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Forced air

Kun Zhao, Bo Zhang, Di Feng, Ningfang Song
A smooth end face is the critical factor for the application of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) to enhance coupling efficiency. A number of air holes distributed on the cladding make the surface a discontinuous structure. For the sake of acquiring a high-quality end surface of PCF, this paper proposes a detailed study first on dynamics simulation of the grinding process of PCF using a finite element model with a verification experiment later. To facilitate the calculation, the grinding is simplified as a single grain to cut the material on the location between two holes...
June 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Nathan Pacoureau, Matthieu Authier, Karine Delord, Christophe Barbraud
A fundamental endeavor in population ecology is to identify the drivers of population dynamics. A few empirical studies included the effect of prey abundance when investigating simultaneously the effects of density-dependence and climate factors on marine top-predator population dynamics. Our aim was to unravel the mechanisms forcing population dynamics of an apex consumer seabird, the south polar skua, using long-term climatic and population time series of the consumer and its prey in Terre Adélie, Antarctica...
August 17, 2018: Oecologia
Hong Wei, Yuchan Lu, Qiao Ji, Hang Zhou, Xianli Zhou
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasound (US) elastography in differentiating between benign and malignant peripheral lung lesions (PLLs). This retrospective study included 91 consecutive patients with 91 PLLs. Conventional US, strain elastography (SE), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFIimaging) and point share wave elastography (p-SWE) were performed. All of the pathological results were confirmed by US-guided biopsies or surgeries. There were 36 benign PLLs and 55 malignant PLLs on pathology...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Andrius Dzedzickis, Vytautas Bucinskas, Darius Viržonis, Nikolaj Sesok, Arturas Ulcinas, Igor Iljin, Ernestas Sutinys, Sigitas Petkevicius, Justinas Gargasas, Inga Morkvenaite-Vilkonciene
Increasing the imaging rate of atomic force microscopy (AFM) without impairing of the imaging quality is a challenging task, since the increase in the scanning speed leads to a number of artifacts related to the limited mechanical bandwidth of the AFM components. One of these artifacts is the loss of contact between the probe tip and the sample. We propose to apply an additional nonlinear force on the upper surface of a cantilever, which will help to keep the tip and surface in contact. In practice, this force can be produced by the precisely regulated airflow...
August 16, 2018: Sensors
Hoang Vu Phan, Hoon Cheol Park
Flying insects can maintain maneuverability in the air by flapping their wings, and to save energy, the wings should operate following the optimal kinematics. However, unlike conventional rotary wings, insects operate their wings at aerodynamically uneconomical and high angles-of-attack (AoAs). Although insects have continuously received attention from biologists and aerodynamicists, the high AoA operation in insect flight has not been clearly explained. Here, we use a theoretical blade-element model to examine the impact of wing inertia on the power requirement and flapping AoA, based on three-dimensional free-hovering flight wing kinematics of a horned beetle, Alloymyrina dichotoma The relative simplicity of the model allows us to search for the best AoAs distributed along the wingspan, which generate the highest vertical force per unit power...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Chuan Wu, Bo Yan, Guizao Huang, Bo Zhang, Zhongbin Lv, Qing Li
A numerical method to simulate air flow around a bundle conductor line by means of the FLUENT software is presented and verified by a wind tunnel test for aerodynamic characteristics of a twin bundle conductor line. The lift and drag coefficients of the leeward sub-conductor of a twin bundle conductor varying with its relative position in the wake zone to the windward one under different wind velocities are numerically determined by the presented method. A user-defined subroutine of ABAQUS software is developed to apply the aerodynamic loads on each sub-conductor and the electromagnetic force between sub-conductors...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Franz Konstantin Fuss
The principles of slipstreaming or drafting are very well known in muscle-powered sports, but unknown in gravity-powered sports. Typical examples of gravity-powered sports, where several athletes are racing against each other, are ski-cross and snowboard-cross. The aim of this research is to investigate the effectiveness and practical applicability of slipstreaming in ski-cross. A glide model consisting of leading and trailing skiers was developed and used with existing aerodynamic drag and lift data sets from wind tunnel tests...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Florian Sévellec, Sybren S Drijfhout
In a changing climate, there is an ever-increasing societal demand for accurate and reliable interannual predictions. Accurate and reliable interannual predictions of global temperatures are key for determining the regional climate change impacts that scale with global temperature, such as precipitation extremes, severe droughts, or intense hurricane activity, for instance. However, the chaotic nature of the climate system limits prediction accuracy on such timescales. Here we develop a novel method to predict global-mean surface air temperature and sea surface temperature, based on transfer operators, which allows, by-design, probabilistic forecasts...
