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Endomembrane trafficking

Valentin Roustan, Wolfram Weckwerth
Rapamycin is an inhibitor of the evolutionary conserved Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase which promotes and coordinates translation with cell growth and division. In heterotrophic organisms, TOR regulation is based on intra- and extracellular stimuli such as amino acids level and insulin perception. However, how plant TOR pathways have evolved to integrate plastid endosymbiosis is a remaining question. Despite the close association of the TOR signaling with the coordination between protein turn-over and growth, proteome and phosphoproteome acclimation to a rapamycin treatment have not yet been thoroughly investigated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Renu Khasa, Anuradha Vaidya, Sudhanshu Vrati, Manjula Kalia
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is one of the leading global causes of virus-induced encephalitis. The infectious life-cycle of viruses is heavily dependent on the host membrane trafficking network. Here, we have performed a RNA-interference-based screen using a siRNA panel targeting 136 membrane trafficking proteins to identify the key regulators of JEV infection in HeLa cells. We identified 35 proteins whose siRNA depletion restricts JEV replication by over twofold. We observe that JEV infection in HeLa cells is largely dependent on components of the clathrin-mediated endocytic (CME) pathway...
November 29, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Ekansh Mittal, Michael L Skowyra, Grace Uwase, Emir Tinaztepe, Alka Mehra, Stefan Köster, Phyllis I Hanson, Jennifer A Philips
Intracellular pathogens have varied strategies to breach the endolysosomal barrier so that they can deliver effectors to the host cytosol, access nutrients, replicate in the cytoplasm, and avoid degradation in the lysosome. In the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the bacterium perforates the phagosomal membrane shortly after being taken up by macrophages. Phagosomal damage depends upon the mycobacterial ESX-1 type VII secretion system (T7SS). Sterile insults, such as silica crystals or membranolytic peptides, can also disrupt phagosomal and endolysosomal membranes...
November 27, 2018: MBio
Gildas Bourdais, Deirdre H McLachlan, Lydia M Rickett, Ji Zhou, Agnieszka Siwoszek, Heidrun Häweker, Matthew Hartley, Hannah Kuhn, Richard J Morris, Dan MacLean, Silke Robatzek
Expansion of gene families facilitates robustness and evolvability of biological processes but impedes functional genetic dissection of signalling pathways. To address this, quantitative analysis of single cell responses can help characterise the redundancy within gene families. We developed high-throughput quantitative imaging of stomatal closure, a response of plant guard cells, and performed a reverse genetic screen in a group of Arabidopsis mutants to five stimuli. Focussing on the intersection between guard cell signalling and the endomembrane system, we identified eight clusters based on the mutant stomatal responses...
November 16, 2018: Traffic
Manoj K Singh, Sandra Richter, Hauke Beckmann, Marika Kientz, York-Dieter Stierhof, Nadine Anders, Florian Fäßler, Michael Nielsen, Christian Knöll, Alexis Thomann, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Boris Macek, Karen Skriver, Peter Pimpl, Gerd Jürgens
In eukaryotes, GTP-bound ARF GTPases promote intracellular membrane traffic by mediating the recruitment of coat proteins, which in turn sort cargo proteins into the forming membrane vesicles. Mammals employ several classes of ARF GTPases which are activated by different ARF guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs). In contrast, flowering plants only encode evolutionarily conserved ARF1 GTPases (class I) but not the other classes II and III known from mammals, as suggested by phylogenetic analysis of ARF family members across the five major clades of eukaryotes...
November 2018: PLoS Genetics
Aishwarya Narayan, Pragati Mastud, Vandana Thakur, Pradipsinh K Rathod, Asif Mohmmed, Swati Patankar
Glutathione peroxidase-like thioredoxin peroxidase (PfTPxGl ) is an antioxidant enzyme trafficked to the apicoplast, a secondary endosymbiotic organelle, in Plasmodium falciparum . Apicoplast trafficking signals usually consist of N-terminal signal and transit peptides, but the trafficking signal of PfTPxGl appears to exhibit important differences. As transfection is a protracted process in P. falciparum , we expressed the N terminus of PfTPxGl as a GFP fusion protein in a related apicomplexan, Toxoplasma gondii , in order to dissect its trafficking signals...
