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Toxinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30017551/vulnerability-to-snakebite-envenoming-a-global-mapping-of-hotspots
#1
Joshua Longbottom, Freya M Shearer, Maria Devine, Gabriel Alcoba, Francois Chappuis, Daniel J Weiss, Sarah E Ray, Nicolas Ray, David A Warrell, Rafael Ruiz de Castañeda, David J Williams, Simon I Hay, David M Pigott
BACKGROUND: Snakebite envenoming is a frequently overlooked cause of mortality and morbidity. Data for snake ecology and existing snakebite interventions are scarce, limiting accurate burden estimation initiatives. Low global awareness stunts new interventions, adequate health resources, and available health care. Therefore, we aimed to synthesise currently available data to identify the most vulnerable populations at risk of snakebite, and where additional data to manage this global problem are needed...
August 25, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008289/23rd-and-24th-meetings-of-the-french-society-of-toxinology-sfet-special-issue-on-toxins-immunity-inflammation-and-pain
#2
EDITORIAL
Evelyne Benoit, Julien Barbier, Jordi Molgó
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986377/interaction-between-insects-toxins-and-bacteria-have-we-been-wrong-so-far
#3
REVIEW
Guillaume Tetreau
Toxins are a major virulence factor produced by many pathogenic bacteria. In vertebrates, the response of hosts to the bacteria is inseparable from the response to the toxins, allowing a comprehensive understanding of this tripartite host-pathogen-toxin interaction. However, in invertebrates, this interaction has been investigated by two complementary but historically distinct fields of research: toxinology and immunology. In this article, I highlight how such dichotomy between these two fields led to a biased, or even erroneous view of the ecology and evolution of the interaction between insects, toxins, and bacteria...
July 6, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954662/environmental-and-ecological-effects-of-climate-change-on-venomous-marine-and-amphibious-species-in-the-wilderness
#4
Robert K Needleman, Isabelle P Neylan, Timothy B Erickson
INTRODUCTION: Recent analyses of data show a warming trend in global average air and sea surface ocean temperatures. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, the sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased. This article will focus on climate change and projected effects on venomous marine and amphibious creatures with the potential impact on human health. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of environmental, ecological, and medical literature with a focus on climate change, toxinology, and future modeling specific to venomous aquatic and amphibious creatures...
September 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890762/basics-of-antibody-phage-display-technology
#5
REVIEW
Line Ledsgaard, Mogens Kilstrup, Aneesh Karatt-Vellatt, John McCafferty, Andreas H Laustsen
Antibody discovery has become increasingly important in almost all areas of modern medicine. Different antibody discovery approaches exist, but one that has gained increasing interest in the field of toxinology and antivenom research is phage display technology. In this review, the lifecycle of the M13 phage and the basics of phage display technology are presented together with important factors influencing the success rates of phage display experiments. Moreover, the pros and cons of different antigen display methods and the use of naïve versus immunized phage display antibody libraries is discussed, and selected examples from the field of antivenom research are highlighted...
June 9, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718183/historical-links-between-toxinology-and-immunology
#6
REVIEW
Jean-Marc Cavaillon
Research on bacterial toxins is closely linked to the birth of immunology. Our understanding of the interaction of bacterial protein toxins with immune cells has helped to decipher immunopathology, develop preventive and curative treatments for infections, and propose anti-cancer immunotherapies. The link started when Behring and Kitasato demonstrated that serotherapy was effective against 'the strangling angel', namely diphtheria, and its dreadful toxin discovered by Roux and Yersin. The antitoxin treatment helped to save thousands of children...
April 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715467/diversity-of-peptidic-and-proteinaceous-toxins-from-social-hymenoptera-venoms
#7
José Roberto Aparecido Dos Santos-Pinto, Amilcar Perez-Riverol, Alexis Musacchio Lasa, Mario Sergio Palma
Among venomous animals, Hymenoptera have been suggested as a rich source of natural toxins. Due to their broad ecological diversity, venom from Hymenoptera insects (bees, wasps and ants) have evolved differentially thus widening the types and biological functions of their components. To date, insect toxinology analysis have scarcely uncovered the complex composition of bee, wasp and ant venoms which include low molecular weight compounds, highly abundant peptides and proteins, including several allergens. In Hymenoptera, these complex mixtures of toxins represent a potent arsenal of biological weapons that are used for self-defense, to repel intruders and to capture prey...