August 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Marcia Soares, Ekaterina Mirgorodskaya, Hatice Koca, Emilia Viklund, Matthew Richardson, Per M Gustafsson, Anna-Carin Olin, Salman Siddiqui
RATIONALE: Asthma is often characterised by inflammation, damage and dysfunction of the small airways, but no standardised biomarkers are available. 
 Objectives: Using a novel approach -Particles in Exhaled Air (PExA)- we sought to a) sample and analyse abundant protein biomarkers: surfactant protein A (SPA) and albumin in adult asthmatic and healthy patients and b) relate protein concentrations with physiological markers using phenotyping.
 Methods: 83 adult asthmatics and 21 healthy volunteers were recruited from a discovery cohort in Leicester, UK, and 32 adult asthmatics as replication cohort from Sweden...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Álvaro Bustamante-Sánchez, Miguel Delgado-Terán, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Hypoxia remains the most important hazard in high altitude flights, but there is still a need for deeper analysis of the effect of hypoxia exposition in the psychophysiological and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to study the effect of hypoxia training in cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, muscle strength and cognitive function. We analysed 23 male aircrew personnel of the Spanish Army and Air Force (10 Helicopter Pilots, 7 Transport Aircrew, 3 Transport Pilots and 3 F-18 Fighter Pilots) before, during and after a normobaric hypoxia exposition...
August 13, 2018: Ergonomics
Kelsey R Bilsback, S R Eilenberg, Nicholas Good, Lauren Heck, Michael Johnson, John K Kodros, Eric M Lipsky, Christian L'Orange, Jeffrey R Pierce, Allen L Robinson, R Subramanian, Jessica Tryner, Ander Wilson, John Volckens
Emissions from solid-fuel cookstoves have been linked to indoor and outdoor air pollution, climate forcing, and human disease. Although task-based laboratory protocols, such as the Water Boiling Test (WBT), overestimate the ability of improved stoves to lower emissions, WBT emissions data are commonly used to benchmark cookstove performance, estimate indoor and outdoor air pollution concentrations, estimate impacts of stove intervention projects, and select stoves for large-scale control trials. Multiple-firepower testing has been proposed as an alternative to the WBT and is the basis for a new standardized protocol (ISO 19867-1:2018); however, data are needed to assess the value of this approach...
August 11, 2018: Indoor Air
Marianne Touchie, Jeffrey Siegel
In North America, the majority of homes use forced-air systems for heating and cooling. The proportion of time these systems operate, or runtime, has a significant impact on many building performance parameters. The recent adoption of smart thermostats in many North American homes presents a potential data source for runtime. Smart thermostat data collected from over 7,000 homes were compared with nine other investigations and a runtime estimation method based on exterior temperature. The smart thermostat runtimes have a median of 18% across all homes, but show considerable variation between homes, even at constant exterior temperature conditions suggesting that factors besides climate (e...
