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Forced air

Valeria Romeo, Mario Covello, Elena Salvatore, Chiara Anna Parente, Domenico Abbenante, Roberto Biselli, Mattia Ciriello, Pasquale Musolino, Marco Salvatore, Alessandro Cangiano
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, retrospective, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study, performed during cadets' selection procedures of the Italian Air Force Academy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of spinal MR imaging findings in asymptomatic young adults (18-22 yrs) candidate to Air Force Flight. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal MR imaging findings are frequently detected in asymptomatic subjects. Literature prevalence data come from studies that analyze different patient populations, in a wide age range and in different spinal tracts...
December 11, 2018: Spine
Joseph K Maddry, Eric M Ball, Daniel B Cox, Kathleen M Flarity, Vikhyat S Bebarta
Introduction: The U.S. Air Force utilizes specialized Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT) for transporting "stabilized" patients. Given the drawdown of military forces from various areas of operation, recent CCATT operations have increasingly involved the evacuation of unstable and incompletely resuscitated patients from far forward, austere locations. This brief report describes unique cases representative of the evolving CCATT mission and provides future direction for changes in doctrine and educational requirements in preparation for en route combat casualty care...
December 7, 2018: Military Medicine
Norimichi Kamikawa, Hironobu Hamada, Kiyokazu Sekikawa, Hikaru Yamamoto, Yoshiya Fujika, Teruki Kajiwara, Fumiya Aizawa, Ippo Otoyama
Dysphagia is the major pathophysiologic mechanism leading to aspiration pneumonia in the elderly. Elderly people with dysphagia who show low levels of the cough peak flow (CPF) are at greater risk for aspiration pneumonia. It has been reported that CPF values were significantly lower in the "soft" versus "hard" mode of a pressure-relieving air mattress in healthy volunteers in a supine position. Parameters such as spinal curvature, however, were not evaluated in detail. In this study, we clarified whether the changes in posture associated with two different firmness levels of a pressure-relieving air mattress were associated with cough production and related factors in the elderly with dysphagia...
2018: PloS One
Sarah C Wattie, R S Bridger
INTRODUCTION: UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) policy and strategy recommend the use of a 'Defence MODified' version of the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool to help managers identify risks of work-related stress among Defence personnel. The Defence MODified Tool ('Stress Indicator Survey') asks personnel to rate their perceptions of eight working conditions known to be significantly associated with work-related stress. MOD psychologists are developing a Defence norm group against which future survey scores can be compared...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Vivian C Pun, Kin-Fai Ho
Physical activity has been shown to promote health and well-being, however, exercising in environments with high level of air pollution might increase the risk of cardio-respiratory impairments. In this crossover study, we constructed linear mixed models to investigate the impact of short-term exposure to black carbon (BC) and ozone on blood pressure and pulmonary functions among 30 healthy adult runners after 30-minute run on a clean and polluted route on separate days in August 2015 in Hong Kong. Runners were on average 20...
November 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Gabriel Ribeiro Júnior, Natália de Souza Xavier Costa, Luciano Belotti, Adair Aparecida Dos Santos Alemany, Luís Fernando Amato-Lourenço, Paula Gabriela da Cunha, Stephanie de Oliveira Duro, Susan Pereira Ribeiro, Mariana Matera Veras, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino Dos Santos Lopes, Tania Marcourakis, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Sandra Helena Poliselli Farsky, Thais Mauad
Life expectancy is increasing worldwide. Lung aging is a process marked by changes in multiple morphological, physiological and age-related biomarkers (e.g., sirtuins) and is influenced by external factors, such as air pollution. Hence, the elderly are considered more vulnerable to the air pollution hazards. We hypothesized that diesel exhaust (DE) exposure intensifies changes in lung inflammatory and structural parameters in aging subjects. Two- and fifteen-month-old mice were exposed to DE for 30 days. Lung function was measured using the forced oscillation method...