June 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704535/23rd-and-24th-meetings-of-the-french-society-of-toxinology-sfet-special-issue-on-toxins-immunity-inflammation-and-pain
#8
EDITORIAL
Evelyne Benoit, Julien Barbier, Jordi Molgó
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656017/proteomic-and-toxinological-characterization-of-the-venom-of-the-south-african-ringhals-cobra-hemachatus-haemachatus
#9
Andrés Sánchez, María Herrera, Mauren Villalta, Daniela Solano, Álvaro Segura, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León, Mariángela Vargas
The protein composition and toxinological profile of the venom of the African spitting elapid Hemachatus haemachatus (Ringhals) were characterized by bottom-up proteomics and functional in vitro and in vivo assays. Venom is composed of abundant three-finger toxins (3FTxs; 63.3%), followed by phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s; 22.8%), snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs; 7.1%), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs; 4.1%) and Kunitz type protease inhibitors (KTPIs; 1.5%). 3FTxs are the main responsible for lethality and myotoxicity in mice and in vitro anticoagulant activity...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602499/thermal-acclimation-affects-growth-and-lipophilic-toxin-production-in-a-strain-of-cosmopolitan-harmful-alga-dinophysis-acuminata
#10
Leila Basti, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Hajime Uchida, Takashi Kamiyama, Satoshi Nagai
Species of the harmful algal bloom (HAB) genera Dinophysis are causative of one of the most widespread and expanding HAB events associated with the human intoxication, diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). The effects of warming temperature on the physiology and toxinology of these mixotrophic species remain intractable due to their low biomass in nature and difficulties in establishing and maintaining them in culture. Hence, the present study investigated the influence of warming temperature, encompassing present and predicted climate scenarios, on growth and toxin production in a strain of the most cosmopolitan DSP-causative species, Dinophysis acuminata...
March 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534892/pros-and-cons-of-different-therapeutic-antibody-formats-for-recombinant-antivenom-development
#11
Andreas H Laustsen, José María Gutiérrez, Cecilie Knudsen, Kristoffer H Johansen, Erick Bermúdez-Méndez, Felipe A Cerni, Jonas A Jürgensen, Line Ledsgaard, Andrea Martos-Esteban, Mia Øhlenschlæger, Urska Pus, Mikael R Andersen, Bruno Lomonte, Mikael Engmark, Manuela B Pucca
Antibody technologies are being increasingly applied in the field of toxinology. Fuelled by the many advances in immunology, synthetic biology, and antibody research, different approaches and antibody formats are being investigated for the ability to neutralize animal toxins. These different molecular formats each have their own therapeutic characteristics. In this review, we provide an overview of the advances made in the development of toxin-targeting antibodies, and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different antibody formats in relation to their ability to neutralize toxins, pharmacokinetic features, propensity to cause adverse reactions, formulation, and expression for research and development (R&D) purposes and large-scale manufacturing...
May 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395962/potential-environmental-and-ecological-effects-of-global-climate-change-on-venomous-terrestrial-species-in-the-wilderness
#12
REVIEW
Robert K Needleman, Isabelle P Neylan, Timothy Erickson
INTRODUCTION: Climate change has been scientifically documented, and its effects on wildlife have been prognosticated. We sought to predict the overall impact of climate change on venomous terrestrial species. We hypothesize that given the close relationship between terrestrial venomous species and climate, a changing global environment may result in increased species migration, geographical redistribution, and longer seasons for envenomation, which would have repercussions on human health...
June 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353015/proteomic-and-functional-variation-within-black-snake-venoms-elapidae-pseudechis
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jonathan Goldenberg, Vittoria Cipriani, Timothy N W Jackson, Kevin Arbuckle, Jordan Debono, Daniel Dashevsky, Nadya Panagides, Maria P Ikonomopoulou, Ivan Koludarov, Bin Li, Renan Castro Santana, Amanda Nouwens, Alun Jones, Chris Hay, Nathan Dunstan, Luke Allen, Brian Bush, John J Miles, Lilin Ge, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Pseudechis (black snakes) is an Australasian elapid snake genus that inhabits much of mainland Australia, with two representatives confined to Papua New Guinea. The present study is the first to analyse the venom of all 9 described Pseudechis species (plus one undescribed species) to investigate the evolution of venom composition and functional activity. Proteomic results demonstrated that the typical Pseudechis venom profile is dominated by phospholipase A2 toxins. Strong cytotoxicity was the dominant function for most species...