August 11, 2018: Indoor Air
Kyle R Clem, Andrew Orr, James O Pope
Observational records starting in the 1950s show West Antarctica is amongst the most rapidly warming regions on the planet. Together with increased intrusions of warm circumpolar deep water (CDW) onto the continental shelf due to local wind forcing (the primary mechanism in recent decades), this has resulted in enhanced surface and basal melting of floating ice shelves and an associated acceleration and thinning of West Antarctic outlet glaciers, increasing the rate of global sea level rise. In this study, it is shown that during the austral spring season, significant surface warming across West Antarctica has shifted westward to the Ross Ice Shelf in recent decades in response to enhanced cyclonic circulation over the Ross Sea...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Azusa Kusaka, Junko Sonoda, Hitoshi Tajima, Takaya Sakai
Wet soap foam spontaneously imbibes liquid oil without defoaming when they are brought into contact. The kinetics behind this recently observed phenomenon was studied experimentally, with focus on the origin of the suction force and on the oil-front dynamics. Using an aqueous foam with an air volume fraction slightly greater than the critical value, we show that the pumping pressure of oil and/or miscible liquid into the wet foam is attributable to the interfacial distortion of the bubble surfaces. Two distinct regimes along time t were observed in the oil imbibition dynamics...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jie Lin, Kangmin Zhu, Aida M Soliván-Ortiz, Stacy L Larsen, Thomas R Schneid, Craig D Shriver, Sukhyung Lee
Introduction: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among U.S. active duty service members has been much higher than in the U.S. general population. The association between deployment and smokeless tobacco use has not been well studied. We investigated the association between deployment and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. active duty service members. We also evaluated the modification effects from other factors related to smokeless tobacco use on the deployment-smokeless tobacco use association...
August 6, 2018: Military Medicine
Qingbin Liu, Wei Wang, Wei Jing
Indoor air pollution is associated with childhood asthma but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to explore the relationship between indoor air pollution and pediatric asthma, and the potential molecular mechanism. The serum level of miR-155 was measured by real-time qPCR in 180 Chinese children with asthma caused by air pollution (an asthma group). Meanwhile, 180 healthy subjects were selected as a control group. HCHO, NO2 , and particles (PM10 , PM2.5 , and PM1 ) were measured. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were analyzed to assess the relationship between air pollutants and asthma risk...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Jean-Christophe Veilleux, Joseph E Shepherd
Spring-actuated autoinjectors delivering viscous drug solutions resulting from large drug concentrations require large spring forces which can create high peak pressures and stresses within syringes. The high peak pressures and stresses can lead to device failure. Measurements with a suite of novel instrumentation and analysis using numerical simulation explain the peak pressures and peak stresses as originating from mechanical impacts between moving components, the large acceleration of the components, and surprisingly, the production of tension waves in the liquid resulting in cavitation...
August 6, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Dong Geon Jung, Jun Yeop Lee, Jae Keon Kim, Daewoong Jung, Seong Ho Kong
A tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer (TFPI)-type wavelength filter designed for the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) region is fabricated using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and the novel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro patterning technique. The structure of the proposed infrared sensor consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI)-based optical filter and infrared (IR) detector. An amorphous Si-based thermal IR detector is located under the FPI-based optical filter to detect the IR-rays filtered by the FPI...
August 6, 2018: Sensors
Ulas Im, Jørgen Brandt, Camilla Geels, Kaj Mantzius Hansen, Jesper Heile Christensen, Mikael Skou Andersen, Efisio Solazzo, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocio Baro, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Augustin Colette, Gabriele Curci, Aidan Farrow, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Pedro Jimenez-Guerrero, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Ciao-Kai Liang, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marje Prank, Rebecca Rose, Ranjeet Sokhi, Paolo Tuccella, Alper Unal, Marta Garcia Vivanco, Jason West, Greg Yarwood, Christian Hogrefe, Stefano Galmarini
The impact of air pollution on human health and the associated external costs in Europe and the United States (US) for the year 2010 are modeled by a multi-model ensemble of regional models in the frame of the third phase of the Air Quality Modelling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII3). The modeled surface concentrations of O3 , CO, SO2 and PM2.5 are used as input to the Economic Valuation of Air Pollution (EVA) system to calculate the resulting health impacts and the associated external costs from each individual model...
April 27, 2018: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Christian Hogrefe, Peng Liu, George Pouliot, Rohit Mathur, Shawn Roselle, Johannes Flemming, Meiyun Lin, Rokjin J Park
This study analyzes simulated regional-scale ozone burdens both near the surface and aloft, estimates process contributions to these burdens, and calculates the sensitivity of the simulated regional-scale ozone burden to several key model inputs with a particular emphasis on boundary conditions derived from hemispheric or global-scale models. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations supporting this analysis were performed over the continental US for the year 2010 within the context of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) and Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF-HTAP) activities...
2018: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
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