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Physical therapy cancer

Seyyed Mohammad Reza Kazemi-Bajestani, Harald Becher, Charles Butts, Naveen S Basappa, Michael Smylie, Anil Abraham Joy, Randeep Sangha, Andrea Gallivan, Quincy Chu, Vickie E Baracos
PURPOSE: Currently, there is no approved therapy for cancer cachexia. According to European and American regulatory agencies, physical function improvements would be approvable co-primary endpoints of new anti-cachexia medications. As physical functioning is in part dependent on cardiac functioning, we aimed to explore the cardiac status of a group of patients meeting current criteria for inclusion in cachexia clinical trials. METHODS: Seventy treatment-naive patients with metastatic NSCLC [36 (51...
December 13, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Kang Wang, Shuo Qi, Hezheng Lai, Xiaoshu Zhu, Guobing Fu
BACKGROUND: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a prevalent and debilitating symptom experienced by cancer survivors, one that severely compromises functional independence and quality of life. Clinical massage therapy (CMT), as an important part of complementary and alternative medicine, is widely employed among massage therapists, physical therapists, nurses, and physicians when managing CRF. Clinical research indicates that CMT produced relief of CRF. In this systematic review, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CMT for patients with CRF...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Regina Rendas-Baum, Denise D'Alessio, Jakob Bue Bjorner
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to estimate the association between SF-12v2® Health Survey (SF-12v2) scores and subsequent health care resource utilization (HCRU) among patients with cancer. METHODS: We analyzed 18+ year participants in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, diagnosed with active cancer or malignancy (n = 647). HCRU was measured by total medical expenditures (MEs) and number of medical events (EVs) in the 6 months following the SF-12v2 assessment...
December 12, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Zhenlin Hou, Kaixuan Guo, Xuling Sun, Fuqing Hu, Qianzhi Chen, Xuelai Luo, Guihua Wang, Junbo Hu, Li Sun
BACKGROUND: Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cell growth arrest and senescence cells permanently lose proliferation potential. Induction of cellular senescence might be a novel therapy for cancer cells. TRIB2 has been reported to participate in regulating proliferation and drug resistance of various cancer cells. However, the role of TRIB2 in cellular senescence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its molecular mechanism remains unclear. METHODS: The expression of TRIB2 in colorectal cancer tissues and adjacent tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR...
December 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer
David J Lundy, Keng-Jung Lee, I-Chia Peng, Chia-Hsin Hsu, Jen-Hao Lin, Kun-Hung Chen, Yu-Wen Tien, Patrick C H Hsieh
The blood brain barrier (BBB) selectively controls the passage of endogenous and exogenous molecules between systemic circulation and the brain parenchyma. Nano-carrier based drugs such as liposomes and nanoparticles are an attractive prospect for cancer therapy since they can carry a drug payload and be modified to improve targeting and retention at the desired site. However, the BBB prevents most therapeutic drugs from entering the brain, including physically restricting the passage of liposomes and nanoparticles...
December 11, 2018: ACS Nano
Trevor J Royce, Jason A Efstathiou
Men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer have many curative treatment options including several different radiotherapeutic approaches. Proton radiation is one such radiation treatment modality and, due to its unique physical properties, offers the appealing potential of reduced side effects without sacrificing cancer control. In this review, we examine the intriguing dosimetric rationale and theoretical benefit of proton radiation for prostate cancer and highlight the results of preclinical modeling studies...
December 4, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Mellar P Davis, Rajiv Panikkar
Clinicians often believe that cachexia is caused by cancer and anorexia as a toxicity of chemotherapy or targeted anti-cancer agents. It is now recognized that chemotherapy and certain targeted agents cause sarcopenia which reduce physical function and quality of life. Pre-treatment sarcopenia predicts chemotherapy toxicity, reduced response, increased disability, poor anti-tumor response and survival. Though bioelectrical impedance and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans have been used in the past for body composition measurements, CT scan cuts at the level of the 3rd lumbar vertebral body with measurement of skeletal muscle and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas has become standard...
