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Interneuron AND Neurogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266956/a-dual-role-for-the-transcription-factor-sp8-in-postnatal-neurogenesis
#1
Elodie Gaborieau, Anahi Hurtado-Chong, Maria Fernández, Kasum Azim, Olivier Raineteau
Neural stem cells (NSCs) of the postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) continue producing distinct subtypes of olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons throughout life. Understanding the transcriptional coding of this diversity remains a great challenge of modern neurosciences. Interneurons expressing calretinin (CalR) represent the main interneuron subtype produced in the glomerular cell layer (GL) after birth. Previous studies have suggested that their specification relies on expression of the transcription factor Sp8 by SVZ NSCs...
September 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145270/radioprotective-effect-of-epimedium-on-neurogenesis-and-cognition-after-acute-radiation-exposure
#2
Si Wei Wang, Bo Xu Ren, Feng Qian, Xue Zhi Luo, Xi Tang, Xiao Chun Peng, Jiang Rong Huang, Feng Ru Tang
The radioprotective effect of herb epimedium (or yin yang huo) extract (5 g/kg, oral administration daily for 4 weeks) on neurogenesis and cognition after acute radiation exposure with 5.5 Gy was evaluated in Balb/c mice by behavioral tests and immunohistochemical study. The results indicated that epimedium extract could improve animal weight loss, locomotor activity and spatial learning and memory which are similar to pre-irradiation intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) of amifostine phosphate, a well- known radioprotective drug...
August 23, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092230/disrupted-migration-and-proliferation-of-neuroblasts-after-postnatal-administration-of-angiogenesis-inhibitor
#3
Andreas Angelidis, Enikő Račeková, Petra Arnoul, Monika Závodská, Adam Raček, Marcela Martončíková
In adult rodents, neuroblasts originating from the subventricular zone migrate tangentially through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) toward the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into interneurons. Neuroblasts in the RMS migrate in chains for a long distance along specifically arranged blood vessels which promote their migration. Although blood vessels in the neurogenic region of the forebrain are present early in development, their rearrangement into this specific pattern takes place during the first postnatal weeks...
November 1, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034321/the-functional-role-of-olfactory-bulb-granule-cell-subtypes-derived-from-embryonic-and-postnatal-neurogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Hiroo Takahashi, Seiichi Yoshihara, Akio Tsuboi
It has been shown in a variety of mammalian species that sensory experience can regulate the development of various structures, including the retina, cortex, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb (OB). In the mammalian OB, the development of dendrites in excitatory projection neurons, such as mitral and tufted cells, is well known to be dependent on odor experience. Odor experience is also involved in the development of another OB population, a subset of inhibitory interneurons that are generated in the ventricular-subventricular zone throughout life and differentiate into granule cells (GCs) and periglomerular cells...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934351/the-neuroregenerative-capacity-of-olfactory-stem-cells-is-not-limitless-implications-for-aging
#5
Kevin M Child, Daniel B Herrick, James E Schwob, Eric H Holbrook, Woochan Jang
The olfactory epithelium (OE) of vertebrates is a highly regenerative neuroepithelium, maintained under normal condition by a population of stem and progenitor cells - globose basal cells (GBCs) that also contribute to epithelial reconstitution after injury. However, aging of the OE often leads to neurogenic exhaustion - the disappearance of both GBCs and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Aneuronal tissue may remain as olfactory, with an uninterrupted sheet of apically arrayed microvillar-capped sustentacular cell, or may undergo respiratory metaplasia...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802758/iplasticity-induced-juvenile-like-plasticity-in-the-adult-brain-as-a-mechanism-of-antidepressants
#6
REVIEW
Juzoh Umemori, Frederike Winkel, Giuliano Didio, Maria Llach Pou, Eero Castrén
The network hypothesis of depression proposes that mood disorders reflect problems in information processing within particular neural networks. Antidepressants (AD), including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), function by gradually improving information processing within these networks. AD have been shown to induce a state of juvenile-like plasticity comparable to that observed during developmental critical periods: Such critical-period-like plasticity allows brain networks to better adapt to extrinsic and intrinsic signals...
