with dementia. Non-pharmacological approaches are preferable to reduce responsive behaviours, improve/maintain functional capacity and reduce emotional disorders. This rapid review of systematic reviews aimed to consolidate the evidence for non-pharmacological interventions and determine outcome effectiveness. METHODS: Systematic review literature was comprehensively searched for non-pharmacological interventions for dementia in residential care...
December 7, 2018: Dementia
P D Loprinzi, P Ponce, E Frith
Emerging research demonstrates that exercise is favorably associated with several cognitive outcomes, including episodic memory function. The majority of the mechanistic work describing the underlying mechanisms of this effect has focused on chronic exercise engagement. Such mechanisms include, e.g., chronic exercise-induced neurogenesis, gliogenesis, angiogenesis, cerebral circulation, and growth factor production. Less research has examined the mechanisms through which acute (vs. chronic) exercise subserves episodic memory function...
December 10, 2018: Physiology International
Martine Van Puyvelde, Xavier Neyt, Francis McGlone, Nathalie Pattyn
People rely on speech for communication, both in a personal and professional context, and often under different conditions of physical, cognitive and/or emotional load. Since vocalization is entirely integrated within both our central (CNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS), a mounting number of studies have examined the relationship between voice output and the impact of stress. In the current paper, we will outline the different stages of voice output, i.e., breathing, phonation and resonance in relation to a neurovisceral integrated perspective on stress and human performance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Marguerite Harvey, Kathryn L Weston, William K Gray, Ailish O'Callaghan, Lloyd L Oates, Richard Davidson, Richard W Walker
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether people with Parkinson's disease can exercise at a high-intensity across a 12-week intervention and to assess the impact of the intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness. DESIGN: This is a randomized, controlled, feasibility study with waiting list control. Assessors were blinded to group allocation. SETTING: The intervention took place at an exercise centre and assessments at a district general hospital. SUBJECTS: This study included 20 people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Xiang-Lian Zhou, Li-Na Wang, Jie Wang, Xin-Hua Shen, Xia Zhao
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the clinical prognosis that leads to dementia. Early intervention of MCI is critical to protect against dementia. Exercise intervention has gained popularity for the management of MCI. Most current studies have focused only on improvements made by exercise interventions on the global/general cognitive function and/or a specific cognitive function. However, no studies have been performed on a subgroup analysis of the effects of exercise interventions on different cognitive domains of the elderly with MCI...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shuo Wang, Huiru Yin, Yong Jia, Lijing Zhao, Lisheng Wang, Li Chen
To quantify the effects of mind-body exercise on cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment, we systematically searched five databases. Findings were analyzed according to the mean change of global cognition, memory, and executive function. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on the level of cognitive impairment and types of exercise. Thirteen studies were included. Analyses revealed that mind-body exercise was effective in promoting global cognition in individuals with cognitive impairment (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0...
December 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Marcos Zanco, Jessica Plácido, Valeska Marinho, José Vinicius Ferreira, Felipe Oliveira, Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Maria Lage Barca, Knut Engedal, Jerson Laks, Andrea Deslandes
BACKGROUND: Spatial navigation is a fundamental cognitive ability that allows an individual to maintain independence by facilitating the safe movement from one place to another. It emerges as one of the first deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To compare spatial navigation performance in the healthy elderly and AD patients through use of the Floor Maze Test (FMT)- an easy-to-apply two-dimensional (2D) maze- and determine which cognitive and functional capacities were associated with performance in this task...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Weihong Zhang, Lee-Fay Low, Josephine Diana Gwynn, Lindy Clemson
OBJECTIVES: To review intervention programs that measure gait to investigate what features of the intervention may contribute to improving gait in older adults with cognitive impairment or dementia. DESIGN: Systematic review using Medline, Cinahl, Scopus, PsychInfo, Amed, Embase, Web of Science, and PubMed for original research published in English between January 1, 2000, and July 23, 2018, to identify interventional controlled trials. Narrative synthesis was undertaken...
December 2, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Ralph Stewart
BACKGROUND: In aging populations, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and frailty are common and often coexist. It is possible that common risk factors and pathophysiological pathways increase the risk of both CVD and frailty. CONTENT: Frailty is a complex clinical syndrome with multiple causes and contributing factors. It is characterized by multisystem impairment that decreases physiological reserve and increases vulnerability to stress. Diverse methods have been used to evaluate frailty...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Hana Mala Rytter, Klaus Westenbaek, Henriette Henriksen, Peter Christiansen, Frank Humle
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of a specialized, interdisciplinary rehabilitation (S-REHAB) with standard care (STAND) for people with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS > 6 month). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-nine adults. INTERVENTIONS: 22-week programme combining individual and group-based neuropsychological treatment with exercise therapy and physiotherapeutic coaching (S-REHAB), and the usual treatment offered by the public municipality services (STAND)...
November 30, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
V N Kasatkin, V N Anisimov, A A Dreneva, I D Borodina, A F Karelin, A G Rumyantsev
The survivors among the children and adolescents with a brain tumour are likely to show evidence of the impairment of the most important cognitive functions, such as attention, visual-motor integration, and working memory, following the completion of the antineoplastic treatment. The basic characteristics of these functions compromised in the patients presenting with the most serious cognitive deficiency are the information processing rate and the time needed for carrying out any cognitive activity in the patients experiencing deficit of white matter in the brain...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
S K Jyväkorpi, A Urtamo, K H Pitkälä, T E Strandberg
BACKGROUND: Maintaining good physical functioning in old age is of utmost importance for healthy and active aging. We examined physical function and associated factors in the oldest-old men. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The participants of this cross sectional analysis of a longitudinal study were the oldest old men( n=394, mean age 88 years, range 82-97 years) from the Helsinki Business Men cohort who responded to a postal health and nutrition survey in 2016. Physical function was defined using the respective subscale (Physical Function, PF) in the RAND-36 health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Amal A Wanigatunga, Todd M Manini, Delilah R Cook, Jeffrey Katula, Roger A Fielding, Arthur F Kramer, Joe Verghese, Stephen R Rapp, Kaycee M Sink, Abby C King, Thomas W Buford, Steve Anton, Neelesh Nadkarni, Janine M Jennings, Kieran Reid, Mark A Espeland, Thomas M Gill, Marco Pahor, Joe R Nocera
Over the last few decades, considerable evidence shows that greater levels of aerobic exercise and cardiovascular fitness benefit cognitive performance. However, the degree to which free-living activity in community settings is related to cognitive performance remains unclear, particularly in older adults vulnerable to disability. Also, it is unknown whether the manner in which daily physical activity (PA) and sedentary time are accumulated throughout the day is associated with cognition. Cross-sectional associations between accelerometer-characterized PA and sedentary patterns and cognitive performance were examined in 1,274 mobility-limited older adults...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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