December 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Zheng Dong, Charles T Driscoll, Sherri L Johnson, John L Campbell, Afshin Pourmokhtarian, Anne M K Stoner, Katharine Hayhoe
Statistically downscaled climate change scenarios from four General Circulation Models for two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) were applied as inputs to a biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC, to examine potential future dynamics of water, carbon, and nitrogen in an old-growth Douglas-fir forest in the western Cascade Range. Projections show 56% to 77% increases in stomatal conductance throughout the year from 1986-2010 to 2076-2100, and 65% to 104% increases in leaf carbon assimilation between October and June over the same period...
November 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhiwen Dong, Dahe Qin, Kaiming Li, Shichang Kang, Ting Wei, Junfeng Lu
Pollutants, which are usually transported from urban cities to remote glacier basins, and aerosol impurities affect the earth's temperature and climate by altering the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This work focused on the physicochemical properties of atmospheric pollutants across the urban and remote background sites in northwest China. Information on individual particles was obtained using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Particle size and age-dependent mixing structures of individual particles in clean and polluted air were investigated...
December 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ali Abdelaziem, K M El-Khatib, M A Hafez, Y Badr
La 0.8 Sr0.2 MnO3 (LSM) polycrystalline powder was synthesized using hydrothermal method at 900 °C. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM) showed that the particles were uniform with average particle size of 657 nm. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and lattice fringes indicated rhombohedral structure of LSM particles. Thin LSM films were successfully grown on cleaned Si (100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Annealing of LSM films in air affected structure, morphology and electrical properties that films where crystallization of the LSM films was started at 600 °C and enhanced by further annealing as indicated by XRD...
November 28, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Jasmine A Nirody, Judy Jinn, Thomas Libby, Timothy J Lee, Ardian Jusufi, David L Hu, Robert J Full
Acrobatic geckos can sprint at high speeds over challenging terrain [1], scamper up the smoothest surfaces [2], rapidly swing underneath leaves [3], and right themselves in midair by swinging only their tails [4, 5]. From our field observations, we can add racing on the water's surface to the gecko's list of agile feats. Locomotion at the air-water interface evolved in over a thousand species, including insects, fish, reptiles, and mammals [6]. To support their weight, some larger-legged vertebrates use forces generated by vigorous slapping of the fluid's surface followed by a stroke of their appendage [7-12], whereas smaller animals, like arthropods, rely on surface tension to walk on water [6, 13]...
December 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
R Hunter Anderson, Dave T Adamson, Hans F Stroo
Metadata from on-going site investigations at U.S. Air Force sites impacted by Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF) were used to evaluate primary factors that affect transport of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) within source zones. Soil-to-groundwater ratios (γSoil-GW ) were calculated for each site and PFAS as an empirical transport metric and regressed against select soil chemical and physical properties, as well as relevant interactions thereof, using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Total organic carbon and percent total clay content were significant covariates and best fit log-transformed Kd with a parallel lines model...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Florence Dubelley, Corine Bas, Emilie Planes, Emmanuelle Pons, Bernard Yrieix, Lionel Flandin
Mechanical toughness and high barriers to air and water may be combined in a polymer-metal multilayer film, provided that the two materials are properly bonded together. Delamination is indeed the most severe flaw observed in service. This suggests that the polyurethane (PU) adhesive at the polymer-metal interface fails to bear the shear forces, as happens principally if a multilayer system is submitted to elevated temperature and humidity. A Raman microscopy of the multilayer revealed a cohesive delamination, with glue on both the surfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Martin Kordts, Melanie Kampe, Andreas Kerth, Dariush Hinderberger
Hydrophobins are small amphiphilic fungal proteins empirically divided into two classes. We investigated the self-assembled structures of class I SC3 from S. commune and class II HFBII from T. reesei transferred to mica from the air-water interface by using the Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The main focus is the influence of areal constraint and multiple compressions and expansions on the morphology of the protein films. SC3 shows a rather homogenous coverage of the mica surface, with fibrillary structures...