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766029/seizure-suppressant-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-encapsulated-bdnf-producing-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Chiara Falcicchia, Giovanna Paolone, Dwaine F Emerich, Francesca Lovisari, William J Bell, Tracie Fradet, Lars U Wahlberg, Michele Simonato
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may represent a therapeutic for chronic epilepsy, but evaluating its potential is complicated by difficulties in its delivery to the brain. Here, we describe the effects on epileptic seizures of encapsulated cell biodelivery (ECB) devices filled with genetically modified human cells engineered to release BDNF. These devices, implanted into the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats, highly decreased the frequency of spontaneous seizures by more than 80%. These benefits were associated with improved cognitive performance, as epileptic rats treated with BDNF performed significantly better on a novel object recognition test...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#8
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A S Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748916/zbtb20-regulates-developmental-neurogenesis-in-the-olfactory-bulb-and-gliogenesis-after-adult-brain-injury
#9
Thorsten R Doeppner, Josephine Herz, Mathias Bähr, Anton B Tonchev, Anastassia Stoykova
The transcription factor (TF) Zbtb20 is important for the hippocampal specification and the regulation of neurogenesis of neocortical projection neurons. Herein, we show a critical involvement of the TF Zbtb20 in the neurogenesis of both projection neurons and interneurons of the olfactory bulb during embryonic stages. Our data indicate that the lack of Zbtb20 significantly diminishes the generation of a set of early-born Tbr2+ neurons during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Zbtb20 regulates the transition between neurogenesis to gliogenesis in cortical radial glial progenitor cells at the perinatal (E18...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739868/the-dorsal-wave-of-neocortical-oligodendrogenesis-begins-embryonically-and-requires-multiple-sources-of-sonic-hedgehog
#10
Caitlin C Winkler, Odessa R Yabut, Santiago P Fregoso, Hector G Gomez, Brett E Dwyer, Samuel J Pleasure, Santos J Franco
Neural progenitor cells in the developing dorsal forebrain give rise to excitatory neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes for the neocortex. While we are starting to gain a better understanding about the mechanisms that direct the formation of neocortical neurons and astrocytes, far less is known about the molecular mechanisms that instruct dorsal forebrain progenitors to make oligodendrocytes. In this study, we show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is required in dorsal progenitors for their late embryonic transition to oligodendrogenesis...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686651/sex-steroids-and-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-ventricular-subventricular-zone
#11
REVIEW
Giovanna Ponti, Alice Farinetti, Marilena Marraudino, GianCarlo Panzica, Stefano Gotti
The forebrain ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) continuously generates new neurons throughout life. Neural stem cells (type B1 cells) along the lateral ventricle become activated, self-renew, and give rise to proliferating precursors which progress along the neurogenic lineage from intermediate progenitors (type C cells) to neuroblasts (type A cells). Neuroblasts proliferate and migrate into the olfactory bulb and differentiate into different interneuronal types. Multiple factors regulate each step of this process...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539641/a-single-cell-rna-seq-survey-of-the-developmental-landscape-of-the-human-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Suijuan Zhong, Shu Zhang, Xiaoying Fan, Qian Wu, Liying Yan, Ji Dong, Haofeng Zhang, Long Li, Le Sun, Na Pan, Xiaohui Xu, Fuchou Tang, Jun Zhang, Jie Qiao, Xiaoqun Wang
The mammalian prefrontal cortex comprises a set of highly specialized brain areas containing billions of cells and serves as the centre of the highest-order cognitive functions, such as memory, cognitive ability, decision-making and social behaviour. Although neural circuits are formed in the late stages of human embryonic development and even after birth, diverse classes of functional cells are generated and migrate to the appropriate locations earlier in development. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex contributes to cognitive deficits and the majority of neurodevelopmental disorders; there is therefore a need for detailed knowledge of the development of the prefrontal cortex...
March 22, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530528/regulation-by-commensal-bacteria-of-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-of-adult-mouse-brain
#13
Naoki Sawada, Takenori Kotani, Tasuku Konno, Jajar Setiawan, Yuka Nishigaito, Yasuyuki Saito, Yoji Murata, Ken-Ichi Nibu, Takashi Matozaki
In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells are continuously replaced by adult-born neurons, which are generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. We have now investigated the role of commensal bacteria in regulation of such neuronal cell turnover in the adult mouse brain. Administration of mixture of antibiotics to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice markedly attenuated the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into the SVZ cells. The treatment with antibiotics also reduced newly generated BrdU-positive neurons in the mouse OB...
April 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511358/neuronal-subtype-generation-during-postnatal-olfactory-bulb-neurogenesis
#14
Alexandra Angelova, Marie-Catherine Tiveron, Harold Cremer, Christophe Beclin
In the perinatal and adult forebrain, regionalized neural stem cells lining the ventricular walls produce different types of olfactory bulb interneurons. Although these postnatal stem cells are lineage related to their embryonic counterparts that produce, for example, cortical, septal, and striatal neurons, their output at the level of neuronal phenotype changes dramatically. Tiveron et al. investigated the molecular determinants underlying stem cell regionalization and the gene expression changes inducing the shift from embryonic to adult neuron production...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509279/abnormal-development-of-the-inferior-temporal-region-in-fetuses-with-down-syndrome
#15
Sandra Guidi, Andrea Giacomini, Fiorenza Stagni, Marco Emili, Beatrice Uguagliati, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Renata Bartesaghi
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic condition associated with impairment in several cognitive domains. Previous evidence showed a notable neurogenesis reduction in the hippocampal region of DS fetuses, which may account for the impairment of declarative memory that characterizes DS starting from early life stages. The fusiform gyrus (FG) and the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) play a key role in visual recognition memory, a function that is impaired in children and adults with DS. The goal of the current study was to establish whether fetuses with DS (17-21 weeks of gestation) exhibit neuroanatomical alterations in the FG and ITG that may underlie recognition memory impairment...