February 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179991/the-north-american-society-of-toxinology-establishes-formal-affiliation-with-toxicon
#14
EDITORIAL
Daniel E Keyler, Glenn F King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075288/it-is-time-for-top-down-venomics
#15
REVIEW
Rafael D Melani, Fabio C S Nogueira, Gilberto B Domont
The protein composition of animal venoms is usually determined by peptide-centric proteomics approaches (bottom-up proteomics). However, this technique cannot, in most cases, distinguish among toxin proteoforms, herein called toxiforms , because of the protein inference problem. Top-down proteomics (TDP) analyzes intact proteins without digestion and provides high quality data to identify and characterize toxiforms. Denaturing top-down proteomics is the most disseminated subarea of TDP, which performs qualitative and quantitative analyzes of proteoforms up to ~30 kDa in high-throughput and automated fashion...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024773/an-improved-technique-for-the-assessment-of-venom-induced-haemorrhage-in-a-murine-model
#16
Timothy P Jenkins, Andrés Sánchez, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, María Herrera, Trenton K Stewart, Guillermo León, José María Gutiérrez
Haemorrhage is a common clinical manifestation in envenomings caused by bites from snakes of the family Viperidae. Therefore, knowing the haemorrhagic potential of venoms and the capacity of antivenoms to neutralise this effect are of paramount relevance in toxinology. The most widely used method for quantifying haemorrhage involves the intradermal injection of venom (or a mixture of venom/antivenom) in mice, and the assessment of the resulting haemorrhagic area in the inner side of the skin. Although this method allows a straightforward assessment of the haemorrhagic activity of a venom, it does not account for haemorrhagic lesions having a similar area but differing in the depth and intensity of haemorrhage...
December 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978413/neuromuscular-effect-of-venoms-from-adults-and-juveniles-of-crotalus-durissus-cumanensis-humboldt-1811-from-guajira-colombia
#17
Miguel Arévalo-Páez, Efraín Rada-Vargas, César Betancur-Hurtado, Juan M Renjifo, Camila Renjifo-Ibáñez
A toxinological study was performed to compare the neuromuscular effect of venom from adult and juvenile specimens from Crotalus durissus cumanensis from Guajira, Colombia. Both venoms exhibited neurotoxic activity in chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation. In addition, venom from juveniles was faster than adults to produce a neuromuscular blockade. In the contrary to the venom from juvenile's, at high doses, adult's venom affected the ACh and KCl contractures, indicating a myotoxic effect.
December 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831315/an-unexpected-case-of-black-mamba-dendroaspis-polylepis-bite-in-switzerland
#18
Verena Quarch, Lukas Brander, Luca Cioccari
Mambas (genus Dendroaspis ) are among the most feared venomous African snakes. Without medical treatment, mamba bites are frequently fatal. First-aid treatment includes lymphatic retardation with the pressure immobilization technique. Medical management comprises continuous monitoring, securing patency of the airway, ensuring adequate ventilation, symptomatic measures, and administration of specific antivenin. We report an unusual case of a snake breeder bitten by a black mamba in Switzerland, report the clinical course, and review the lifesaving emergency management of mamba bites...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505100/preclinical-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-antivenoms-for-snakebite-envenoming-state-of-the-art-and-challenges-ahead
#19
REVIEW
José María Gutiérrez, Gabriela Solano, Davinia Pla, María Herrera, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Andrés Sánchez, Libia Sanz, Bruno Lomonte, Guillermo León, Juan J Calvete
Animal-derived antivenoms constitute the mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenoming. The efficacy of antivenoms to neutralize toxicity of medically-relevant snake venoms has to be demonstrated through meticulous preclinical testing before their introduction into the clinical setting. The gold standard in the preclinical assessment and quality control of antivenoms is the neutralization of venom-induced lethality. In addition, depending on the pathophysiological profile of snake venoms, the neutralization of other toxic activities has to be evaluated, such as hemorrhagic, myotoxic, edema-forming, dermonecrotic, in vitro coagulant, and defibrinogenating effects...
May 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284847/a-survey-on-some-biochemical-and-pharmacological-activities-of-venom-from-two-colombian-colubrid-snakes-erythrolamprus-bizona-double-banded-coral-snake-mimic-and-pseudoboa-neuwiedii-neuwied-s-false-boa
#20
Kristian A Torres-Bonilla, Rafael S Floriano, Raphael Schezaro-Ramos, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
Colombian colubrid snake venoms have been poorly studied. They represent a great resource of biological, ecological, toxinological and pharmacological research. We assessed some enzymatic properties and neuromuscular effects of Erythrolamprus bizona and Pseudoboa neuwiedii venoms from Colombia. Proteolytic, amidolytic and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities were analyzed using colorimetric assays and the neuromuscular activity was analyzed in chick biventer cervicis (BC) preparations. The venom of both species showed very low PLA2 and amidolytic activities; however, both exhibited high proteolytic activity, which in E...
June 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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