December 2018: ChemistryOpen
Evangelos Bouros, Vassilios Protogerou, Ourania Castana, Georgios Vasilopoulos
Introduction: Wind instrumentalists require a sophisticated functioning of their respiratory system. Aim: The purpose of this research is to examine the function of the respiratory system of wind instrumentalists. Material and methods: Thirty-two adult professional musicians from two philharmonic bands (Piraeus and Zografou Municipality) participated in the survey. Each participant, after completing a questionnaire given, went through two spirometric tests, one before and one after the rehearsal...
October 2018: Materia Socio-medica
John E Till, Harold L Beck, John D Boice, H Justin Mohler, Michael T Mumma, Jill W Aanenson, Helen A Grogan
BACKGROUND: During the Cold War the United States (U.S.) conducted 230 above-ground atmospheric nuclear weapons tests between 1945 and 1962 at the Nevada Test Site and the Pacific Proving Grounds. These tests involved over 250,000 military personnel. Asbestos was used on the naval vessels for insulation in the boiler room, engine room, and other areas. This is the first quantitative assessment of asbestos-related mesothelioma, including cancers of the pleura and peritoneum, among military personnel who participated in above-ground nuclear weapons testing...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Zhimin Chai, Jungho Seo, Salman A Abbasi, Ahmed Busnaina
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising building blocks for emerging wearable electronics and sensors due to their outstanding electrical and mechanical properties. However, the practical applications of the CNTs face challenges of efficiently and precisely placing them at the desired location with controlled orientation and density. Here, we introduce an electro-fluidic assembly process to assemble highly aligned and densely packed CNTs selectively on a substrate with patterned wetted areas at a high rate. An electric field is applied during the electro-fluidic assembly process, which drives the CNTs close to the patterned regions and shortens the assembly time...
December 4, 2018: ACS Nano
Crystal M North, Mary B Rice, Thomas Ferkol, David Gozal, Christopher Hui, Soon-Hee Jung, Kozo Kuribayashi, Meredith C McCormack, Michiaki Mishima, Yasuo Morimoto, Yuanlin Song, Kevin C Wilson, Woo Jin Kim, Kwun M Fong
Industrial and technological developments have led to major economic growth in the Asia Pacific, but an unintended consequence has been an increase in illness associated with air pollution. Given the complementary mandates of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology and the American Thoracic Society, the organizations partnered to focus on the need for clean air. A task force was assembled with individuals who have expertise in the effects of air pollution or the development of professional society policy statements...
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Danica Cvetković, Vladimir Živković, Slobodan Nikolić
An accident occurred at a construction site and a 27-year-old worker was fatally injured. Equipped with personal protective equipment (helmet and a safety belt), he was standing on an 8-meter-high platform holding a large hose that was attached to a pipe connected to a concrete pump truck. Whilst in use the pipe broke and the hose sent the man flying with force, knocking down the platform railing. Autopsy examination showed that man fell to the ground landing on his head. Prominent Simon's hemorrhages were noted on the L5-S1 and L4-L5 intervertebral discs...
December 1, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Arvin Farid, Atena Najafi, Jim Browning, Elisa Barney Smith
Air sparging is a popular, yet slow, remediation technology for soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This paper theoretically and experimentally studies the effect of electromagnetic (EM) waves on air-channel formation within a glass-bead medium-used as an analogy to soil-during air-sparging experiments. The impact of EM waves on cleanup is not the focus of this paper, and the impact on airflow may or may not positively impact resulting cleanup process using air sparging to remove VOCs through volatilization...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Mingu Lee, Chan Seok Kim, Soohyun Kim
This paper proposes a fixed-angle rotor design for a vacuum chamber-free ultracentrifuge using a rigid shaft and magnetic bearings. The rotor is designed for a stable operation in the ultracentrifugation region with air friction. And the optimal design parameters and optimized connection method of the rotor and rigid shaft are proposed. The proposed rotor structure can withstand a maximum rotation speed of 100 000 rpm and achieves a maximum relative centrifugal force of 600 000 g. To verify the performance of the proposed rotor design with a rigid shaft, finite-element analysis, an impact test, and a drive operating experiment were conducted...
November 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
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