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Forced air

C J Lai, K C Yeh, M L Wang, W H Tai, Ya-Jung Cheng
PURPOSE: In patients receiving non-intubated video-assisted thoracic surgery (NIVATS), transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) has been applied instead of oxygen mask for better oxygenation. However, the THRIVE effects on intraoperative temperature decrease have not been investigated. METHODS: Pre- and postoperative temperatures, measured by an infrared tympanic ear thermometer, taken before sending patients to the operation room and immediately upon their arrival in the postoperative anesthesia unit, were collected from medical records of patients who received NIVATS either with oxygen mask or THRIVE...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
Nicolas Alejandre-Alba, Rocio Gutierrez-Contreras, Carlos Dorronsoro, Susana Marcos
Purpose: Accommodating intraocular lenses (A-IOLs) require capturing the ciliary muscle forces. Prior work demonstrated strong photo-initiated bonding between strips of capsular bag and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate); (pHEMA) polymer in an extraocular setting. We demonstrate that photobonding can be achieved intraocularly. Methods: Phacoemulsification was performed in porcine eyes (<24 hours postmortem). A commercial intraocular lens (IOL; pHEMA-MMA material) was inserted in the capsular bag...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Sarah O Meadows, Charles C Engel, Rebecca L Collins, Robin L Beckman, Matthew Cefalu, Jennifer Hawes-Dawson, Molly Doyle, Amii M Kress, Lisa Sontag-Padilla, Rajeev Ramchand, Kayla M Williams
The Health Related Behaviors Survey (HRBS) is the U.S. Department of Defense's flagship survey for understanding the health, health-related behaviors, and well-being of service members. In 2014, the Defense Health Agency asked the RAND Corporation to review previous iterations of the HRBS, update survey content, administer a revised version of the survey, and analyze data from the resulting 2015 HRBS of active-duty personnel, including those in the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Coast Guard. This study details the methodology, sample demographics, and results from that survey in the following domains: health promotion and disease prevention; substance use; mental and emotional health; physical health and functional limitations; sexual behavior and health; sexual orientation, transgender identity, and health; and deployment experiences and health...
October 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Zhenying Wang, Daniel Orejon, Khellil Sefiane, Yasuyuki Takata
The study of vapor absorption into liquid desiccant droplets is of general relevance to a better understanding and description of vapor absorption phenomena occurring at the macroscale as well as for practical optimization of dehumidification and refrigeration processes. Hence, in the present work, we provide the first systematic experimental study on the fundamentals of vapor absorption into liquid desiccant at the droplet scale, which initiates a novel avenue for the research of hygroscopic droplet growth...
October 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jonathan I Levy, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, M Patricia Fabian, Komal Basra, Nadia N Hansel
Purpose of review: Multiple respiratory diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), display significant socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities. The objective of this review is to evaluate the evidence supporting a link between disproportionate environmental exposures and these health disparities. Recent findings: Studies suggest that various co-occurring factors related to the home environment, neighborhood environment, non-modifiable individual factors, and individual behaviors and attributes can increase or modify the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes among socioeconomically-disadvantaged and racially/ethnically diverse populations...
June 2018: Current Epidemiology Reports
Damian Miles Bailey
Rising atmospheric oxygen (O2 ) levels provided a selective pressure for the evolution of O2 -dependent micro-organisms that began with the autotrophic eukaryotes. Since these primordial times, the respiring mammalian cell has become entirely dependent on the constancy of electron flow with molecular O2 serving as the terminal electron acceptor in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Indeed, the ability to "sense" O2 and maintain homeostasis is considered one of the most important roles of the central nervous system (CNS) and likely represented a major driving force in the evolution of the human brain...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Luc Dauchet, Sébastien Hulo, Nathalie Cherot-Kornobis, Régis Matran, Philippe Amouyel, Jean-Louis Edmé, Jonathan Giovannelli
INTRODUCTION: Air pollution impacts health by increasing mortality and the incidence of acute events in unhealthy individuals. In contrast, the acute effects of pollution in healthy individuals are less obvious. The present study was designed to evaluate the associations between short-term exposure to air pollution on one hand and lung function, and inflammatory markers on the other in middle-aged, non-smoking adults with no respiratory disease, in two urban areas in northern France. METHODS: A sample of 1506 non-smoking adults (aged from 40 to 65) with no respiratory disease was selected from the participants in the 2011-2013 cross-sectional Enquête Littoral Souffle Air Biologie Environnement (ELISABET) survey in two urban areas in the northern France...
