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Interneuron AND Hippocampus

Hartmut T Bocker, Theresa Heinrich, Lutz Liebmann, J Christopher Hennings, Eric Seemann, Melanie Gerth, Igor Jakovcevski, Julia Preobraschenski, Michael M Kessels, Martin Westermann, Dirk Isbrandt, Reinhard Jahn, Britta Qualmann, Christian A Hübner
Brain functions are extremely sensitive to pH changes because of the pH-dependence of proteins involved in neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Here, we show that the Na+/H+ exchanger Nhe1, which uses the Na+ gradient to extrude H+, is expressed at both inhibitory and excitatory presynapses. We disrupted Nhe1 specifically in mice either in Emx1-positive glutamatergic neurons or in parvalbumin-positive cells, mainly GABAergic interneurons. While Nhe1 disruption in excitatory neurons had no effect on overall network excitability, mice with disruption of Nhe1 in parvalbumin-positive neurons displayed epileptic activity...
December 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Nichola Marie Brydges, Anna Moon, Lowenna Rule, Holly Watkin, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Experience of traumatic events in childhood is linked to an elevated risk of developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not fully understood. The limbic system, particularly the hippocampus, is significantly impacted by childhood trauma. In particular, it has been hypothesised that childhood stress may impact adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) and related behaviours, conferring increased risk for later mental illness. Stress in utero can lead to impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and stress in the first 2-3 weeks of life reduces AHN in animal models...
December 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Georgia Economides, Svenja Falk, Audrey Mercer
How cortical network activity processes information is of importance to a large number of basic and clinical scientific questions. The protocol described here identifies the basic building blocks of this circuitry. The in-depth studies of cortical regions will ultimately provide other scientists with the circuit components needed for an understanding of how the brain acquires, processes and stores information and what goes wrong in disease, while the electrophysiological and morphological data are widely used by computational neuroscientists in the construction of model networks that explore information processing...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Elise Magnin, Ruggiero Francavilla, Sona Amalyan, Etienne Gervais, Linda Suzanne David, Xiao Luo, Lisa Topolnik
Hippocampus-dependent learning processes are coordinated via a large diversity of GABAergic inhibitory mechanisms. The alpha5 subunit-containing GABAA receptor (α5-GABAA R) is abundantly expressed in the hippocampus populating primarily the extrasynaptic domain of CA1 pyramidal cells, where it mediates tonic inhibitory conductance and may cause functional deficits in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory. However, little is known about synaptic expression of the α5-GABAA R and, accordingly, its location site-specific function...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yuki Hashimotodani, Fuyuki Karube, Yuchio Yanagawa, Fumino Fujiyama, Masanobu Kano
The supramammillary nucleus (SuM) of the hypothalamus projects to the dentate gyrus (DG) and the CA2 region of the hippocampus. Although the SuM-to-hippocampus circuits have been implicated in spatial and emotional memory formation, little is known about precise neural connections between the SuM and hippocampus. Here, we report that axons of SuM neurons make monosynaptic connections to granule cells (GCs) and GABAergic interneurons, but not to hilar mossy cells, in the DG and co-release glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at these synapses...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Leiah M Luoma, Fred B Berry
BACKGROUND: NPAS3 encodes a transcription factor which has been associated with multiple human psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. In mice, deletion of Npas3 was found to cause alterations in neurodevelopment, as well as a marked reduction in neurogenesis in the adult mouse hippocampus. This neurogenic deficit, alongside the reduction in cortical interneuron number, likely contributes to the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in Npas3 knockout mice. Although loss of Npas3 has been found to affect proliferation and apoptosis, the molecular function of NPAS3 is largely uncharacterized outside of predictions based on its high homology to bHLH-PAS transcription factors...
December 3, 2018: BMC Molecular Biology
Ruggiero Francavilla, Vincent Villette, Xiao Luo, Simon Chamberland, Einer Muñoz-Pino, Olivier Camiré, Kristina Wagner, Viktor Kis, Peter Somogyi, Lisa Topolnik
GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus provide for local and long-distance coordination of neurons in functionally connected areas. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing (VIP+) interneurons occupy a distinct niche in circuitry as many of them specialize in innervating GABAergic cells, thus providing network disinhibition. In the CA1 hippocampus, VIP+ interneuron-selective cells target local interneurons. Here, we discover a type of VIP+ neuron whose axon innervates CA1 and also projects to the subiculum (VIP-LRPs)...