September 7, 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Justin Klein, Conroy Sun, Guillem Pratx
The electromagnetic spectrum contains different frequency bands useful for medical imaging and therapy. Short wavelengths (ionizing radiation) are commonly used for radiological and radionuclide imaging and for cancer radiation therapy. Intermediate wavelengths (optical radiation) are useful for more localized imaging and for photodynamic therapy. Finally, longer wavelengths are the basis for magnetic resonance imaging and for hyperthermia treatments. Recently, there has been a surge of interest for new biomedical methods that synergize optical and ionizing radiation by exploiting the ability of ionizing radiation to stimulate optical emissions...
November 29, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Tomer Nawrocki, Thomas C Tritt, Prasad V S V Neti, Alex S Rosen, Akhil R Dondapati, Roger W Howell
There is increasing interest in using alpha particle emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy because of their unique cytotoxic properties which are advantageous for eradicating tumor cells. The high linear energy transfer (LET) of alpha particles produces a correspondingly high density of ionizations along their track. Alpha particle emitting radiopharmaceuticals deposit this energy in tissues over prolonged periods with complex dose rate patterns that depend on the physical half-life of the radionuclide, and the biological uptake and clearance half-times in tumor and normal tissues...
November 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Renata Gorjao, Cesar Miguel Momesso Dos Santos, Tamires Duarte Afonso Serdan, Vinicius Leonardo Sousa Diniz, Tatiana Carolina Alba-Loureiro, Maria Fernanda Cury-Boaventura, Elaine Hatanaka, Adriana Cristina Levada-Pires, Fábio Takeo Sato, Tania Cristina Pithon-Curi, Luiz Claudio Fernandes, Rui Curi, Sandro Massao Hirabara
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that develops during malignant tumor growth. Changes in plasma levels of several hormones and inflammatory factors result in an intense catabolic state, decreased activity of anabolic pathways, anorexia, and marked weight loss, leading to cachexia development and/or accentuation. Inflammatory mediators appear to be related to the control of a highly regulated process of muscle protein degradation that accelerates the process of cachexia. Several mediators have been postulated to participate in this process, including TNF-α, myostatin, and activated protein degradation pathways...
December 3, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mateusz Gajda, Jakub Kenig
BACKGROUND: The older population is very heterogeneous with regard to the co-morbidityand the physical reserve. This can result in unacceptably high postoperative complications rates. Therefore, the aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the outcomes of older patients treated for pancreatic cancer, including the usage of minimal invasive techniques. METHODOLOGY: A review of the literature was carried out including studies on pancreatic cancer in older patients published between 2011 and 2016...
2018: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
Xue-Fei Ding, Tian-Bao Huang, Ying Gao, Sheng-Ming Lu, Hua-Zhi Tao, Jia-Nan Xu, Yao-Zong Xu, Fei Wang, Yu-Quan Zhou, Guang-Chen Zhou, Yang Luan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical significance of permanent 125 I prostate brachytherapy in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. METHODS: A retrospective study of 45 patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer from the Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China was carried out. Patients were divided into two groups according to different treatments: 21 patients received endocrine therapy alone (control group), and 24 patients underwent brachytherapy combined with endocrine therapy (treatment group)...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
An Qin, Dan Ionascu, Jian Liang, Xiao Han, Nicolette O'Connell, Di Yan
BACKGROUND: Advanced clinical applications, such as dose accumulation and adaptive radiation therapy, require deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms capable of voxel-wise accurate mapping of treatment dose or functional imaging. By utilizing a multistage deformable phantom, the authors investigated scenarios where biomechanical refinement method (BM-DIR) may be better than the pure image intensity based deformable registration (IM-DIR). METHODS: The authors developed a biomechanical-model based DIR refinement method (BM-DIR) to refine the deformable vector field (DVF) from any initial intensity-based DIR (IM-DIR)...
