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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918605/food-or-threat-wild-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-libidinosus-as-both-predators-and-prey-of-snakes
#1
Tiago Falótico, Michele P Verderane, Olívia Mendonça-Furtado, Noemi Spagnoletti, Eduardo B Ottoni, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Patrícia Izar
Snakes present a hazard to primates, both as active predators and by defensive envenomation. This risk might have been a selective pressure on the evolution of primate visual and cognitive systems, leading to several behavioral traits present in human and non-human primates, such as the ability to quickly learn to fear snakes. Primates seldom prey on snakes, and humans are one of the few primate species that do. We report here another case, the wild capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus), which preys on snakes...
September 16, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918469/aversive-and-non-aversive-memory-impairment-in-the-mucopolysaccharidosis-ii-mouse-model
#2
Amanda Stapenhorst Azambuja, Lilian Correa, Bernardo Pappi Gabiatti, Giselle Renata Martins, Álvaro de Oliveira Franco, Maria Flávia Marques Ribeiro, Guilherme Baldo
Hunter syndrome (MPS II, OMIM 309900) is a lysosomal storage disorder due to deficient iduronate sulphatase activity. Patients present multiple cognitive alterations, and the aim of this work was to verify if MPS II mice also present some progressive cognitive alterations. For that, MPS II mice from 2 to 6 months of age were submitted to repeated open field and inhibitory avoidance tests to evaluate memory parameters. MPS II mice presented impaired memory at 6 months evaluated by open field test. They also performed poorly in the inhibitory avoidance test from 4 months...
September 16, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918364/volumetric-changes-in-the-aging-rat-brain-and-its-impact-on-cognitive-and-locomotor-functions
#3
Hamizah Shahirah Hamezah, Lina Wati Durani, Nor Faeizah Ibrahim, Daijiro Yanagisawa, Tomoko Kato, Akihiko Shiino, Sachiko Tanaka, Hanafi Ahmad Damanhuri, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, Ikuo Tooyama
Impairments in cognitive and locomotor functions usually occur with advanced age, as do changes in brain volume. This study was conducted to assess changes in brain volume, cognitive and locomotor functions, and oxidative stress levels in middle- to late-aged rats. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: 14, 18, 23, and 27months of age. (1)H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 7.0-Tesla MR scanner system. The volumes of the lateral ventricles, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and whole brain were measured...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918315/does-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-insomnia-improve-cognitive-performance-a-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis
#4
REVIEW
Vanessa Herbert, Simon D Kyle, Daniel Pratt
Individuals with insomnia report difficulties pertaining to their cognitive functioning. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is associated with robust, long-term improvements in sleep parameters, however less is known about the impact of CBT-I on the daytime correlates of the disorder. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted in order to summarise and evaluate the evidence regarding the impact of CBT-I on cognitive functioning. Reference databases were searched and studies were included if they assessed cognitive performance as an outcome of CBT-I, using either self-report questionnaires or cognitive tests...
July 12, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918286/identifying-combinatorial-biomarkers-by-association-rule-mining-in-the-camd-alzheimer-s-database
#5
Balázs Szalkai, Vince K Grolmusz, Vince I Grolmusz
The concept of combinatorial biomarkers was conceived when it was noticed that simple biomarkers are often inadequate for recognizing and characterizing complex diseases. Here we present an algorithmic search method for complex biomarkers which may predict or indicate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other kinds of dementia. We show that our method is universal since it can describe any Boolean function for biomarker discovery. We applied data mining techniques that are capable to uncover implication-like logical schemes with detailed quality scoring...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918221/a-10-minute-measure-of-global-cognition-validation-of-the-brief-cognitive-assessment-tool-for-schizophrenia-b-cats
#6
Irene M Hurford, Joseph Ventura, Stephen R Marder, Steven P Reise, Robert M Bilder
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is marked by a global cognitive impairment that contributes significantly to chronic disability and unemployment. As new treatments are developed for cognition in schizophrenia, clinicians require easily administered instruments to assess cognition. We previously developed a very brief cognitive battery (Bell et al., 2005). The Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool for Schizophrenia (B-CATS) was developed specifically to provide clinicians with a way to assess cognition in their patients with schizophrenia...
