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Toxicologic Emergencies

Edgar Jacoby, J B Brown
Following the elucidation of the human genome, chemogenomics emerged in the beginning of the twenty-first century as an interdisciplinary research field with the aim to accelerate target and drug discovery by making best usage of the genomic data and the data linkable to it. What started as a systematization approach within protein target families now encompasses all types of chemical compounds and gene products. A key objective of chemogenomics is the establishment, extension, analysis, and prediction of a comprehensive SAR matrix which by application will enable further systematization in drug discovery...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Aarti Sawant-Basak, R Scott Obach
This commentary summarizes expert mini-reviews and original research articles that have been assembled in a special issue on novel models of drug metabolism and disposition. The special issue consists of research articles or reviews on novel static or micro-flow based models of the intestine, liver, eye, and kidney. This issue reviews static intestinal systems like mucosal scrapings and cryopreserved intestinal enterocytes, as well as novel bioengineered or chemically engineered intestinal models derived from primary human tissue, iPSCs, enteroids, and crypts...
November 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Michael D Schwartz, Mark E Sutter, Derek Eisnor, Mark A Kirk
ABSTRACTHaving sufficient medical countermeasures (MCMs) available for the treatment of acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting nerve agent poisoned patients following a mass chemical exposure is a challenge for communities. After stockpiles containing auto-injectors are exhausted, communities need to be aware of alternative pharmaceutical options. The Department of Homeland Security Chemical Defense Program convened a federal interagency working group consisting of first responders, clinicians, and experts from the fields of medical toxicology, pharmacology, and emergency management...
October 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Yongming Wu, Mi Deng, Yuanxiang Jin, Xiyan Mu, Xiaoli He, Nha-Thi Luu, Chunyan Yang, Wenqing Tu
6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B) has been widely applied as a mist suppressant to replace perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the metal plating industry in China for decades. Recently, F-53B has been frequently identified in the aquatic environment and wild-caught fish. However, studies on the uptake and elimination kinetics, and the toxicological effects of F-53B were very scarce. In this study, zebrafish larvae (72 h post fertilization, hpf) were exposed to F-53B (10, 100 μg/L) for 48 h, followed by a 24 h of depuration to examine both the dynamics of accumulation and elimination of F-53B and responses of antoxidant defense system in fish...
October 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Krithika Chennapan, Samuel Mullinax, Eric Anderson, Mark J Landau, Kimberly Nordstrom, Rawle A Seupaul, Michael P Wilson
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with psychiatric complaints often require medical screening to evaluate for a medical cause of their symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the existing literature on the medical screening of psychiatric patients and establish recommendations for ideal screening practices in Western-style EDs. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, and were searched for clinical studies examining the medical screening of adult psychiatric patients in the ED or inappropriate referrals to psychiatry...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Aleksandra Świderska, Marek Wiśniewski, Marek Wiergowski, Anna Krakowiak, Jacek Sein Anand
BACKGROUND: Poisonings constitute a significant medical, social and economic problem worldwide. In Poland there is no nationwide registry of poisonings, which results in a lack of accurate epidemiological data. Few publications dealing with the problem are based on data obtained from toxicology units and therefore do not include information about cases treated at emergency departments and other non-toxicology units. METHODS: We analyzed all admissions due to poisonings reported to the Polish National Health Fund by all hospital units in Poland in the 2009-2011 period...
October 10, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Chinese Society Of Toxicology Poisoning And Treatment Of Specialized Committee, Hubei Emergency Medicine Committee Of Chinese Medical Association, Hubei Provincial Poisoning And Occupational Disease Union, Xianyi Yang, Min Xiao
To improve the diagnosis and treatment of wasp sting, summarize the experience, the experts from Chinese Society of Toxicology Poisoning and Treatment of Specialized Committee, Hubei Emergency Medicine Committee of Chinese Medical Association and Hubei Provincial Poisoning and Occupational Disease Union made the Expert consensus statement on standardized diagnosis and treatment of wasp stings in China on the development of domestic and oversea in this field. The consensus statement emphasized the idea of staged treatment, different treatments at different stages, and strived to achieve bundling and individuation...
