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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168963/a-comparison-of-positive-youth-development-against-depression-and-suicidal-ideation-in-youth-from-hong-kong-and-the-netherlands
#1
Cyrus L K Leung, Michael Bender, Sylvia Y C L Kwok
Background This study tests the buffering effects of positive youth development (PYD) factors against depression and suicidal ideation across Hong Kong and Dutch students. Methods We collected data on depression, suicidal ideation, history of childhood maltreatment, and PYD from 565 Dutch and Hong Kong undergraduates. The three PYD factors, prosocial attributes, positive identity, and cognitive-behavioral competence, were examined for their moderating role in the relationship among childhood maltreatment, depression, and suicidal ideation in path analysis...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168899/global-scales-for-cognitive-screening-in-parkinson-s-disease-critique-and-recommendations
#2
REVIEW
Matej Skorvanek, Jennifer G Goldman, Marjan Jahanshahi, Connie Marras, Irena Rektorova, Ben Schmand, Erik van Duijn, Christopher G Goetz, Daniel Weintraub, Glenn T Stebbins, Pablo Martinez-Martin
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson's disease, with deficits ranging from mild cognitive difficulties in 1 or more of the cognitive domains to severe dementia. The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society commissioned the assessment of the clinimetric properties of cognitive rating scales measuring global cognitive performance in PD to make recommendations regarding their use. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify the scales used to assess global cognitive performance in PD, and the identified scales were reviewed and rated as "recommended," "recommended with caveats," "suggested," or "listed" by the panel using previously established criteria...
November 23, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168463/a-preliminary-study-of-natural-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-by-using-multidimensional-approach
#3
Ashok Munivenkatappa, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhaval P Shukla, Jamuna Rajeswaran
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Spectrum of post-traumatic symptoms is frequent among mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients. They account for symptoms in 30-80 per cent of patients during 3-4 months and 20-30 per cent of patients six months post-injury. There are no studies from India in this area. The present longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate the natural recovery of post-traumatic symptoms in mTBI patients. METHODS: Twenty five mTBI patients presenting with initial Glasgow coma scale score of 15 were recruited initially 2-3 wk post-injury...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168451/intraindividual-cognitive-variability-an-examination-of-anam4-tbi-mil-simple-reaction-time-data-from-service-members-with-and-without-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Wesley R Cole, Emma Gregory, Jacques P Arrieux, F Jay Haran
OBJECTIVES: The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics 4 TBI-MIL (ANAM4) is a computerized cognitive test often used in post-concussion assessments with U.S. service members (SMs). However, existing evidence remains mixed regarding ANAM4's ability to identify cognitive issues following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Studies typically examine ANAM4 using standardized scores and/ or comparisons to a baseline. A more fine-grained approach involves examining inconsistency within an individual's performance (i...
November 23, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168235/effects-of-nutraceuticals-on-sexual-satisfaction-and-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-a-cohort-of-young-old-men
#5
Anna Perri, Alessandro Ilacqua, Marina Valenti, Antonio Aversa
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nutraceuticals containing multiple supplemental facts (Virherbe®/Rekupros®) on sexual satisfaction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in young-old men. In an open-label trial, 40 males (mean age 66 ± 13) with sexual disturbances and mild LUTS but without cognitive/motor impairment and clinical hypogonadism were enrolled. Sexual desire (SD; IIEF-SD domain) and satisfaction (Global Assessment Question; GAQ), the capacity to perform daily activities (evaluated by 6-min walking test [6MWT]), and International Prostate Symptoms Scores (IPSS) were evaluated before and after oral administration of 2 capsules/day of each supplement for 8 weeks...
November 23, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168225/gaba-modulating-phytomedicines-for-anxiety-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-evidence
#6
REVIEW
Karen Savage, Joseph Firth, Con Stough, Jerome Sarris
Anxiety disorders are chronic and functionally disabling conditions with high psychological stress, characterised by cognitive symptoms of excessive worry and focus difficulties and physiological symptoms such as muscle tension and insomnia. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system and is a key target of pharmacotherapies in the treatment of anxiety. Although current pharmaceutical treatments are often efficacious, they may cause undesirable side effects including cognitive decrements and withdrawal symptoms...