March 6, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492455/the-ancestral-retinoic-acid-receptor-was-a-low-affinity-sensor-triggering-neuronal-differentiation
#16
Mette Handberg-Thorsager, Juliana Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Stefan T Arold, Eswar Kumar Nadendla, Paola Y Bertucci, Pierre Germain, Pavel Tomançak, Keely Pierzchalski, Jace W Jones, Ricard Albalat, Maureen A Kane, William Bourguet, Vincent Laudet, Detlev Arendt, Michael Schubert
Retinoic acid (RA) is an important intercellular signaling molecule in vertebrate development, with a well-established role in the regulation of hox genes during hindbrain patterning and in neurogenesis. However, the evolutionary origin of the RA signaling pathway remains elusive. To elucidate the evolution of the RA signaling system, we characterized RA metabolism and signaling in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii , a powerful model for evolution, development, and neurobiology. Binding assays and crystal structure analyses show that the annelid retinoic acid receptor (RAR) binds RA and activates transcription just as vertebrate RARs, yet with a different ligand-binding pocket and lower binding affinity, suggesting a permissive rather than instructive role of RA signaling...
February 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489453/opposite-regulation-of-inhibition-by-adult-born-granule-cells-during-implicit-versus-explicit-olfactory-learning
#17
Nathalie Mandairon, Nicola Kuczewski, Florence Kermen, Jérémy Forest, Maellie Midroit, Marion Richard, Marc Thevenet, Joelle Sacquet, Christiane Linster, Anne Didier
Both passive exposure and active learning through reinforcement enhance fine sensory discrimination abilities. In the olfactory system, this enhancement is thought to occur partially through the integration of adult-born inhibitory interneurons resulting in a refinement of the representation of overlapping odorants. Here, we identify in mice a novel and unexpected dissociation between passive and active learning at the level of adult-born granule cells. Specifically, while both passive and active learning processes augment neurogenesis, adult-born cells differ in their morphology, functional coupling and thus their impact on olfactory bulb output...
February 28, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471869/type-2-diabetes-impairs-odour-detection-olfactory-memory-and-olfactory-neuroplasticity-effects-partly-reversed-by-the-dpp-4-inhibitor-linagliptin
#18
Grazyna Lietzau, William Davidsson, Claes-Göran Östenson, Fausto Chiazza, David Nathanson, Hiranya Pintana, Josefin Skogsberg, Thomas Klein, Thomas Nyström, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
Recent data suggest that olfactory deficits could represent an early marker and a pathogenic mechanism at the basis of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, research is needed to further characterize olfactory deficits in diabetes, their relation to cognitive decline and underlying mechanisms.The aim of this study was to determine whether T2D impairs odour detection, olfactory memory as well as neuroplasticity in two major brain areas responsible for olfaction and odour coding: the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and the piriform cortex (PC), respectively...
February 23, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449593/hemopexin-is-required-for-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-subventricular-zone-olfactory-bulb-pathway
#19
Yanling Zhu, Yang Qiu, Mengjia Chen, Yi Zhang, Li Cao, Zhida Su, Yimin Yuan, Aijun Huang, Yinyan Pu, Cheng He
The neural stem cells (NSCs) of the subventricular zone (SVZ) reside within a specialized niche critical for neurogenesis. Hemopexin, a plasma glycoprotein, has been extensively studied as a heme scavenger at the systemic level. However, little is known about its function in the central nervous system, especially in neurogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrate that deletion of hemopexin leads to neurogenic abnormalities in the SVZ/olfactory bulb (OB) pathway. The lateral ventricle is enlarged in hemopexin-deficient mice, and more apoptosis was observed in Dcx+ cells...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361548/maturation-of-neural-stem-cells-and-integration-into-hippocampal-circuits-a-functional-study-in-an-in-situ-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#20
Olga Kopach, Oksana Rybachuk, Volodymyr Krotov, Vitalii Kyryk, Nana Voitenko, Tatyana Pivneva
The hippocampus is the region of the brain that is most susceptible to ischemic lesion because it contains pyramidal neurons that are highly vulnerable to ischemic cell death. A restricted brain neurogenesis limits the possibility of reversing massive cell death after stroke and, hence, endorses cell-based therapies for neuronal replacement strategies following cerebral ischemia. Neurons differentiated from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) can mature and integrate into host circuitry, improving recovery after stroke...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
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