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Endomembrane trafficking

Bridget L Menasche, Lauren Crisman, Daniel R Gulbranson, Eric M Davis, Haijia Yu, Jingshi Shen
About one-third of cellular proteins in eukaryotic cells are localized to membrane-enclosed organelles in the endomembrane system. Trafficking of these membrane proteins (including soluble lumenal proteins) among the organelles is mediated by small sac-like vesicles. Vesicle-mediated membrane trafficking regulates a broad range of biological processes, many of which are still poorly understood at the molecular level. A powerful approach to dissect a vesicle-mediated membrane trafficking pathway is unbiased genome-wide genetic screening, which only recently became possible in mammalian cells with the isolation of haploid human cell lines and the development of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing...
September 28, 2018: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
Michèle Roy, Sophie Roux
Osteoclasts (OCs) are bone-resorbing cells that maintain bone homeostasis. OC differentiation, survival, and activity are regulated by numerous small GTPases, including those of the Rab family, which are involved in plasma membrane delivery and lysosomal and autophagic degradation pathways. In resorbing OCs, polarized vesicular trafficking pathways also result in formation of the ruffled membrane, the resorbing organelle, and in transcytosis.
2018: BioMed Research International
Jin-Zheng Wang, Katayoon Dehesh
Cellular adaptive responses arise from an array of spatially and temporally distinct biochemical interactions that modulate biological processes and reorganize subcellular structures tailored to the nature of stimulus. As such, cells have evolved elegantly and tightly regulated mechanisms to enable interorganellar communication in part through the dynamic readjustment of physical distance enabling the tethering between two closely apposed membranous organelles and thus formation of Membrane Contact Sites (MCSs)...
August 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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August 2018: Plant Cell
Silvia Sposini, Aylin C Hanyaloglu
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily activates complex signal pathways, yet untangling these signaling systems to understand how specificity in receptor signaling pathways is achieved, has been a challenging question. The roles of membrane trafficking in GPCR signal regulation has undergone a recent paradigm shift, from a mechanism that programs the plasma membrane G protein signaling profile to providing distinct signaling platforms critical for specifying receptor function in vivo. In this chapter, we discuss this evolution of our understanding in the endocytic trafficking systems employed by GPCRs, and how such systems play a deeply integrated role with signaling...
2018: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
Thierry Pécot, Liu Zengzhen, Jérôme Boulanger, Jean Salamero, Charles Kervrann
Analysis of the spatial distribution of endomembrane trafficking is fundamental to understand the mechanisms controlling cellular dynamics, cell homeostasy, and cell interaction with its external environment in normal and pathological situations. We present a semi-parametric framework to quantitatively analyze and visualize the spatio-temporal distribution of intracellular events from different conditions. From the spatial coordinates of intracellular features such as segmented subcellular structures or vesicle trajectories, QuantEv automatically estimates weighted densities that are easy to interpret and performs a comprehensive statistical analysis from distribution distances...
August 9, 2018: ELife
Juan F Quintana, Ricardo Canavate Del Pino, Kayo Yamada, Ning Zhang
African trypanosomes are highly divergent from their metazoan hosts, and as part of adaptation to a parasitic life style have developed a unique endomembrane system. The key virulence mechanism of many pathogens is successful immune evasion, to enable survival within a host, a feature that requires both genetic events and membrane transport mechanisms in African trypanosomes. Intracellular trafficking not only plays a role in immune evasion, but also in homeostasis of intracellular and extracellular compartments and interactions with the environment...
July 20, 2018: Genes
Kiril Mishev, Qing Lu, Bram Denoo, François Peurois, Wim Dejonghe, Jan Hullaert, Riet Maria De Rycke, Sjef Boeren, Marine Bretou, Steven De Munck, Isha Sharma Sharma, Kaija Goodman, Kamila Kalinowska, Véronique Storme, Long Nguyen, Andrzej Drozdzecki, Sara Martins, Wim Nerinckx, Dominique Audenaert, Grégory Vert, Annemieke Madder, Marisa S Otegui, Erika Isono, Savvas Savvides, Wim Annaert, Sacco C de Vries, Jacqueline Cherfils, Johan Winne, Eugenia Russinova
Small GTP-binding proteins from the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family are important regulators of vesicle formation and cellular trafficking in all eukaryotes. ARF activation is accomplished by a protein family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that contain a conserved catalytic Sec7 domain. Here, we identified and characterized Secdin, a small-molecule inhibitor of Arabidopsis thaliana ARF GEFs. Secdin application caused aberrant retention of plasma membrane (PM) proteins in late endosomal compartments, enhanced vacuolar degradation, impaired protein recycling, and delayed secretion and endocytosis...