November 23, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168082/a-pilot-study-of-neuropsychological-functions-apoe-and-amyloid-imaging-in-patients-with-gliomas
#7
D D Correa, M Kryza-Lacombe, X Zhou, R E Baser, B J Beattie, Z Beiene, J Humm, L M DeAngelis, I Orlow, W Weber, J Osborne
Brain tumor patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) often develop cognitive dysfunction, and recent studies suggest that the APOE ε-4 allele may influence cognitive outcome. The ε-4 allele is known to promote beta (β) amyloid deposition in the cortex, and preliminary evidence suggests that RT may be associated with this process. However, it is unknown whether β-amyloid accumulation contributes to treatment neurotoxicity. In this pilot study, we assessed neuropsychological functions and β-amyloid retention using (18)F-florbetaben (FBB) PET in a subset of brain tumor patients who participated in our study of APOE polymorphisms and cognitive functions...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167913/synergistic-enhancing-memory-effect-of-donepezil-and-s-47445-an-ampa-positive-allosteric-modulator-in-middle-aged-and-aged-mice
#8
S Bretin, A Krazem, N Henkous, C Froger-Colleaux, E Mocaer, C Louis, N Perdaems, A Marighetto, D Beracochea
Positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors (AMPA-PAMs) are described to facilitate cognitive processes in different memory-based models. Among them, S 47445 is a novel potent and selective AMPA-PAM. In order to assess its efficacy after repeated administration, S 47445 effect was evaluated in two aging-induced memory dysfunction tasks in old mice, one short-term working memory model evaluated in a radial maze task and one assessing contextual memory performance. S 47445 was shown to improve cognition in both models sensitive to aging...
November 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167904/prevalence-characteristics-and-treatment-patterns-of-hearing-difficulty-in-the-united-states
#9
Hossein Mahboubi, Harrison W Lin, Neil Bhattacharyya
Importance: Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in the United States and has been associated with negative physical, social, cognitive, economic, and emotional consequences. Despite the high prevalence of hearing loss, substantial gaps in the utilization of amplification options, including hearing aids and cochlear implants (CI), have been identified. Objective: To investigate the contemporary prevalence, characteristics, and patterns of specialty referral, evaluation, and treatment of hearing difficulty among adults in the United States...
November 22, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167901/association-of-neurocognitive-deficits-with-radiotherapy-or-chemoradiotherapy-for-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer
#10
Alona Zer, Gregory R Pond, Albiruni R Abdul Razak, Kattleya Tirona, Hui K Gan, Eric X Chen, Brian O'Sullivan, John Waldron, David P Goldstein, Ilan Weinreb, Andrew J Hope, John J Kim, Kelvin K W Chan, Andrew K Chan, Lillian L Siu, Lori J Bernstein
Importance: Neurocognitive deficits (NCD) have been observed in noncentral nervous system cancers, yet short- and long-term neurocognitive data on patients treated for head and neck cancer (HNC) are lacking. Objective: To assess objective neurocognitive function before and after definitive radiation therapy for HNC. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective, longitudinal study, neurocognitive function and self-reported symptoms were assessed in 80 patients with histologically proven HNC requiring definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy and in 40 healthy controls 4 times (baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months after baseline) prior to commencing treatment at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Canada...
November 22, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167591/identifying-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-using-large-scale-granger-causality-analysis-on-resting-state-functional-mri
#11
Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Lutz Leistritz, Axel Wismüller
We investigate the applicability of large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) for extracting a measure of multivariate information flow between pairs of regional brain activities from resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and test the effectiveness of these measures for predicting a disease state. Such pairwise multivariate measures of interaction provide high-dimensional representations of connectivity profiles for each subject and are used in a machine learning task to distinguish between healthy controls and individuals presenting with symptoms of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND)...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167419/widespread-theta-synchrony-and-high-frequency-desynchronization-underlies-enhanced-cognition
#12
E A Solomon, J E Kragel, M R Sperling, A Sharan, G Worrell, M Kucewicz, C S Inman, B Lega, K A Davis, J M Stein, B C Jobst, K A Zaghloul, S A Sheth, D S Rizzuto, M J Kahana
The idea that synchronous neural activity underlies cognition has driven an extensive body of research in human and animal neuroscience. Yet, insufficient data on intracranial electrical connectivity has precluded a direct test of this hypothesis in a whole-brain setting. Through the lens of memory encoding and retrieval processes, we construct whole-brain connectivity maps of fast gamma (30-100 Hz) and slow theta (3-8 Hz) spectral neural activity, based on data from 294 neurosurgical patients fitted with indwelling electrodes...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167368/perception-of-contextual-size-illusions-by-honeybees-in-restricted-and-unrestricted-viewing-conditions
#13
Scarlett R Howard, Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Jair E Garcia, Devi Stuart-Fox, Adrian G Dyer
How different visual systems process images and make perceptual errors can inform us about cognitive and visual processes. One of the strongest geometric errors in perception is a misperception of size depending on the size of surrounding objects, known as the Ebbinghaus or Titchener illusion. The ability to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion appears to vary dramatically among vertebrate species, and even populations, but this may depend on whether the viewing distance is restricted. We tested whether honeybees perceive contextual size illusions, and whether errors in perception of size differed under restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167328/perceptual-decisions-based-on-previously-learned-information-are-independent-of-dopaminergic-tone