September 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Lars Mecklenburg
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are an emerging class of anticancer therapeutics, delivering highly cytotoxic molecules directly to cancer cells. ADCs are composed of an antibody, a small molecule drug, and a linker attaching one to another. Antibodies are directed to a large variety of antigens overexpressed on tumor cells, tumor vasculature, or tumor-supporting stroma. After internalization, the ADC is transferred to lysosomes where the cytotoxic component is released, finally killing the target cell. All ADCs are administered via intravenous injection...
October 7, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
Dao Bach Khoa, Bui Xuan Thang, Nguyen Van Liem, Niels Holst, Michael Kristensen
The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is a serious threat to rice production in Vietnam and insecticides are widely used for its control. Migration of the BPH have one of its roots in tropical Vietnam in the Mekong River Delta and the insecticide resistance status of BPH populations from Vietnam is thus important for East Asia. In the present investigation, we evaluate the susceptibility of BPH populations from nine provinces from the Red River Delta, the Central Coastal region and the Mekong River Delta of eight insecticides during 2015-17...
2018: PloS One
Maggie Davidson, Sue Reed, Jacques Oosthuizen, Greg O'Donnell, Pragna Gaur, Martyn Cross, Gary Dennis
The legal Australian cannabis industry has been rapidly expanding due to increased awareness of the plant's therapeutic potential, as well its diverse range of applications including biofuel, textiles, building materials, food, nutritional supplement, and animal feed. The objective of this paper is to describe the current landscape of the commercial Australian cannabis industry, summarise occupational health and safety (OHS) hazards in cannabis-related working environments, and provide suggestions for safeguarding worker health and well-being in this emerging industry...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Sanya Virani, Gulzar N Daya, Navjot Brainch, Vijaya Padma Kotapati, Deval Zaveri, Saeed Ahmed
Ecstasy, a popular drug among the younger generation, the primary psychoactive component of which is 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), is rarely known to have acute psychiatric effects and when it does, it is usually short term. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency room in a psychotic state after using ecstasy recreationally. Given his aggressive behavior in the community and risk for self-harm, he was emergently hospitalized to ensure safety. He developed persistent psychotic symptoms (delusions) after one dose of recreational MDMA and the team had the opportunity to observe, monitor, and treat his psychosis...
July 27, 2018: Curēus
Stina Lindh, Parastoo Razmara, Sarah Bogart, Gregory Pyle
The continuously growing number of products containing nanoparticles makes their presence in the environment inevitable and given the well-known toxicity of dissolved metals, concerns regarding the toxicity of metal-based nanoparticles have been raised. Whether metal-based nanoparticles present similar or different toxicological effects compared to metal salts is an emerging field. In the present study, rainbow trout were intraperitoneally injected with CuSO4 or CuNPs to investigate tissue distribution and depuration characteristics...
October 1, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Aaron C Lim, April D Thames
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that regular cannabis use has negative effects on sleep health. Relative to HIV- populations, HIV + individuals consistently report greater sleep impairments. The number of HIV + individuals reporting frequent cannabis use, often to treat sleep issues, has significantly increased recently. It is unknown, however, if HIV status moderates the association between cannabis use and sleep health. The current study, therefore, examines these associations in a sample of HIV + and HIV- adults...
September 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ramy K Aziz, Shaimaa M Hegazy, Reem Yasser, Mariam R Rizkallah, Marwa T ElRakaiby
Pharmacomicrobiomics and toxicomicrobiomics study how variations within the human microbiome (the combination of human-associated microbial communities and their genomes) affect drug disposition, action, and toxicity. These emerging fields, interconnecting microbiology, bioinformatics, systems pharmacology, and toxicology, complement pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, expanding the scope of precision medicine. Areas covered: This article reviews some of the most recently reported pharmacomicrobiomic and toxicomicrobiomic interactions...