July 17, 2018: Plant Cell
Qi Zhao, Wenxin Chen, Jiayi Bian, Hao Xie, Ying Li, Chenxi Xu, Jun Ma, Siyi Guo, Jiaying Chen, Xiaofeng Cai, Xiaoli Wang, Quanhua Wang, Yimin She, Sixue Chen, Zhiqiang Zhou, Shaojun Dai
Elevated temperatures limit plant growth and reproduction and pose a growing threat to agriculture. Plant heat stress response is highly conserved and fine-tuned in multiple pathways. Spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) is a cold tolerant but heat sensitive green leafy vegetable. In this study, heat adaptation mechanisms in a spinach sibling inbred heat-tolerant line Sp75 were investigated using physiological, proteomic, and phosphoproteomic approaches. The abundance patterns of 911 heat stress-responsive proteins, and phosphorylation level changes of 45 phosphoproteins indicated heat-induced calcium-mediated signaling, ROS homeostasis, endomembrane trafficking, and cross-membrane transport pathways, as well as more than 15 transcription regulation factors...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ming He, Miao Lan, Baocai Zhang, Yihua Zhou, Youqun Wang, Lei Zhu, Ming Yuan, Ying Fu
Cell-wall deposition of cellulose microfibrils is essential for plant growth and development. In plant cells, cellulose synthesis is accomplished by cellulose synthase complexes located in the plasma membrane. Trafficking of the complex between endomembrane compartments and the plasma membrane is vital for cellulose biosynthesis; however, the mechanism for this process is not well understood. We here report that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, Rab-H1b, a Golgi-localized small GTPase, participates in the trafficking of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 6 (CESA6) to the plasma membrane...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Divya Venkatesh, Ning Zhang, Martin Zoltner, Ricardo Canavate Del Pino, Mark C Field
The kinetoplastida and their close relatives are unicellular organisms prevalent within the biosphere and important for significant impacts on global health, economy and ecosystems. They are, under most models, an early branching lineage. Individual species adapted to highly diverse environments by adopting complex life styles; parasitic species can infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts, while many relatives are free-living and some autotrophic from acquiring a plastid for photosynthesis. Adaptation is especially evident in the evolution of kinetoplastid cell surface architecture and is supported by endomembrane trafficking and serves as a platform for interaction with its environment...
July 4, 2018: Traffic
L Pizarro, M Leibman-Markus, S Schuster, M Bar, A Avni
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) are plasma membrane (PM) proteins that recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), triggering an immune response. PRR are classified as receptor like kinases (RLKs) or receptor like proteins (RLPs). The PM localization of PRRs, which is crucial for their availability to sense MAMPs, depends on their appropriate trafficking through the endomembrane system. Recently, we have identified SlPRA1A, a prenylated RAB acceptor type-1 (PRA1) from S. lycopersicum, as a regulator of RLP-PRR localization and protein levels...