November 28, 2018: Nature Communications
J Jaworska-Adamu, A Krawczyk, K Rycerz, M Gołyński, A Wawrzyniak, K Lutnicki, I Balicki
Calretinin (CR), a calcium-binding protein from EF-hand family, is localised in non-pyramidal GABA-ergic interneurons of the hippocampus. CR takes part in maintaining calcium binding homeostasis, which suggests its neuroprotective role. Hippocampal neurons contain membrane transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) which binds to capsaicin (CAP) contained in habanero pepper fruits. Few in vivo studies have revealed the effect of CAP on interneurons containing CR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the CR immunoreac- tivity in interneurons of the hippocampal CA1 field and dentate gyrus (DG) in adult rats after intragastric admin- istration of the habanero pepper fruits...
September 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Benjamin G Gunn, Gissell A Sanchez, Gary Lynch, Tallie Z Baram, Yuncai Chen
Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons comprise an anatomically, neurochemically and electrophysiologically diverse population of cells that are essential for the generation of the oscillatory activity underlying hippocampal spatial and episodic memory processes. Here, we aimed to characterize a population of interneurons that express the stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) within existing interneuronal categories through the use of combined electrophysiological and immunocytochemical approaches...
November 20, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Jiayuan Xu, Qiaojun Li, Wen Qin, Mulin Jun Li, Chuanjun Zhuo, Huaigui Liu, Feng Liu, Junping Wang, Gunter Schumann, Chunshui Yu
Depression increases the conversion risk from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease with unknown mechanisms. We hypothesize that the cumulative genomic risk for major depressive disorder may be a candidate cause for the increased conversion risk. Here, we aimed to investigate the predictive effect of the polygenic risk scores of major depressive disorder-specific genetic variants (PRSsMDD) on the conversion from non-depressed amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease, and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms...
December 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Chen Qiu, Zhouyan Feng, Lvpiao Zheng, Lu Huang
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has a good prospect in treating brain diseases such as epilepsy. However, its therapeutic mechanism is undetermined yet. To investigate the inhibitory effects of DBS acting on the downstream neurons in target region, 1-min pulse trains of orthodromic stimulations with various frequencies (10 - 100 Hz) were applied to the Schaffer collaterals of hippocampal CA1 region in anaesthetized rats. Unit spikes of downstream interneurons and pyramidal cells were detected and analyzed. Interneurons activated by the stimulation through mono-synaptic connections were recognized based on short latencies...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Zé Henrique T D Góis, Adriano B L Tort
Spatial navigation relies on visual landmarks as well as on self-motion information. In familiar environments, both place and grid cells maintain their firing fields in darkness, suggesting that they continuously receive information about locomotion speed required for path integration. Consistently, "speed cells" have been previously identified in the hippocampal formation and characterized in detail in the medial entorhinal cortex. Here we investigated speed-correlated firing in the hippocampus...
November 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Eric D Melonakos, John A White, Fernando R Fernandez
Sharp wave-ripples (140-220 Hz) are patterns of brain activity observed in the local field potential of the hippocampus which are present during memory consolidation. As rodents switch from memory consolidation to memory encoding behaviors, cholinergic inputs to the hippocampus from neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca cause a marked reduction in ripple incidence. The mechanism for this disruption in ripple power is not fully understood. In isolated neurons, the major effect of cholinergic input on hippocampal neurons is depolarization of the membrane potential, which affects both hippocampal pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons...
November 12, 2018: Hippocampus
Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli
Theta oscillations (4-12 Hz) represent one of the most prominent physiological oscillatory activity in the mammalian EEG. They are observed in several areas of the hippocampus and in parahippocampal structures. Theta oscillations play important roles in modulating synaptic plasticity during memory and learning; moreover, they are dependent on septal cholinergic inputs. Theta oscillations can be reproduced in vitro in several regions of the temporal lobe in the absence of the septum by employing the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh)...
