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Vesicular trafficking

Yongil Yang, Hong-Li Chou, Andrew J Crofts, Laining Zhang, Li Tian, Haruhiko Washida, Masako Fukuda, Toshihiro Kumamaru, Oliver J Oviedo, Shawn Starkenburg, Thomas W Okita
The transport of rice glutelin storage proteins to the storage vacuoles requires Rab5 and its cognate guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rab5-GEF). Loss of function of these membrane vesicular trafficking factors results in the initial secretion of storage proteins and later their partial engulfment by the plasma membrane to form an extracellular paramural body (PMB); an aborted endosome complex. Here we show that in the Rab5-GEF mutant glup6 line, glutelin RNAs are specifically mis-localized from their normal location on the cisternal-ER to the protein body-ER and also apparently translocated to the PMBs...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Abby Adams, Steven A Weinman, Ann L Wozniak
Intracellular trafficking is a tightly regulated cellular process, mediated in part by Rab GTPases and their corresponding effector proteins. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to hijack these processes to promote their lifecycles. Here we describe a mechanism by which cleavage of the Rab7 adaptor protein, RILP (Rab interacting lysosomal protein) is induced by viral infection. We report that RILP is directly cleaved by caspase-1 and we have identified a novel caspase-1 recognition site at aspartic acid 75 within the RILP sequence...
August 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nathan James Lanning, Calvin VanOpstall, Megan L Goodall, Jeffrey P MacKeigan, Brendan David Looyenga
Defects in vesicular trafficking underlie a wide variety of human diseases. Genetic disruption of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) in rodents results in epithelial vesicular trafficking errors that can also be induced by treatment of animals with LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. Here we demonstrate that defects in human renal cells lacking LRRK2 phenocopy those seen in the kidneys of Lrrk2 knockout mice, characterized by accumulation of intracellular waste vesicles and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. This phenotype can be recapitulated by knockdown of N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF), which physically associates with LRRK2 in renal cells...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Wayne Stallaert, Yannick Brüggemann, Ola Sabet, Lisa Baak, Marina Gattiglio, Philippe I H Bastiaens
The ability of cells to adapt their response to growth factors in relation to their environment is an essential aspect of tissue development and homeostasis. We found that signaling mediated by the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases from cell-cell contacts changed the cellular response to the growth factor EGF by modulating the vesicular trafficking of its receptor, EGFR. Eph receptor activation trapped EGFR in Rab5-positive early endosomes by inhibiting Akt-dependent vesicular recycling. By altering the spatial distribution of EGFR activity, EGF-promoted Akt signaling from the plasma membrane was suppressed, thereby inhibiting cell migration...
July 31, 2018: Science Signaling
Mohsen Khosravi, Reza Hosseini-Fard, Mohammad Najafi
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles are known as atherogenic agents in coronary artery diseases. They modify to other electronegative forms and may be the subject for improvement of inflammatory events in vessel subendothelial spaces. The circulating LDL value is associated with the plasma PCSK-9 level. They internalize into macrophages using the lysosomal receptor-mediated pathways. LDL uptake is related to the membrane scavenger receptors, modifications of lipid and protein components of LDL particles, vesicular maturation and lipid stores of cells...
July 31, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Upasna Sharma, Fengyun Sun, Colin C Conine, Brian Reichholf, Shweta Kukreja, Veronika A Herzog, Stefan L Ameres, Oliver J Rando
The biogenesis of the RNA payload of mature sperm is of great interest, because RNAs delivered to the zygote at fertilization can affect early development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that small RNAs are trafficked to mammalian sperm during the process of post-testicular maturation in the epididymis. By characterizing small RNA dynamics during germ cell maturation in mice, we confirm and extend prior observations that sperm undergo a dramatic switch in the RNA payload from piRNAs to tRNA fragments (tRFs) upon exiting the testis and entering the epididymis...