October 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Eric Weintraub, Aaron David Greenblatt, Joy Chang, Seth Himelhoch, Christopher Welsh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The opioid epidemic in the United States has resulted in a public health emergency. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) with methadone and buprenorphine are evidence-based treatments for opioid use disorder. However, numerous barriers hinder access to treatment in rural areas. The use of telemedicine to deliver psychiatric services is demonstrated to be safe and effective; however, limited data exist on the novel application of telemedicine in the delivery of MAT...
September 28, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Jessica Audrey Feijó Corrêa, Paloma Bianca Orso, Keliani Bordin, Raquel Vaz Hara, Fernando Bittencourt Luciano
Fusarium is a fungal genus spread worldwide commonly associated to the production of several mycotoxins, where fumonisins (FBs) are of major importance due to its prevalence. Since mycotoxins have been reported to cause deleterious effects on mammalians, including carcinogenic, neurotoxic, estrogenic, and immune-suppressive, many countries had established regulations on the tolerated concentrations of such substances in foods and animal feed. Even though many mycotoxins - especially fusariotoxins - are concomitantly found in a single matrix, there is no regulation on co-occurrence levels...
September 21, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Adam D Kennedy, Bryan M Wittmann, Anne M Evans, Luke A D Miller, Douglas R Toal, Shaun Lonergan, Sarah H Elsea, Kirk L Pappan
Metabolomics is the untargeted measurement of the metabolome, which is comprised of the complement of small molecules detected in a biological sample. As such, metabolomic analysis produces a global biochemical phenotype. It is a technology that has been utilized in the research setting for over a decade. The metabolome is directly linked to and is influenced by genetics, epigenetics, environmental factors and the microbiome - all of which affect health. Metabolomics can be applied to human clinical diagnostics and to other fields such as veterinary medicine, nutrition, exercise, physiology, agriculture/plant biochemistry, and toxicology...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Nicolas Grosjean, Elisabeth M Gross, Marie Le Jean, Damien Blaudez
The emergence of the technology-critical-element yttrium as a contaminant in the environment raises concern regarding its toxicological impact on living organisms. The molecular mechanisms underlying yttrium toxicity must be delineated. We considered the genomic phenotyping of a mutant collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be of particular interest to decipher key cellular pathways involved either in yttrium toxicity or detoxification mechanisms. Among the 4733 mutants exposed to yttrium, 333 exhibited modified growth, of which 56 were sensitive and 277 were resistant...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Guang Yang, Hyenjong Hong, April Torres, Kristen E Malloy, Gourav R Choudhury, Jeffrey Kim, Marcel M Daadi
Humans and nonhuman primates (NHP) are similar in behavior and in physiology, specifically the structure, function, and complexity of the immune system. Thus, NHP models are desirable for pathophysiology and pharmacology/toxicology studies. Furthermore, NHP-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may enable transformative developmental, translational, or evolutionary studies in a field of inquiry currently hampered by the limited availability of research specimens. NHP-iPSCs may address specific questions that can be studied back and forth between in vitro cellular assays and in vivo experimentations, an investigational process that in most cases cannot be performed on humans because of safety and ethical issues...
September 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Günther Grill, Jing Li, Usman Khan, Yan Zhong, Bernhard Lehner, Jim Nicell, Joseph Ariwi
The contamination of freshwater systems arises in many river basins due to industrialization and population growth, posing risks to ecosystems and human health. Despite these concerns, the fate and potential impact of many emerging pollutants are currently unknown, especially when the compounds are released into surface waters from populations distributed across large spatial scales. In order to address this shortcoming, a spatially-explicit contaminant fate model was developed as an extension of the global, vector-based river routing model HydroROUT...
August 29, 2018: Water Research
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