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Interneuron AND Dentate Gyrus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30249791/inhibitory-connectivity-dominates-the-fan-cell-network-in-layer-ii-of-lateral-entorhinal-cortex
#1
Eirik S Nilssen, Bente Jacobsen, Gunhild Fjeld, Rajeevkumar R Nair, Stefan Blankvoort, Clifford Kentros, Menno P Witter
Fan cells in layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) form a main component of the projection to the dentate gyrus, CA3 and CA2 of the hippocampal formation. This projection has a counterpart originating from stellate cells in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). Available evidence suggests that the two pathways carry different information, exemplified by a difference in spatial tuning of cells in LEC and MEC. The grid cell, a prominent position-modulated cell type present in MEC, has been postulated to derive its characteristic hexagonal firing pattern from dominant disynaptic inhibitory connections between hippocampal-projecting stellate cells...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145270/radioprotective-effect-of-epimedium-on-neurogenesis-and-cognition-after-acute-radiation-exposure
#2
Si Wei Wang, Bo Xu Ren, Feng Qian, Xue Zhi Luo, Xi Tang, Xiao Chun Peng, Jiang Rong Huang, Feng Ru Tang
The radioprotective effect of herb epimedium (or yin yang huo) extract (5 g/kg, oral administration daily for 4 weeks) on neurogenesis and cognition after acute radiation exposure with 5.5 Gy was evaluated in Balb/c mice by behavioral tests and immunohistochemical study. The results indicated that epimedium extract could improve animal weight loss, locomotor activity and spatial learning and memory which are similar to pre-irradiation intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) of amifostine phosphate, a well- known radioprotective drug...
August 23, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30136690/cognitive-impairment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-reduced-long-term-depression-of-excitatory-postsynaptic-potential-in-the-rat-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus
#3
Bao-Liang Zhang, Yue-Shan Fan, Ji-Wei Wang, Zi-Wei Zhou, Yin-Gang Wu, Meng-Chen Yang, Dong-Dong Sun, Jian-Ning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury can cause loss of neuronal tissue, remote symptomatic epilepsy, and cognitive deficits. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of traumatic brain injury are not yet clear. Hippocampal excitability is strongly correlated with cognitive dysfunction and remote symptomatic epilepsy. In this study, we examined the relationship between traumatic brain injury-induced neuronal loss and subsequent hippocampal regional excitability. We used hydraulic percussion to generate a rat model of traumatic brain injury...
October 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098388/astrocytic-rather-than-neuronal-p2x7-receptors-modulate-the-function-of-the-tri-synaptic-network-in-the-rodent-hippocampus
#4
Muhammad Tahir Khan, Jan Deussing, Yong Tang, Peter Illes
Whole-cell patch clamp recordings demonstrated that in the dentate gyrus (DG) as well as in the CA3 area of mouse hippocampal slices the prototypic P2X7 receptor (R) agonist dibenzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP) induced inward current responses both in neurons and astrocytes. Whereas the selective P2X7R antagonist A438079 strongly inhibited both neuronal and astrocytic currents, a combination of ionotropic glutamate receptor (CNQX, AP-5) and GABAA -R (gabazine) antagonists depressed the Bz-ATP-induced current responses in the DG (granule cells) and CA3 neurons only...
August 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057205/mossy-cells-control-adult-neural-stem-cell-quiescence-and-maintenance-through-a-dynamic-balance-between-direct-and-indirect-pathways
#5
Chia-Yu Yeh, Brent Asrican, Jonathan Moss, Luis Jhoan Quintanilla, Ting He, Xia Mao, Frederic Cassé, Elias Gebara, Hechen Bao, Wei Lu, Nicolas Toni, Juan Song
Mossy cells (MCs) represent a major population of excitatory neurons in the adult dentate gyrus, a brain region where new neurons are generated from radial neural stem cells (rNSCs) throughout life. Little is known about the role of MCs in regulating rNSCs. Here we demonstrate that MC commissural projections structurally and functionally interact with rNSCs through both the direct glutamatergic MC-rNSC pathway and the indirect GABAergic MC-local interneuron-rNSC pathway. Specifically, moderate MC activation increases rNSC quiescence through the dominant indirect pathway, while high MC activation increases rNSC activation through the dominant direct pathway...
August 8, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022251/cell-type-specific-effects-of-bdnf-in-modulating-dendritic-architecture-of-hippocampal-neurons
#6
Marta Zagrebelsky, N Gödecke, A Remus, Martin Korte
Brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) has been implicated in neuronal survival, differentiation and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. It was suggested that during postnatal development BDNF regulates neuronal architecture and spine morphology of neurons within certain brain areas but not others. Particularly striking are the differences between striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Whether this is due to region- or cell type-specific effects is so far not known. We address this question using conditional bdnf knock-out mice to analyze neuronal architecture and spine morphology of pyramidal cortical and hippocampal neurons as well as inhibitory neurons from these brain areas and excitatory granule neurons from the dentate gyrus...