December 4, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Elke Rammant, Valérie Fonteyne, Karel Decaestecker, Renée Bultijnck, Benedicte Deforche, Ronny Pieters, Piet Ost, Sofie Verhaeghe, Ann Van Hecke
OBJECTIVE: To explore the determinants of physical activity in patients with bladder cancer before and after radical cystectomy. DESIGN: A qualitative research design using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: A total of 30 interviews were conducted with people diagnosed with bladder cancer and treated with radical cystectomy at Ghent University Hospital. MAIN MEASURES: The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Taylor C Wallace, Scott Bultman, Chris D'Adamo, Carrie R Daniel, Justine Debelius, Emily Ho, Heather Eliassen, Dawn Lemanne, Purna Mukherjee, Thomas N Seyfried, Qiang Tian, Linda T Vahdat
Cancer is a major public health problem and is the second leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide; nearly one in six deaths are attributable to cancer. Approximately 20% of all cancers diagnosed in the United States are attributable to unhealthy diet, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and body fatness. Individual cancers are distinct disease states that are multifactorial in their causation, making them exceedingly cumbersome to study from a nutrition standpoint. Genetic influences are a major piece of the puzzle and personalized nutrition is likely to be most effective in disrupting cancer during all stages...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Xiaoxiong Han, Feirong Gong, Lili Chi, Caochuan Feng, Jing Sun, Yiyang Chen, Jianwen Liu, Yaling Shen
Novel type of multifunctional polymeric micelles (PMs) designated as HM-PMss/CTX micelles were developed in the present study for tumor-targeted and glutathione (GSH)-responsive delivery of cabazitaxel (CTX). The surface of the vehicles was modified with piloting molecules (HM-3 peptide), which targets α v β 3 integrin overexpressed on cancer cells, and the micelle core was cross-linked by GSH-disintegrable disulfide linkages for controlled drug release. HM-PMss/CTX micelles were prepared using a mixture of two functionalized amphiphilic block copolymers and found to physically encapsulate CTX with excellent entrapment efficiency (93...
December 4, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ulla-Sisko Lehto, Markku Ojanen, Anna Väkevä, Tadeusz Dyba, Arpo Aromaa, Pirkko Kellokumpu-Lehtinen
PURPOSE: The constructs evaluated in investigating association between psychosocial factors and cancer survival has varied between studies, and factors related to quality of life (QOL) have shown contradictory results. We investigated the effect of socioeconomic and early QOL and psychological factors on disease-free time and survival in localized prostate cancer. METHODS: A consecutive sample of patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-3, N0, M0) treated with external beam radiotherapy completed validated questionnaires on coping with cancer (the Ways of Coping Questionnaire WOC-CA), anger expression (the Anger Expression Scale), life events (the Life Experience Survey), and various aspects of QOL (the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, the Depression Scale DEPS, the EORTC QLQ-C30, the LENT-SOMA outcome measure) approximately 4...
December 3, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Eik Dybboe Bjerre, Klaus Brasso, Anders Bojer Jørgensen, Thomas Hindborg Petersen, Alexandra Röthlin Eriksen, Anders Tolver, Jesper Frank Christensen, Mads Hvid Poulsen, Søren Sørensen Madsen, Peter Busch Østergren, Michael Borre, Peter Krustrup, Christoffer Johansen, Mikael Rørth, Julie Midtgaard
BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been shown to mitigate the unwanted psychological and physiological side effects of prostate cancer treatments, but sustainable exercise possibilities are limited. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine whether football in a real-world setting (i.e., local football clubs) was safe and feasible in practice and could improve quality of life, mitigate decline in muscle mass and bone density, and increase fat mass in patients with prostate cancer...
December 1, 2018: Sports Medicine
Shahed N Badiyan, Christopher L Hallemeier, Steven H Lin, Matthew D Hall, Michael D Chuong
Despite the conformality of modern X-ray therapy limiting high dose received by normal tissues the physical properties of X-rays make it impossible to avoid dose being delivered distal to the target. This "exit dose" is likely clinically significant especially for patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers when considering that even low dose received by the heart, lungs, bowel, and other radiosensitive structures can lead to morbidity and even may affect long-term tumor control. In contrast, proton beam therapy (PBT) delivers no "exit dose" and a growing body of literature suggests that this may improve clinical outcomes by reducing toxicity and even allowing for safe dose intensification to enhance tumor control...
October 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Esra Neufeld, Bryn Lloyd, Beatrice Schneider, Wolfgang Kainz, Niels Kuster
The advent of detailed computational anatomical models has opened new avenues for computational life sciences (CLS). To date, static models representing the anatomical environment have been used in many applications but are insufficient when the dynamics of the body prevents separation of anatomical geometrical variability from physics and physiology. Obvious examples include the assessment of thermal risks in magnetic resonance imaging and planning for radiofrequency and acoustic cancer treatment, where posture and physiology-related changes in shape (e...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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