September 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918007/the-effect-of-visual-spatial-ability-on-the-learning-of-robot-assisted-surgical-skills
#7
Takashige Abe, Nicholas Raison, Nobuo Shinohara, M Shamim Khan, Kamran Ahmed, Prokar Dasgupta
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of visual-spatial ability with progression along the learning curve for robotic surgical skills training. METHODS: A total of 21 novice participants were recruited. All participants completed a training program consisting of 5 training sessions of 30 minutes of virtual reality (VR) simulation and 30 minutes of dry laboratory training. The VR simulation part was the subject of the present study. During VR simulation training, participants performed the basic skill exercises of Camera Targeting 1, Pick and Place, and Peg Board 1 followed by advanced skill exercises of Suture Sponge 1 and Thread the Rings...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917948/effects-of-methamphetamine-on-alloparental-behavior-in-male-and-female-prairie-voles
#8
Adam N Perry, Richard J Ortiz, Keziah R Hernandez, Bruce S Cushing
Psychostimulant abuse is associated with a variety of impairments in social functioning, including an increased frequency of depression and aggression and deficits in social cognition. Psychostimulants reduce social investigation in rats and mice; however, it is less clear how other forms of social behavior (e.g., prosocial behavior) are affected. Females are also generally more sensitive to the effects of psychostimulants on locomotion and stereotyped behavior, which suggests that females might also display greater disruption of prosocial behavior...
September 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917697/trajectories-of-brain-system-maturation-from-childhood-to-older-adulthood-implications-for-lifespan-cognitive-functioning
#9
Raluca Petrican, Margot J Taylor, Cheryl L Grady
The human brain's intrinsic functional architecture reflects behavioural history and can help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive changes. To probe this issue, we used resting state (N = 586) and behavioural (N = 255) data from a lifespan sample and tested the interactions among ten intrinsic neural systems, derived from a well-established whole-brain parcellation. Our results revealed three distinguishable profiles, whose expression strengthened with increasing age and which characterized developmental differences in connectivity within the ten systems, between networks thought to underlie cognitive control and non-control systems, and among the non-control networks...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917663/leucine-rich-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-overexpression-in-the-brain-contributes-to-memory-impairment
#10
Chihiro Akiba, Madoka Nakajima, Masakazu Miyajima, Ikuko Ogino, Masami Miura, Ritsuko Inoue, Eri Nakamura, Fumio Kanai, Norihiro Tada, Miyuki Kunichika, Mitsutaka Yoshida, Kinya Nishimura, Akihide Kondo, Hidenori Sugano, Hajime Arai
We previously reported increase in leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with cognitive decline in humans. To investigate relationship between LRG expression in the brain and memory impairment, we analyzed transgenic mice overexpressing LRG in the brain (LRG-Tg) focusing on hippocampus. Immunostaining and Western blotting revealed age-related increase in LRG expression in hippocampal neurons in 8-, 24-, and 48-week-old controls and LRG-Tg. Y-maze and Morris water maze tests indicated retained spatial memory in 8- and 24-week-old LRG-Tg, while deteriorated in 48-week-old LRG-Tg compared with age-matched controls...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916860/the-effect-of-migration-on-social-capital-and-depression-among-older-adults-in-china
#11
Qiuju Li, Xudong Zhou, Sha Ma, Minmin Jiang, Lu Li
PURPOSE: An estimated 9 million elderly people accompanied their adult children to urban areas in China, raising concerns about their social capital and mental health following re-location. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of migration on social capital and depression among this population. METHODS: Multistage stratified cluster sampling was applied to recruit the migrant and urban elderly in Hangzhou from May to August, 2013. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews by trained college students using a standardized questionnaire...