2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Joel B Dacks, Mark C Field
From unicellular protists to the largest megafauna and flora, all eukaryotes depend upon the organelles and processes of the intracellular membrane trafficking system. Well-defined machinery selectively packages and delivers material between endomembrane organelles and imports and exports material from the cell surface. This process underlies intracellular compartmentalization and facilitates myriad processes that define eukaryotic biology. Membrane trafficking is a landmark in the origins of the eukaryotic cell and recent work has begun to unravel how the revolution in cellular structure occurred...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Eszter Kapusi, Eva Stöger
The CRISPR/Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes is an increasingly popular tool for genome editing due to its ease of application. Here we demonstrate genomic DNA fragment removal using RNA directed Cas9 nuclease in barley. The high mutation frequency confirms the exceptional efficiency of the system and its suitability for generating loss-of-function mutant lines that may be used in functional genetics approaches to study endomembrane trafficking pathways and posttranslational protein modifications. The generation of doubled haploids from genome edited plants allows the recovery of true breeding lines that are instantly homozygous for the edited alleles...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Matthieu Pierre Platre, Lise C Noack, Mehdi Doumane, Vincent Bayle, Mathilde Laetitia Audrey Simon, Lilly Maneta-Peyret, Laetitia Fouillen, Thomas Stanislas, Laia Armengot, Přemysl Pejchar, Marie-Cécile Caillaud, Martin Potocký, Alenka Čopič, Patrick Moreau, Yvon Jaillais
Membrane surface charge is critical for the transient, yet specific recruitment of proteins with polybasic regions to certain organelles. In eukaryotes, the plasma membrane (PM) is the most electronegative compartment of the cell, which specifies its identity. As such, membrane electrostatics is a central parameter in signaling, intracellular trafficking, and polarity. Here, we explore which are the lipids that control membrane electrostatics using plants as a model. We show that phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), phosphatidic acidic (PA), and phosphatidylserine (PS) are separately required to generate the electrostatic signature of the plant PM...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Cell
Vojtěch Beneš, Tereza Leonhardt, Jan Sácký, Pavel Kotrba
As we have shown previously, the Cu and Ag concentrations in the sporocarps of Ag-hyperaccumulating Amanita strobiliformis are correlated, and both metals share the same uptake system and are sequestered by the same metallothioneins intracellularly. To further improve our knowledge of the Cu and Ag handling in A. strobiliformis cells, we searched its transcriptome for the P1B-1 -ATPases, recognizing Cu+ and Ag+ for transport. We identified transcripts encoding 1097-amino acid (AA) AsCRD1 and 978-AA AsCCC2, which were further subjected to functional studies in metal sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pierre-Mehdi Hammoudi, Bohumil Maco, Sunil Kumar Dogga, Karine Frénal, Dominique Soldati-Favre
Invasion and egress are two key steps in the lytic cycle of Apicomplexa that are governed by the sequential discharge of proteins from two apical secretory organelles called micronemes and rhoptries. In Toxoplasma gondii, the biogenesis of these specialized organelles depends on the post Golgi trafficking machinery, forming an endosomal-like compartment (ELC) resembling endomembrane systems found in eukaryotes. In this study, we have characterized four phylogenetically related Transporter Facilitator Proteins (TFPs) conserved among the apicomplexans...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
R L Juliano
Understanding the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of oligonucleotides provides an important basic underpinning for the developing field of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics. Whether delivered as "free" oligonucleotides, as ligand-oligonucleotide conjugates, or in association with various nanocarriers, all forms of oligonucleotide enter cells by endocytosis and are initially ensconced within membrane-limited vesicles. Accordingly, the locus and extent of release to the cytosol and nucleus are key determinants of the pharmacological actions of oligonucleotides...
June 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
Heven Sze, Salil Chanroj
Plants remodel their cells through the dynamic endomembrane system. Intracellular pH is important for membrane trafficking, but the determinants of pH homeostasis are poorly defined in plants. Electrogenic proton (H+ ) pumps depend on counter-ion fluxes to establish transmembrane pH gradients at the plasma membrane and endomembranes. Vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase-mediated acidification of the trans-Golgi network is crucial for secretion and membrane recycling. Pump and counter-ion fluxes are unlikely to fine-tune pH; rather, alkali cation/H+ antiporters, which can alter pH and/or cation homeostasis locally and transiently, are prime candidates...
July 2018: Plant Physiology
Francesca Zappa, Mario Failli, Maria Antonietta De Matteis
The Golgi complex occupies a strategic position in the endomembrane system and acts not only as a key trafficking and sorting station and a vital biosynthetic center for glycoproteins and lipids, but also as an active signaling hub. As such, the Golgi complex participates in the establishment and maintenance of cell compartmentalization and in general, cell processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. The different functions of the Golgi complex are executed by composite molecular machineries that have been exhaustively dissected over the last three decades...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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