November 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915136/constitutive-and-synaptic-activation-of-girk-channels-differentiates-mature-and-newborn-dentate-granule-cells
#7
Jose Carlos Gonzalez, S Alisha Epps, Sean J Markwardt, Jacques I Wadiche, Linda Overstreet-Wadiche
Sparse neural activity in the dentate gyrus is enforced by powerful networks of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons in combination with low intrinsic excitability of the principal neurons, the dentate granule cells (GCs). Although the cellular and circuit properties that dictate synaptic inhibition are well studied, less is known about mechanisms that confer low GC intrinsic excitability. Here we demonstrate that intact G protein-mediated signaling contributes to the characteristic low resting membrane potential that differentiates mature dentate GCs from CA1 pyramidal cells and developing adult-born GCs...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802758/iplasticity-induced-juvenile-like-plasticity-in-the-adult-brain-as-a-mechanism-of-antidepressants
#8
REVIEW
Juzoh Umemori, Frederike Winkel, Giuliano Didio, Maria Llach Pou, Eero Castrén
The network hypothesis of depression proposes that mood disorders reflect problems in information processing within particular neural networks. Antidepressants (AD), including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), function by gradually improving information processing within these networks. AD have been shown to induce a state of juvenile-like plasticity comparable to that observed during developmental critical periods: Such critical-period-like plasticity allows brain networks to better adapt to extrinsic and intrinsic signals...
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#9
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A S Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731252/on-how-the-dentate-gyrus-contributes-to-memory-discrimination
#10
Milenna Tamara van Dijk, André Antonio Fenton
The dentate gyrus (DG) is crucial for behaviorally discriminating similar spatial memories, predicting that DG place cells change ("remap") their relative spatial tuning ("place fields") for memory discrimination. This prediction was never tested, although DG place cells remap across similar environments without memory tasks. We confirm this prior finding but find that DG place fields do not remap across spatial tasks that require DG-dependent memory discrimination. Instead of remapping, place-discriminating discharge is observed transiently among DG place cells, particularly when memory discrimination is most necessary...
May 16, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529016/dentate-granule-cell-recruitment-of-feedforward-inhibition-governs-engram-maintenance-and-remote-memory-generalization
#11
Nannan Guo, Marta E Soden, Charlotte Herber, Michael TaeWoo Kim, Antoine Besnard, Paoyan Lin, Xiang Ma, Constance L Cepko, Larry S Zweifel, Amar Sahay
Memories become less precise and generalized over time as memory traces reorganize in hippocampal-cortical networks. Increased time-dependent loss of memory precision is characterized by an overgeneralization of fear in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or age-related cognitive impairments. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), memories are thought to be encoded by so-called 'engram-bearing' dentate granule cells (eDGCs). Here we show, using rodents, that contextual fear conditioning increases connectivity between eDGCs and inhibitory interneurons (INs) in the downstream hippocampal CA3 region...
May 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520076/gaba-a-excitation-and-synaptogenesis-after-status-epilepticus-a-computational-study
#12
Keite Lira de Almeida França, Antônio-Carlos Guimarães de Almeida, Stephen E Saddow, Luiz Eduardo Canton Santos, Carla Alessandra Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Antônio Márcio Rodrigues
The role of GABAergic neurotransmission on epileptogenesis has been the subject of speculation according to different approaches. However, it is a very complex task to specifically consider the action of the GABAa neurotransmitter, which, in its dependence on the intracellular level of Cl- , can change its effect from inhibitory to excitatory. We have developed a computational model that represents the dentate gyrus and is composed of three different populations of neurons (granule cells, interneurons and mossy cells) that are mutually interconnected...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509279/abnormal-development-of-the-inferior-temporal-region-in-fetuses-with-down-syndrome
#13
Sandra Guidi, Andrea Giacomini, Fiorenza Stagni, Marco Emili, Beatrice Uguagliati, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Renata Bartesaghi
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic condition associated with impairment in several cognitive domains. Previous evidence showed a notable neurogenesis reduction in the hippocampal region of DS fetuses, which may account for the impairment of declarative memory that characterizes DS starting from early life stages. The fusiform gyrus (FG) and the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) play a key role in visual recognition memory, a function that is impaired in children and adults with DS. The goal of the current study was to establish whether fetuses with DS (17-21 weeks of gestation) exhibit neuroanatomical alterations in the FG and ITG that may underlie recognition memory impairment...
March 6, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476948/cx36-in-the-mouse-hippocampus-during-and-after-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#14
X L Wu, D M Ma, W Zhang, J S Zhou, Y W Huo, M Lu, F R Tang
Gap junctions play an important role in the synchronization activity of coupled cells. Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons are involved in epileptogenesis and seizure activity, and express gap junction protein connexin (Cx) 36. Cx36 is also localized in the axons (mossy fibers) of granule cells in the dentate gyrus. While it has been documented that Cx36 is involved in epileptogenesis, there are still controversies regarding the expression levels of Cx36 at different developmental stages of human and animal models of epileptogenesis...