November 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Catalina Martínez Jaramillo, Claudia M Trujillo-Vargas
Bi-allelic mutations in LRBA (from Lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor protein ) result in a primary immunodeficiency with clinical features ranging from hypogammaglobulinemia and lymphoproliferative syndrome to inflammatory bowel disease and heterogeneous autoimmune manifestations. LRBA deficiency has been shown to affect vesicular trafficking, autophagy and apoptosis, which may lead to alterations of several molecules and processes that play key roles for immunity. In this review, we will discuss the relationship of LRBA with the endovesicular system in the context of receptor trafficking, autophagy and apoptosis...
September 30, 2018: Colombia Médica: CM
Amit Tuli, Mahak Sharma
Pathogens have devised various strategies to alter the host endomembrane system towards building their replicative niche. This is aptly illustrated by Salmonella Typhimurium, whereby it remodels the host endolysosomal system to form a unique niche, also known as Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). Decades of research using in vitro cell-based infection studies have revealed intricate details of how Salmonella effectors target endocytic trafficking machinery of the host cell to acquire membrane and nutrients for bacterial replication...
November 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Sergey Ivanov, Maria J Harrison
Phosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid are small anionic lipids that comprise a minor proportion of total membrane lipids in eukaryotic cells but influence a broad range of cellular processes including endomembrane trafficking, signaling, exocytosis and endocytosis. To investigate the spatial distribution of phosphoinositides during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, we generated fluorescent reporters of PI(4,5)P2 and PI4P, as well as phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol and used them to monitor lipid distribution on the cytoplasmic side of membrane bilayers in colonized cortical cells...
October 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Bridget L Menasche, Lauren Crisman, Daniel R Gulbranson, Eric M Davis, Haijia Yu, Jingshi Shen
About one-third of cellular proteins in eukaryotic cells are localized to membrane-enclosed organelles in the endomembrane system. Trafficking of these membrane proteins (including soluble lumenal proteins) among the organelles is mediated by small sac-like vesicles. Vesicle-mediated membrane trafficking regulates a broad range of biological processes, many of which are still poorly understood at the molecular level. A powerful approach to dissect a vesicle-mediated membrane trafficking pathway is unbiased genome-wide genetic screening, which only recently became possible in mammalian cells with the isolation of haploid human cell lines and the development of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing...
September 28, 2018: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
Michèle Roy, Sophie Roux
Osteoclasts (OCs) are bone-resorbing cells that maintain bone homeostasis. OC differentiation, survival, and activity are regulated by numerous small GTPases, including those of the Rab family, which are involved in plasma membrane delivery and lysosomal and autophagic degradation pathways. In resorbing OCs, polarized vesicular trafficking pathways also result in formation of the ruffled membrane, the resorbing organelle, and in transcytosis.
2018: BioMed Research International
Jin-Zheng Wang, Katayoon Dehesh
Cellular adaptive responses arise from an array of spatially and temporally distinct biochemical interactions that modulate biological processes and reorganize subcellular structures tailored to the nature of stimulus. As such, cells have evolved elegantly and tightly regulated mechanisms to enable interorganellar communication in part through the dynamic readjustment of physical distance enabling the tethering between two closely apposed membranous organelles and thus formation of Membrane Contact Sites (MCSs)...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Plant Cell
Silvia Sposini, Aylin C Hanyaloglu
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily activates complex signal pathways, yet untangling these signaling systems to understand how specificity in receptor signaling pathways is achieved, has been a challenging question. The roles of membrane trafficking in GPCR signal regulation has undergone a recent paradigm shift, from a mechanism that programs the plasma membrane G protein signaling profile to providing distinct signaling platforms critical for specifying receptor function in vivo. In this chapter, we discuss this evolution of our understanding in the endocytic trafficking systems employed by GPCRs, and how such systems play a deeply integrated role with signaling...
2018: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
Thierry Pécot, Liu Zengzhen, Jérôme Boulanger, Jean Salamero, Charles Kervrann
Analysis of the spatial distribution of endomembrane trafficking is fundamental to understand the mechanisms controlling cellular dynamics, cell homeostasy, and cell interaction with its external environment in normal and pathological situations. We present a semi-parametric framework to quantitatively analyze and visualize the spatio-temporal distribution of intracellular events from different conditions. From the spatial coordinates of intracellular features such as segmented subcellular structures or vesicle trajectories, QuantEv automatically estimates weighted densities that are easy to interpret and performs a comprehensive statistical analysis from distribution distances...