July 16, 2018: Developmental Cell
Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Lilla Turiák, Alfredo Ambrosone, Pasquale Del Gaudio, Gina Puska, Immacolata Fiume, Teresa Silvestre, Károly Vékey
Cell-derived vesicles are membrane-enclosed organelles that transport material inside and outside the cell. Plant-derived vesicles are receiving more and more attention due to their potential as nanovectors for the delivery of biologically active substances. Here, we studied the heterogeneity and protein biocargo in citrus fruit juice sac cell-derived vesicles populations. Micro- and nano-sized vesicle fractions were isolated from four citrus species, C. sinensis, C. limon, C. paradisi and C. aurantium, characterized using physicochemical methods and protein cargos were compared using label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Jordi Gamir, Victoria Pastor, Paloma Sánchez-Bel, Blas Agut, Diego Mateu, Javier García-Andrade, Víctor Flors
A fast callose accumulation has been shown to mediate defence priming in certain plant-pathogen interactions, but the events upstream callose assembly following chemical priming are poorly understood mainly those steps that comprise sugar transfer to the infection site. β-amino butyric acid (BABA)-induced resistance in Arabidopsis against Plectosphaerella cucumerina is known to be mediated by callose priming. Indole-3-caboxylic acid (ICOOH, also known as I3CA), mediates BABA-induced resistance in Arabidopsis against P...
July 27, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Emilie Hangen, Fabrice P Cordelières, Jennifer D Petersen, Daniel Choquet, Françoise Coussen
Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking is a key modulator of excitatory synaptic transmission; however, intracellular vesicular transport of newly synthesized AMPARs has been little studied due to technical limitations. By combining molecular tools with imaging strategies in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we found that vesicles containing newly synthesized, GluA1-subunit-containing AMPARs are transported antero- and retrogradely at a mean speed of 1.5 μm.s-1 . Synaptic activity and variations in intracellular calcium levels bidirectionally modulate GluA1 transport...
July 24, 2018: Cell Reports
Lívia A S Carmo, Kennedy Bonjour, Lisa A Spencer, Peter F Weller, Rossana C N Melo
Human eosinophils release numerous cytokines that are pre-synthesized and stored within their cytoplasmic-specific (secretory) granules. For example, high levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) are constitutively expressed in these cells, but the intracellular compartments involved in the transport and release of this cytokine remain to be established. In this work, we used a single-cell approach to investigate the subcellular localization of IFN-γ in human eosinophils stimulated or not with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), inflammatory mediators that induce eosinophil activation and secretion...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ping Wang, Yun Sun, Yakun Pei, Xiancai Li, Xueyan Zhang, Fuguang Li, Yuxia Hou
Soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins mediate membrane fusion and deliver cargo to specific cellular locations through vesicle trafficking. Synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) is a target membrane SNARE that drives exocytosis by fusing plasma and vesicular membranes. In this study, we isolated GhSNAP33 , a gene from cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ), encoding a SNAP25-type protein containing glutamine (Q)b- and Qc-SNARE motifs connected by a linker...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Merlin Nanayakkara, Giuliana Lania, Mariantonia Maglio, Renata Auricchio, Cristiana De Musis, Valentina Discepolo, Erasmo Miele, Bana Jabri, Riccardo Troncone, Salvatore Auricchio, Maria Vittoria Barone
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the intestinal mucosa due to an immune response to wheat gliadins. Some gliadin peptides are resistant to intestinal digestion (e.g., A-gliadin P31-43) and induce a stress/innate immune response, but the reason why they are dangerous in the intestines of patients with CD is unknown. In the present study, P31-43 activated IFN-α, a mediator of the innate immune response in CD, in the intestine of subjects with CD and an enterocyte cell line, CaCo-2...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jee-San Lee, Mi-Yeun Kim, Eun-Ran Park, Yan Nan Shen, Ju-Yeon Jeon, Eung-Ho Cho, Sun-Hoo Park, Chul Ju Han, Dong Wook Choi, Ja June Jang, Kyung-Suk Suh, Jungil Hong, Sang Bum Kim, Kee-Ho Lee
Transmembrane protein 165 (TMEM165), a Golgi protein, functions in ion homeostasis and vesicular trafficking in the Golgi apparatus. While mutations in TMEM165 are known to cause human 'congenital disorders of glycosylation', a recessive autosomal metabolic disease, the potential association of this protein with human cancer development has not been explored to date. In the present study, we revealed that TMEM165 is overexpressed in HCC and its depletion weakens the invasive activity of cancer cells through suppression of matrix metalloproteinase‑2 (MMP‑2) expression...