#14
Alessandra Perugini, Michele A Basso
Both cognitive and motor symptoms in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) arise from either too little or too much dopamine (DA). Akinesia stems from DA neuronal cell loss and dyskinesia often stems from an overdose of DA medication. Cognitive behaviors typically associated with frontal cortical function such as working memory and task switching are also affected by too little or too much DA in PD. Whether motor and cognitive circuits overlap in PD is unknown. Here, we show that whereas motor performance improves in people with PD when on dopaminergic medication compared to off medication, memory-based decision-making performance remains impaired whether on or off medications...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167224/implementation-of-a-learning-assistant-program-improves-student-performance-on-higher-order-assessments
#15
Nadia Sellami, Shanna Shaked, Frank A Laski, Kevin M Eagan, Erin R Sanders
Learning assistant (LA) programs have been implemented at a range of institutions, usually as part of a comprehensive curricular transformation accompanied by a pedagogical switch to active learning. While this shift in pedagogy has led to increased student learning gains, the positive effect of LAs has not yet been distinguished from that of active learning. To determine the effect that LAs would have beyond a student-centered instructional modality that integrated active learning, we introduced an LA program into a large-enrollment introductory molecular biology course that had already undergone a pedagogical transformation to a highly structured, flipped (HSF) format...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167090/attrition-from-web-based-cognitive-testing-a-repeated-measures-comparison-of-gamification-techniques
#16
Jim Lumsden, Andy Skinner, David Coyle, Natalia Lawrence, Marcus Munafo
BACKGROUND: The prospect of assessing cognition longitudinally and remotely is attractive to researchers, health practitioners, and pharmaceutical companies alike. However, such repeated testing regimes place a considerable burden on participants, and with cognitive tasks typically being regarded as effortful and unengaging, these studies may experience high levels of participant attrition. One potential solution is to gamify these tasks to make them more engaging: increasing participant willingness to take part and reducing attrition...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166964/how-do-childhood-intelligence-and-early-psychosocial-adversity-influence-income-attainment-among-adult-extremely-low-birth-weight-survivors-a-test-of-the-cognitive-reserve-hypothesis
#17
Kathleen G Dobson, Mark A Ferro, Michael H Boyle, Louis A Schmidt, Saroj Saigal, Ryan J Van Lieshout
Perinatal and later postnatal adversities have been shown to adversely affect socioeconomic trajectories, while enhanced early cognitive abilities improve them. However, little is known about the combined influence of these exposures on social mobility. In this study, we examined if childhood IQ moderated the association between four different types of postnatal adversity (childhood socioeconomic disadvantage, childhood sexual abuse, lifetime psychiatric disorder, and trait neuroticism) and annual earnings at 30-35 years of age in a sample of 88 extremely low birth weight survivors...
November 23, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166955/brain-arterial-diameters-and-cognitive-performance-the-northern-manhattan-study
#18
Jose Gutierrez, Erin Kulick, Yeseon Park Moon, Chuanhui Dong, Ken Cheung, Bagci Ahmet, Yaakov Stern, Noam Alperin, Tatjana Rundek, Ralph L Sacco, Clinton B Wright, Mitchell S V Elkind
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that brain arterial diameters are associated with cognitive performance, particularly in arteries supplying domain-specific territories. METHODS: Stroke-free participants in the Northern Manhattan Study were invited to have a brain MRI from 2003-2008. The luminal diameters of 13 intracranial arterial segments were obtained using time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA), and then averaged and normalized into a global score and region-specific arterial diameters...
November 23, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166781/being-an-optimist-or-a-pessimist-and-its-relationship-with-morning-cortisol-release-and-past-life-review-in-healthy-older-people
#19
Sara Puig-Perez, Matias Miguel Pulopulos, Vanesa Hidalgo, Alicia Salvador
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship between optimism and pessimism and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and past life review in healthy older people. DESIGN: 76 older volunteers summarized their lives, highlighting the most important events, impressions and experiences. Cortisol saliva samples were collected on two consecutive weekdays. High and low optimism and pessimism groups were computed by mean split. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentages of positive (PE) and negative events (NE) and positive (PCE) and negative cognitions and emotions (NCE) were obtained...
November 22, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166674/unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-differentially-impairs-social-and-contextual-discrimination-learning-in-two-inbred-mouse-strains
#20
Michiel van Boxelaere, Jason Clements, Patrick Callaerts, Rudi D'Hooge, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh
Alterations in the social and cognitive domain are considered important indicators for increased disability in many stress-related disorders. Similar impairments have been observed in rodents chronically exposed to stress, mimicking potential endophenotypes of stress-related psychopathologies such as major depression disorder (MDD), anxiety, conduct disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from numerous studies suggest that deficient plasticity mechanisms in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) might underlie these social and cognitive deficits...
2017: PloS One
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