August 9, 2018: ELife
Juan F Quintana, Ricardo Canavate Del Pino, Kayo Yamada, Ning Zhang
African trypanosomes are highly divergent from their metazoan hosts, and as part of adaptation to a parasitic life style have developed a unique endomembrane system. The key virulence mechanism of many pathogens is successful immune evasion, to enable survival within a host, a feature that requires both genetic events and membrane transport mechanisms in African trypanosomes. Intracellular trafficking not only plays a role in immune evasion, but also in homeostasis of intracellular and extracellular compartments and interactions with the environment...
July 20, 2018: Genes
Kiril Mishev, Qing Lu, Bram Denoo, François Peurois, Wim Dejonghe, Jan Hullaert, Riet De Rycke, Sjef Boeren, Marine Bretou, Steven De Munck, Isha Sharma, Kaija Goodman, Kamila Kalinowska, Veronique Storme, Le Son Long Nguyen, Andrzej Drozdzecki, Sara Martins, Wim Nerinckx, Dominique Audenaert, Grégory Vert, Annemieke Madder, Marisa S Otegui, Erika Isono, Savvas N Savvides, Wim Annaert, Sacco De Vries, Jacqueline Cherfils, Johan Winne, Eugenia Russinova
Small GTP-binding proteins from the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family are important regulators of vesicle formation and cellular trafficking in all eukaryotes. ARF activation is accomplished by a protein family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that contain a conserved catalytic Sec7 domain. Here, we identified and characterized Secdin, a small-molecule inhibitor of Arabidopsis thaliana ARF-GEFs. Secdin application caused aberrant retention of plasma membrane (PM) proteins in late endosomal compartments, enhanced vacuolar degradation, impaired protein recycling, and delayed secretion and endocytosis...
October 2018: Plant Cell
Qi Zhao, Wenxin Chen, Jiayi Bian, Hao Xie, Ying Li, Chenxi Xu, Jun Ma, Siyi Guo, Jiaying Chen, Xiaofeng Cai, Xiaoli Wang, Quanhua Wang, Yimin She, Sixue Chen, Zhiqiang Zhou, Shaojun Dai
Elevated temperatures limit plant growth and reproduction and pose a growing threat to agriculture. Plant heat stress response is highly conserved and fine-tuned in multiple pathways. Spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) is a cold tolerant but heat sensitive green leafy vegetable. In this study, heat adaptation mechanisms in a spinach sibling inbred heat-tolerant line Sp75 were investigated using physiological, proteomic, and phosphoproteomic approaches. The abundance patterns of 911 heat stress-responsive proteins, and phosphorylation level changes of 45 phosphoproteins indicated heat-induced calcium-mediated signaling, ROS homeostasis, endomembrane trafficking, and cross-membrane transport pathways, as well as more than 15 transcription regulation factors...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ming He, Miao Lan, Baocai Zhang, Yihua Zhou, Youqun Wang, Lei Zhu, Ming Yuan, Ying Fu
Cell-wall deposition of cellulose microfibrils is essential for plant growth and development. In plant cells, cellulose synthesis is accomplished by cellulose synthase complexes located in the plasma membrane. Trafficking of the complex between endomembrane compartments and the plasma membrane is vital for cellulose biosynthesis; however, the mechanism for this process is not well understood. We here report that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, Rab-H1b, a Golgi-localized small GTPase, participates in the trafficking of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 6 (CESA6) to the plasma membrane...
November 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Divya Venkatesh, Ning Zhang, Martin Zoltner, Ricardo Canavate Del Pino, Mark C Field
The kinetoplastida and their close relatives are unicellular organisms prevalent within the biosphere and important for significant impacts on global health, economy and ecosystems. They are, under most models, an early branching lineage. Individual species adapted to highly diverse environments by adopting complex life styles; parasitic species can infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts, while many relatives are free-living and some autotrophic from acquiring a plastid for photosynthesis. Adaptation is especially evident in the evolution of kinetoplastid cell surface architecture and is supported by endomembrane trafficking and serves as a platform for interaction with its environment...
July 4, 2018: Traffic
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