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Fibrosis kidney

Kazuhiko Mizukami, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Eisuke Nozawa, Koichi Wada, Tohru Ugawa
Prostaglandins (PGs) are important lipid mediators of numerous physiologic and pathophysiologic processes in the kidney. PGE2 , the most abundant renal PG, plays a major role in renal physiology, including renin release and glomerular hemodynamics. We investigated the renoprotective properties of the novel PGE2 EP4 receptor-selective antagonist ASP7657 in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, a chronic kidney disease (CKD) model. Eight weeks of repeated administration of ASP7657 (0.001-0.1 mg/kg) dose-dependently and significantly reduced urinary protein excretion and attenuated the development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage, including fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, without affecting blood pressure...
December 15, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Theodore R Saitz, Anil A Thomas
A healthy 35-year-old male presented for vasectomy after fathering two children. Due to difficulty palpating the left vas, the patient was taken to the operating room for scrotal exploration and vasectomy. The left vas was absent; however, a 1.2 cm pearly nodule was identified in the scrotum along its suspected course. This nodule was excised, found to contain thick white pasty fluid, and confirmed vas deferens by pathology. The patient was found to have normal kidneys on renal ultrasound and was indeed a carrier for cystic fibrosis gene mutations...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
Aly M Abdelrahman, Yousuf Al Suleimani, Mohammed Al Za'abi, Mohammed Ashique, Priyadarsini Manoj, Christina Hartmann, Abderrahim Nemmar, Nicole Schupp, Badreldin H Ali
We assessed the effect of treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, on adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Six equal groups of rats were given either normal food or food mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w for five weeks) to induce CKD. Some of these groups were also simultaneously treated with sitagliptin (2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day, by gavage). Rats given adenine showed elevation of blood pressure, decreased body weight and increased relative kidney weight. Adenine also significantly increased plasma urea, creatinine, cystatin C, liver-type fatty acid-binding protein concentrations and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin activity by 404%, 354%, 667%, 91% and 281% respectively and reduced plasma α-Klotho by 50%...
December 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jing Pan, Min Shi, Lingzhi Li, Jing Liu, Fan Guo, Yanhuan Feng, Liang Ma, Ping Fu
Accumulating evidences indicated that hyperuricemia was an independent risk factor for kidney diseases and contributed to kidney fibrosis. Preventing and treating renal fibrosis was an optimal treatment for hyperuricemia-induced kidney diseases. In the study, pterostilbene (PTE) as a bioactive component of blueberries was confirmed to possess lowering serum uric acid and renal protective functions by the decrease of serum creatinine, BUN, urine albumin, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) in a mouse model of hyperuricemic nephropathy (HN)...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Walaa Arafa Keshk, Samer Mahmoud Zahran
Chronic kidney diseases occur as result of exposure to wide range of deleterious agents as environmental pollutants, toxins and drug. Currently, there is no effective protective therapy against renal damage, fibrosis and its sequel of end stage renal disease. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has a progressively gained consideration in wound healing, repair/regeneration of damaged tissues and conservation of organ function. However, its impact on thioacetamide (TAA) induced chronic renal damage has not been elucidated yet...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mary Drinane, Xiao Jing Wang, Kymberly Watt
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a self-limited asymptomatic illness in immunocompetent patients, but may cause chronic infection in immunosuppressed, solid organ transplant recipients. Chronic HEV can result in aggressive inflammation and fibrosis, leading to cirrhosis in up to 10%(1). Current therapy has been limited to reducing immunosuppression and/or ribavirin which leads to viral clearance in 64-74% of patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 14, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Valentina Masola, Gloria Bellin, Gisella Vischini, Luigi Dall'Olmo, Simona Granata, Giovanni Gambaro, Antonio Lupo, Maurizio Onisto, Gianluigi Zaza
Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in patients undergoing renal transplantation and with acute kidney injury and is responsible for the development of chronic allograft dysfunction as characterized by parenchymal alteration and fibrosis. Heparanase (HPSE), an endoglycosidase that regulates EMT and macrophage polarization, is an active player in the biological response triggered by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. I/R was induced in vivo by clamping left renal artery for 30 min in wt C57BL/6J mice...