September 2018: Oncology Reports
Homa Sadeghian, Baptiste Lacoste, Tao Qin, Xavier Toussay, Roberto Rosa, Fumiaki Oka, David Y Chung, Tsubasa Takizawa, Chenghua Gu, Cenk Ayata
OBJECTIVE: Cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs) are intense and ubiquitous depolarization waves relevant for the pathophysiology of migraine and brain injury. CSDs disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but the mechanisms are unknown. METHODS: A total of six cortical SDs (CSDs) were evoked over 1h by topical application of 300 mM KCl or optogenetically with 470 nm (blue) LED over the right hemisphere in anesthetized mice (C57BL/6J wild type, Thy1-ChR2-YFP line 18 and cav-1-/- )...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Sarah Cohen, Alex M Valm, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
Eukaryotic cells are organized into membrane-bound organelles. These organelles communicate with one another through vesicular trafficking pathways and membrane contact sites (MCSs). MCSs are sites of close apposition between two or more organelles that play diverse roles in the exchange of metabolites, lipids and proteins. Organelle interactions at MCSs also are important for organelle division and biogenesis. For example, the division of several organelles, including mitochondria and endosomes, seem to be regulated by contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
July 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Azadeh Sabetghadam, Agnieszka Grabowiecka-Nowak, Alan Kania, Anna Gugula, Ewa Blasiak, Tomasz Blasiak, Sherie Ma, Andrew L Gundlach, Anna Blasiak
The rat nucleus incertus (NI) contains GABA/peptide-projection neurons responsive to orexin (hypocretin)/orexin receptor-2 (OX2 ) signalling. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin neurons often innervate and influence common target areas. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between these hypothalamic peptidergic systems and rat NI, by investigating the presence of an MCH innervation and MCH receptor-1 (MCH1 ) expression, and neurophysiological and behavioural effects of MCH c.f. orexin-A (OXA), within the NI...
September 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
R Ayana, Preeti Yadav, Rajesh Kumari, Dandugudumula Ramu, Swati Garg, Soumya Pati, Shailja Singh
Palmitoylation has been recently identified as an important post-translational rheostat for controlling protein function in eukaryotes. However, the molecular machinery underlying palmitoylation remains unclear in the neglected tropical parasite, Leishmania donovani . Herein, we have identified a catalog of 20 novel palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) and characterized the promastigote-specific PAT (LdPAT4) containing the canonical Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) domain. Immunofluorescence analysis using in-house generated LdPAT4-specific antibody demonstrated distinct expression of LdPAT4 in the flagellar pocket of promastigotes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Eleanor A Latomanski, Hayley J Newton
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen which causes Q fever, a human infection with the ability to cause chronic disease with potentially life-threatening outcomes. In humans, Coxiella infects alveolar macrophages where it replicates to high numbers in a unique, pathogen-directed lysosome-derived vacuole. This compartment, termed the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV), has a low internal pH and contains markers both of lysosomes and autophagosomes. The CCV membrane is also enriched with CLTC (clathrin heavy chain) and this contributes to the success of the CCV...
July 29, 2018: Autophagy
A Catania, R Battini, T Pippucci, R Pasquariello, M L Chiapparini, M Seri, B Garavaglia, G Zorzi, N Nardocci, D Ghezzi, V Tiranti
TFG (tropomyosin-receptor kinase fused gene) encodes an essential protein in the regulation of vesicular trafficking between endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. The homozygous variant c.316C > T within TFG has been previously associated with a complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) phenotype in two unrelated Indian families. Here, we describe the first Italian family with two affected siblings harboring the same variant, who in childhood were classified as infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) based on clinical and neuropathological findings...
August 2018: Neurogenetics
Debapriya Ghosh, Madeline Nieves-Cintrón, Sendoa Tajada, Ingrid Brust-Mascher, Mary C Horne, Johannes W Hell, Rose E Dixon, Luis F Santana, Manuel F Navedo
L-type CaV 1.2 channels are key regulators of gene expression, cell excitability and muscle contraction. CaV 1.2 channels organize in clusters throughout the plasma membrane. This channel organization has been suggested to contribute to the concerted activation of adjacent CaV 1.2 channels (e.g. cooperative gating). Here, we tested the hypothesis that dynamic intracellular and perimembrane trafficking of CaV 1.2 channels is critical for formation and dissolution of functional channel clusters mediating cooperative gating...
September 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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