March 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462278/neonatal-ethanol-disturbs-the-normal-maturation-of-parvalbumin-interneurons-surrounded-by-subsets-of-perineuronal-nets-in-the-cerebral-cortex-partial-reversal-by-lithium
#15
Mariko Saito, John F Smiley, Maria Hui, Kurt Masiello, Judith Betz, Maria Ilina, Mitsuo Saito, Donald A Wilson
Reduction in parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons is observed in adult mice exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 (P7), a late gestation fetal alcohol spectrum disorder model. To evaluate whether PV+ cells are lost, or PV expression is reduced, we quantified PV+ and associated perineuronal net (PNN)+ cell densities in barrel cortex. While PNN+ cell density was not reduced by P7 ethanol, PV cell density decreased by 25% at P90 with no decrease at P14. PNN+ cells in controls were virtually all PV+, whereas more than 20% lacked PV in ethanol-treated adult animals...
February 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335356/single-bursts-of-individual-granule-cells-functionally-rearrange-feedforward-inhibition
#16
Máté Neubrandt, Viktor János Oláh, János Brunner, Endre Levente Marosi, Ivan Soltesz, János Szabadics
The sparse single-spike activity of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) is punctuated by occasional brief bursts of 3-7 action potentials. It is well-known that such presynaptic bursts in individual mossy fibers (MFs; axons of granule cells) are often able to discharge postsynaptic CA3 pyramidal cells due to powerful short-term facilitation. However, what happens in the CA3 network after the passage of a brief MF burst, before the arrival of the next burst or solitary spike, is not understood. Because MFs innervate significantly more CA3 interneurons than pyramidal cells, we focused on unitary MF responses in identified interneurons in the seconds-long postburst period, using paired recordings in rat hippocampal slices...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301063/aberrant-epigenetic-gene-regulation-in-gabaergic-interneuron-subpopulations-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-of-mouse-offspring-following-developmental-exposure-to-hexachlorophene
#17
Yousuke Watanabe, Hajime Abe, Kota Nakajima, Maky Ideta-Otsuka, Katsuhide Igarashi, Gye-Hyeong Woo, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Maternal hexachlorophene (HCP) exposure causes transient disruption of hippocampal neurogenesis in mouse offspring. We examined epigenetically hypermethylated and downregulated genes related to this HCP-induced disrupted neurogenesis. Mated female mice were dietary exposed to 0 or 100 ppm HCP from gestational day 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21 on weaning. The hippocampal dentate gyrus of male offspring was subjected to methyl-capture sequencing and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses on PND 21...
May 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198757/behavior-dependent-activity-and-synaptic-organization-of-septo-hippocampal-gabaergic-neurons-selectively-targeting-the-hippocampal-ca3-area
#18
Abhilasha Joshi, Minas Salib, Tim James Viney, David Dupret, Peter Somogyi
Rhythmic medial septal (MS) GABAergic input coordinates cortical theta oscillations. However, the rules of innervation of cortical cells and regions by diverse septal neurons are unknown. We report a specialized population of septal GABAergic neurons, the Teevra cells, selectively innervating the hippocampal CA3 area bypassing CA1, CA2, and the dentate gyrus. Parvalbumin-immunopositive Teevra cells show the highest rhythmicity among MS neurons and fire with short burst duration (median, 38 ms) preferentially at the trough of both CA1 theta and slow irregular oscillations, coincident with highest hippocampal excitability...
December 20, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115458/effects-of-long%C3%A2-term-scopolamine-treatment-on-cognitive-deficits-and-calcium-binding-proteins-immunoreactivities-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#19
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Bai Hui Chen, Bing Chun Yan, Joon Ha Park, Il Jun Kang, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jeong Hwi Cho, Bich-Na Shin, Jae-Chul Lee, Yong Hwan Jeon, Seongkweon Hong, Young Joo Lee, Soo Young Choi, Moo-Ho Won
GABAergic projections terminate on numerous hippocampal interneurons containing calcium binding proteins (CBPs), including calbindin D‑28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV). Memory deficits and expression levels of CB, CR, and PV were examined in the hippocampal subregions following systemic scopolamine (Scop; 1 mg/kg) treatment for 4 weeks in mice. Scop treatment induced significant memory deficits from 1 week after Scop treatment. CB, CR and PV immunoreactivities distributions were in hippocampal subregions [CA1 and CA3 regions, and the dentate gyrus (DG)]...
January 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100013/long-range-gabaergic-inputs-regulate-neural-stem-cell-quiescence-and-control-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#20
Hechen Bao, Brent Asrican, Weidong Li, Bin Gu, Zhexing Wen, Szu-Aun Lim, Isaac Haniff, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Benjamin Philpot, Juan Song
The quiescence of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) is regulated by local parvalbumin (PV) interneurons within the dentate gyrus (DG). Little is known about how local PV interneurons communicate with distal brain regions to regulate NSCs and hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we identify GABAergic projection neurons from the medial septum (MS) as the major afferents to dentate PV interneurons. Surprisingly, dentate PV interneurons are depolarized by GABA signaling, which is in sharp contrast to most mature neurons hyperpolarized by GABA...
November 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
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