October 9, 2018: Environment International
Fanglin Bao, Kezhang Shi, Guanjun Cao, Julian S Evans, Sailing He
We propose a scheme for transporting nanoparticles immersed in a fluid, relying on quantum vacuum fluctuations. The mechanism lies in the inhomogeneity-induced lateral Casimir force between a nanoparticle and a gradient metasurface and the relaxation of the conventional Dzyaloshinskiǐ-Lifshitz-Pitaevskiǐ constraint, which allows quantum levitation for a broader class of material configurations. The velocity for a nanosphere levitated above a grating is calculated and can be up to a few microns per minute...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
James P Gaewsky, Derek A Jones, Xin Ye, Bharath Koya, Kyle P McNamara, F Scott Gayzik, Ashley A Weaver, Jacob B Putnam, Jeffrey T Somers, Joel D Stitzel
A goal of the Human Research Program at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to analyze and mitigate the risk of occupant injury due to dynamic loads. Experimental tests of human subjects and biofidelic anthropomorphic test devices provide valuable kinematic and kinetic data related to injury risk exposure. However, these experiments are expensive and time consuming compared to computational simulations of similar impact events. This study aimed to simulate human volunteer biodynamic response to unidirectional accelerative loading...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Nicla Vicinanza, Ingeborg-Helene Svenum, Thijs Peters, Rune Bredesen, Hilde Venvik
Sputtered Pd77%Ag23% membranes of thickness 2.2⁻8.5 µm were subjected to a three-step heat treatment in air (HTA) to investigate the relation between thickness and the reported beneficial effects of HTA on hydrogen transport. The permeability experiments were complimented by volumetric hydrogen sorption measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in order to relate the observed effects to changes in hydrogen solubility and/or structure. The results show that the HTA-essentially an oxidation-reduction cycle-mainly affects the thinner membranes, with the hydrogen flux increasing stepwise upon HTA of each membrane side...
October 10, 2018: Membranes
João L Geirinhas, Ricardo M Trigo, Renata Libonati, Lucas C O Castro, Pedro M Sousa, Caio A S Coelho, Leonardo F Peres, Mônica de Avelar F M Magalhães
Global temperatures have increased considerably over the last decades, directly impacting the number, intensity and duration of extreme events such as heat waves. Climate model projections accounting for anthropogenic factors indicate that deadly mega-heat waves are likely to become more frequent in the future. Although the atmospheric features and social-economic related impacts of heat waves have already been documented in various regions around the world, for other highly populated regions, such as the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), a similar objective assessment is still needed...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Darrick Beckman, Jana Wardian, Tom J Sauerwein, Mark W True
RATIONALE: Since there are only 33 endocrinologists within the Department of Defence and over 150 000 beneficiaries with diabetes, most patients with diabetes will be treated by primary care providers (PCPs). Comprehensive diabetes care visits are extensive and the clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) routinely change; thus, providing current evidence-based care is difficult. Most professional development courses aim to update PCPs on CPGs but are often inadequate as they focus on only the PCPs (not the interdisciplinary team) without a plan to implement changes into practice...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Dan Yan, Renbin Li, Wei Lu, Chunmei Piao, Lili Qiu, Zihui Meng, Shushan Wang
We developed a simple and efficient method to construct 3D and 2D opal and inverse opal cellulose photonic crystal films (CPCF) by embedding 3D or 2D polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) colloidal arrays into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), respectively. The morphology and optical performance of CPCFs were characterized by SEM, diffraction spectra, Debye rings, and structural color. The brilliant structural colors of CPCFs are visible to the eye in the entire visible spectrum, and can be tuned by changing the particle diameters or the pore sizes...