October 28, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Ahmed T Hussin, Timothy K Leonard, Kari L Hoffman
Sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) are spontaneous, synchronized neural population events in the hippocampus widely thought to play a role in memory consolidation and retrieval. They occur predominantly in sleep and quiet immobility, and in primates they also appear during active visual exploration. Typical measures of SWRs in behaving rats include changes in rate of occurrence, or in the incidence of specific neural ensemble activity contained within the categorical SWR event. Much less is known about the relevance of spatiotemporal SWR features, though they may index underlying activity of specific cell types including ensemble-specific internally generated sequences...
October 29, 2018: Hippocampus
Txomin Lalanne, Julia Oyrer, Mark Farrant, P Jesper Sjöström
Calcium-permeable (CP) AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are known to mediate synaptic plasticity in several different interneuron (IN) types. Recent evidence suggests that CP-AMPARs are synapse-specifically expressed at excitatory connections onto a subset of IN types in hippocampus and neocortex. For example, CP-AMPARs are found at connections from pyramidal cells (PCs) to basket cells (BCs), but not to Martinotti cells (MCs). This synapse type-specific expression of CP-AMPARs suggests that synaptic dynamics as well as learning rules are differentially implemented in local circuits and has important implications not just in health but also in disease states such as epilepsy...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Ivana Perić, Andrijana Stanisavljević, Dragos Inta, Peter Gass, Lang E Undine, Stefan Borgwardt, Dragana Filipović
Adult male rats exposed to chronic social isolation (CSIS) show depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors and reduce the numbers of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons in the dorsal hippocampus. We aimed to determine whether tianeptine (Tian), administered during the last three weeks of a six-week-social isolation (10 mg/kg/day), may reverse CSIS-induced behavioral changes and antagonize the CSIS-induced reduction in the number of PV+ interneurons. We also studied whether Tian affects the GABA-producing enzyme GAD67+ cells, in Stratum Oriens (SO), Stratum Pyramidale (SP), Stratum Radiatum (SR) and Stratum Lacunosum Moleculare (LM) of CA1-3, as well as in molecular layer-granule cell layer (ML-GCL) and Hilus (H) of the dentate gyrus (DG)...
October 25, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Nickesha C Anderson, Meghan A Van Zandt, Swechhya Shrestha, Daniel B Lawrence, Jyoti Gupta, Christopher Y Chen, Felicia A Harrsch, Trinithas Boyi, Carolyn E Dundes, Gloster Aaron, Janice R Naegele, Laura Grabel
GABAergic interneuron dysfunction has been implicated in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), autism, and schizophrenia. Inhibitory interneuron progenitors transplanted into the hippocampus of rodents with TLE provide varying degrees of seizure suppression. We investigated whether human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived interneuron progenitors (hESNPs) could differentiate, correct hippocampal-dependent spatial memory deficits, and suppress seizures in a pilocarpine-induced TLE mouse model. We found that transplanted ventralized hESNPs differentiated into mature GABAergic interneurons and became electrophysiologically active with mature firing patterns...
October 5, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Heng Zhang, Xiao He, Yufei Mei, Qingzhou Ling
Parvalbumin (PV) positive interneurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) can regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. ErbB4 is mainly expressed in PV neurons in the hippocampus and is crucial for keeping normal function of PV neurons. However, whether ErbB4 in PV interneurons affects the adult hippocampal neurogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we deleted ErbB4 specifically in PV neurons by crossing PV-Cre mice with ErbB4f/f mice. Results of BrdU labeling and NeuN staining revealed that the proliferation of neural progenitors was increased but the survival and maturation of newborn neurons were decreased in the hippocampus of mice after deleting ErbB4 in PV neurons, suggesting that ErbB4 in PV neurons is closely associated with the process of adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Beatrice Uguagliati, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Renata Bartesaghi, Sandra Guidi
Intellectual disability in Down syndrome (DS) has been attributed to neurogenesis impairment during fetal brain development. Consistently with explicit memory alterations observed in children with DS, fetuses with DS exhibit neurogenesis impairment in the hippocampus, a key region involved in memory formation and consolidation. Recent evidence suggests that the subiculum plays a unique role in memory retrieval, a process that is also altered in DS. While much attention has been devoted to the hippocampus, there is a striking lack of information regarding the subiculum of individuals with DS and DS models...
October 16, 2018: Brain Pathology
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