November 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Atsuko Y Higashi, Bruce J Aronow, Gregory R Dressler
BACKGROUND: Renal interstitial fibrosis results from activation and proliferation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, secretion and accumulation of extracellular matrix, and displacement of normal renal tubules. In contrast to chronic renal disease, acute injury may be repaired, a process that includes a decrease in the number of myofibroblasts in the interstitium and degradation of the accumulated extracellular matrix, leaving little evidence of prior injury. METHODS: To investigate whether activated fibroblasts demonstrate changes in gene expression that correspond with regression after acute injury but are not observed in chronic models of fibrosis, we used microarrays to analyze gene expression patterns among fibroblast populations at different stages of injury or repair...
December 13, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Sun Ah Nam, Wan-Young Kim, Jin-Won Kim, Min Gyu Kang, Sang Hee Park, Myung-Shik Lee, Hyung Wook Kim, Chul Woo Yang, Jin Kim, Yong Kyun Kim
Renal fibrosis is the final common pathway of various renal injuries and it leads to chronic kidney disease. Recent studies reported that FOXD1-lineage pericyte plays a critical role in tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF). However the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Autophagy is a cellular process of degradation of damaged cytoplasmic components that regulates cell death and proliferation. To investigate the role of autophagy in FOXD1-lineage pericytes on renal TIF, we generated the FOXD1-lineage stromal cell-specific Atg7 deletion (Atg7△FOXD1 ) mice...
December 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Masa-Ki Inoue, Takeshi Yamamotoya, Yusuke Nakatsu, Koji Ueda, Yuki Inoue, Yasuka Matsunaga, Hideyuki Sakoda, Midori Fujishiro, Hiraku Ono, Kenichi Morii, Kensuke Sasaki, Takao Masaki, Yusuke Suzuki, Tomoichiro Asano, Akifumi Kushiyama
Recent clinical studies have demonstrated the protective effect of xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors against chronic kidney diseases, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. However, to date, neither clinical nor basic research has been carried out to elucidate the efficacy of XO inhibitor administration for IgA nephropathy. We thus investigated whether febuxostat, an XO inhibitor, exerts a protective effect against the development of IgA nephropathy, using gddY mice as an IgA nephropathy rodent model...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vanessa Gutierrez de Andrade, Fábio da Silva Yamashiro, Cássio Vieira Oliveira, Alecsandro Moreira, Fernanda Cristina Winckler, Giovanni Faria Silva
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health problem, that affects approximately 170 million people worldwide. Chronic HCV infection is associated with hepatic insulin resistance and an increased risk of diabetes HCV-infected patients has been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index in patients treated with direct acting antiviral (DAAs) medication in the sustained virological response (SVR), categorized by the presence or absence of cirrhosis...
July 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Rui Zheng, Xiaoliang Fang, Lei He, Yanjiao Shao, Nana Guo, Liren Wang, Mingyao Liu, Dali Li, Hongquan Geng
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT). It is characterized by abnormal metabolism of glyoxylic acid in liver leading to endogenous oxalate overproduction and deposition of oxalate in multiple organs, mainly the kidney. Patients of PH1 often suffer from recurrent urinary tract stones, and finally renal failure. There is no effective treatment other than combined liver-kidney transplantation...