October 10, 2018: Analyst
Antonella Macagnano, Paolo Papa, Joshua Avossa, Viviana Perri, Marcello Marelli, Francesca Sprovieri, Emiliano Zampetti, Fabrizio De Cesare, Andrea Bearzotti, Nicola Pirrone
Passive sampling systems (PASs) are a low cost strategy to quantify Hg levels in air over both different environmental locations and time periods of few hours to weeks/months. For this reason, novel nanostructured materials have been designed and developed. They consist of an adsorbent layer made of titania nanoparticles (TiO₂NPs, ≤25 nm diameter) finely decorated with gold nanoparticles. The TiO₂NPs functionalization occurred for the photocatalytic properties of titania-anatase when UV-irradiated in an aqueous solution containing HAuCl₄...
October 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
Rachel L Martin, Brittney L Assavedo, AnnaBelle O Bryan, Bradley A Green, Daniel W Capron, M David Rudd, Craig J Bryan, Michael D Anestis
Suicide rates within the military are elevated relative to the general population; however, research suggests that many of the suicide risk factors for military personnel are similar to the suicide risk factors for civilians. Given that many military specific experiences (e.g. number of deployments) are not considered robust predictors of either suicidal ideation or behavior, it has been posited that deployment specific experiences (e.g. post-battle experiences) may be better able to explain the increased rates of suicide among military personnel...
October 9, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
Laurie S Huning, Amir AghaKouchak
Temperature variability impacts the distribution and persistence of the mountain snowpack, which critically provides snowmelt-derived water resources to large populations worldwide. Warmer temperatures decrease the amount of montane snow water equivalent (SWE), forcing its center of mass to higher elevations. We use a unique multivariate probabilistic framework to quantify the response of the 1 April SWE volume and its centroid to a 1.0 to 2.0 °C increase in winter air temperature across the Sierra Nevada (United States)...
October 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cees vanRijn
We have measured the dynamic surface tension of emanating coffee surfaces with a new method by studying the dynamics of an emanating liquid-air interface and compared obtained data with literature at small time scales between 1 and 100 ms. The emanating liquid-air interface is being described with an equation related to the well-known hydrostatic Young-Laplace equation for a pending liquid-air interface in which the only relevant forces are gravity g and surface tension γ. We explain that under specific constraints all mass parts of an emanating interface with density ρ will experience a same acceleration a(t)...
October 8, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
N Gautier, J Danklou, J F Brichant, A M Lopez, C Vandepitte, M M Kuroda, A Hadzic, P E Gautier
Cricoid force is widely applied to decrease the risk of pulmonary aspiration and gastric antral insufflation of air during positive-pressure ventilation, yet its efficacy remains controversial. We compared manual oesophageal compression at the low left paratracheal and cricoid levels for the prevention of gastric antral air insufflation during positive-pressure ventilation by facemask in patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia. After gaining written consent, participants were randomly allocated by sealed envelope to one of three groups: oesophageal compression by 30 N paratracheal force (paratracheal group); oesophageal compression by 30 N cricoid force (cricoid group); or no oesophageal compression (control group)...
October 4, 2018: Anaesthesia
Jo Sing Julia Tang, Romina Sigrid Bader, Eric S A Goerlitzer, Jan Fedja Wendisch, Gilles Remi Bourret, Marcel Rey, Nicolas Vogel
Colloidal lithography is a cost-efficient method to produce large-scale nanostructured arrays on surfaces. Typically, colloidal particles are assembled into hexagonal close-packed monolayers at liquid interfaces and deposited onto a solid substrate. Many applications, however, require non close-packed monolayers, which are more difficult to fabricate. Preassembly at the oil/water interface provides non close-packed colloidal assemblies but these are difficult to transfer to a solid substrate without compromising the ordering due to capillary forces acting upon drying...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Tianze Sun, Huizheng Che, Bing Qi, Yaqiang Wang, Yunsheng Dong, Xiangao Xia, Hong Wang, Ke Gui, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, Qianli Ma, Rongguang Du, Xiaoye Zhang
As the central part of eastern China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, with its rapid economic growth and industrial expansion, has experienced severe air quality issues. In this study, the monthly variation and interaction between aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) and aerosol vertical structure during 2013-2015 over the YRD were investigated using ground-based observations from a Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and a CE-318 sun-photometer. Combining satellite products from MODIS and CALIPSO, and reanalysis wind fields, an integrated discussion of a biomass burning episode in Hangzhou during August 2015 was conducted by applying analysis of optical properties, planetary boundary layer (PBL), spatial-temporal and vertical distributions, backward trajectories, Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF), and Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT)...
September 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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