December 11, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
Jung Nam An, Seung Hee Yang, Yong Chul Kim, Jin Ho Hwang, Jae Yoon Park, Dong Ki Kim, Jin Hyuk Kim, Dae Woo Kim, Dong Gu Hur, Yun Kyu Oh, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim, Jung Pyo Lee
Periostin plays a crucial role in fibrosis, and acute kidney injury results in a high risk of progression to chronic kidney disease. Therefore, we hypothesized that periostin was involved in the progression of acute kidney injury to kidney fibrosis. Unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury (UIRI) was induced in 7- to 8-week-old male wild-type and periostin- null mice, and the animals were observed for 6 weeks. In vitro, human kidney-2 cells and primary cultured human tubular epithelial cells were incubated under hypoxic conditions (5% O2 , 5% CO2 , and 90% N2 ) for 5 days...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Markus Pirklbauer, Ramona Schupart, Lisa Christina Fuchs, Petra Staudinger, Ulrike Corazza, Sebastian Sallaberger, Johannes Leierer, Gert Mayer, Herbert Schramek
Large clinical trials demonstrated that SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) slow the progression of kidney function decline in type 2 diabetes. As the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown, we studied the effects of SGLT2i on gene expression in two human proximal tubular (PT) cell lines under normoglycemic conditions, utilizing two SGLT2i, namely empagliflocin and canagliflocin. Genome-wide expression analysis did not reveal substantial differences between these two SGLT2i. Microarray hybridization analysis identified 94 genes that were both upregulated by TGF-ß1 and downregulated by either of the two SGLT2i in HK-2 and RPTEC/TERT1 cells...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
J Xu, T-T Yu, K Zhang, M Li, H-J Shi, X-J Meng, L-S Zhu, L-K Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of HGF (stem cell growth factor) in renal interstitial fibrosis and to explore its underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model was first constructed, and kidney samples of mice were then collected. Fibrosis-related indicators in UUO mice kidney were detected by Western blot. The mRNA and protein levels of HGF in UUO mice were detected by quantitative Real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively...
November 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Bin Chen
Progressive renal fibrosis is the last phase of chronic kidney disease and results in renal failure. Micro-RNA has been demonstrated as important agent to drive organ fibrosis. However, the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we found miRNA-184 as a critical mediator to promote the renal fibrosis by targeting HIF1AN. In Vivo, miRNA-184 expression levels remarkably increased both in patients' serum and in unilateral ureteral obstruction kidneys, as well as induced the expression of COL1A1 and COL3A1...
December 10, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Jian Li, Nan Li, Shuangtong Yan, Yanhui Lu, Xinyu Miao, Zhaoyan Gu, Yinghong Shao
Mitochondrial homeostasis is a highly regulated process that serves a critical role in the maintenance of renal structure and function. The growing interest in the field of mitochondrial homeostasis promises to provide more information regarding the mechanisms involved in diabetic renal fibrosis, and aid in the development of novel strategies to combat the disease. In the present study, the effects of melatonin on renal damage in mice with diabetes were evaluated and the underlying mechanisms were investigated...
November 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yusuke Sakaguchi, Takayuki Hamano, Isao Matsui, Tatsufumi Oka, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Keiichi Kubota, Karin Shimada, Ayumi Matsumoto, Nobuhiro Hashimoto, Yoshitaka Isaka
Background: Magnesium is known to protect against phosphate-induced tubular cell injuries in vitro. We investigated in vivo effects of magnesium on kidney injuries and phosphate metabolism in mice exposed to a high phosphate diet. Methods: Heminephrectomized mice were maintained on a high phosphate/normal magnesium diet or a high phosphate/low magnesium diet for 6 weeks. We compared renal histology, phosphaturic hormones and renal α-Klotho expression between the two diet groups...
December 7, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Daniel Guldager Kring Rasmussen, Per Mose Nielsen, Özlem Yashar Kasab-Oglo, Signe Holm Nielsen, Casper Kierulf-Lassen, Morten Asser Karsdal, Federica Genovese, Rikke Nørregaard
Background: Maintenance of kidney function in kidney allografts remains a challenge, as the allograft often progressively develops fibrosis after kidney transplantation. Fibrosis is caused by the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins like type I and III collagen (COL I and III) that replace the functional tissue. We assessed the concentrations of a neo-epitope fragment of COL III generated by matrix metalloproteinase-9 cleavage (C3M) in two rat models resembling the ischaemic injury taking place following kidney transplantation...
December 7, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Sebastián Cartagena, Israel Díaz, Constanza Gutiérrez, Jorge Dreyse, Matías Florenzano, Marcela Palavecino, Tomás Regueira
Paraquat, a non-selective bipyridyl pesticide, is one of the leading causes of death from intoxication in many parts of Asia and America. It is the second most sold herbicide worldwide, being widely used in Chile. Its ingestion generates toxicity due to the release of superoxide radicals, mainly affecting kidneys, lungs and liver. There is no antidote available. We report a 31 years old male who ingested Paraquat for suicidal purposes. He developed an acute renal and hepatic failure and a rapidly progressive severe respiratory failure with images compatible with acute pulmonary fibrosis...
July 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
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