September 15, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916808/the-effects-of-domestication-and-ontogeny-on-cognition-in-dogs-and-wolves
#12
Michelle Lampe, Juliane Bräuer, Juliane Kaminski, Zsófia Virányi
Cognition is one of the most flexible tools enabling adaptation to environmental variation. Living close to humans is thought to influence social as well as physical cognition of animals throughout domestication and ontogeny. Here, we investigated to what extent physical cognition and two domains of social cognition of dogs have been affected by domestication and ontogeny. To address the effects of domestication, we compared captive wolves (n = 12) and dogs (n = 14) living in packs under the same conditions...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916779/statistical-modeling-of-the-default-mode-brain-network-reveals-a-segregated-highway-structure
#13
Paul E Stillman, James D Wilson, Matthew J Denny, Bruce A Desmarais, Shankar Bhamidi, Skyler J Cranmer, Zhong-Lin Lu
We investigate the functional organization of the Default Mode Network (DMN) - an important subnetwork within the brain associated with a wide range of higher-order cognitive functions. While past work has shown the whole-brain network of functional connectivity follows small-world organizational principles, subnetwork structure is less well understood. Current statistical tools, however, are not suited to quantifying the operating characteristics of functional networks as they often require threshold censoring of information and do not allow for inferential testing of the role that local processes play in determining network structure...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916767/the-cancer-chemotherapeutic-agent-paclitaxel-taxol-reduces-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-down-regulation-of-vesicular-zinc
#14
Bo Eun Lee, Bo Young Choi, Dae Kee Hong, Jin Hee Kim, Song Hee Lee, A Ra Kho, Haesung Kim, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is increasingly recognized as a major unwanted side effect of an otherwise highly valuable life-saving technology. In part, this awareness is a result of increased cancer survival rates following chemotherapy. Altered hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in mediating CICI. In particular, zinc could act as a key regulator of this process. To test this hypothesis, we administered paclitaxel (Px) to male C57BL/6 mice for set time periods and then evaluated the effects of Px treatment on hippocampal neurogenesis and vesicular zinc...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916754/performance-based-ability-emotional-intelligence-benefits-working-memory-capacity-during-performance-on-hot-tasks
#15
María José Gutiérrez-Cobo, Rosario Cabello, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions. Higher scores on this ability measured through performance tests (but no through self-reports) appears to be related to better performance on "hot" (emotionally laden) cognitive tasks. However, there are relatively few studies concerning how EI may benefit the working memory capacity (WMC). Thus, the objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between EI (as measured through a performance-based ability test, a self-report mixed test, and a self-report ability test) and the WMC during the performance of hot and "cool" (i...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916627/interactions-between-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsomedial-striatum-are-necessary-for-odor-span-capacity-in-rats-role-of-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors
#16
Don A Davies, Quentin Greba, Jantz C Selk, Jillian K Catton, Landon D Baillie, Sean J Mulligan, John G Howland
Working memory is involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information essential for complex cognition. While the neural substrates underlying working memory capacity have been studied in humans, considerably less is known about the circuitry mediating working memory capacity in rodents. Therefore, the present experiments tested the involvement of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum (STR) in the odor span task (OST), a task proposed to assay working memory capacity in rodents. Initially, Long Evans rats were trained to dig in scented sand for food following a serial delayed nonmatching-to-sample rule...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916440/white-matter-microstructure-within-the-superior-longitudinal-fasciculus-modulates-the-degree-of-response-conflict-indexed-by-n2-in-healthy-adults
#17
Shudan Gao, Peng Liu, Jialu Guo, Yuanqiang Zhu, Peng Liu, Jinbo Sun, Xuejuan Yang, Wei Qin
Response conflict can be induced by priming multiple responses competing for control of action in trials. The N2 is one functionally-related cognitive control index for response conflict. And yet the underlying whiter matter neural substrates of inter-individual difference in conflict N2 remain unclear. So the aim of present study was to address the white matter microstructure of the N2 responsible for conflict by directly relating the amplitude cost of the event-related potential (ERP) N2 component to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in healthy subjects...
September 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916238/association-of-midlife-lipids-with-20-year-cognitive-change-a-cohort-study
#18
Melinda C Power, Andreea Rawlings, A Richey Sharrett, Karen Bandeen-Roche, Josef Coresh, Christie M Ballantyne, Yashashwi Pokharel, Erin D Michos, Alan Penman, Alvaro Alonso, David Knopman, Thomas H Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman
INTRODUCTION: Existing studies predominantly consider the association of late-life lipid levels and subsequent cognitive change. However, midlife rather than late-life risk factors are often most relevant to cognitive health. METHODS: We quantified the association between measured serum lipids in midlife and subsequent 20-year change in performance on three cognitive tests in 13,997 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. RESULTS: Elevated total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were associated with greater 20-year decline on a test of executive function, sustained attention, and processing speed...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916046/inflammatory-response-and-long-term-behavioral-assessment-after-neonatal-co2-pneumothorax-study-in-a-rodent-model
#19
Alice Miranda, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, José Miguel Pêgo, Jorge Correia-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Carbon-dioxide (CO2)-pneumothorax during minimally invasive surgery induces well-known metabolic changes. However, little is known about its impact on the central nervous system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the acute impact of CO2-pneumothorax over central cytokine response and its long-term effect on animal behavior. METHODS: This is an experimental study where neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats are submitted to CO2-pneumothorax. Peripheral and central cytokine response was evaluated 24h after insufflation, and peripheral immune cell phenotyping was evaluated 24h and 4weeks post-insufflation...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915962/horseradish-and-radish-peroxidases-eaten-with-fish-could-help-explain-observed-associations-between-fish-consumption-and-protection-from-age-related-dementia
#20
Catherine E Taylor, Samya O Abdelhadi, Carlos G Dosoretz
A juxtaposition of regional cuisines and recent prospective studies of fish consumption in China and Japan points to fresh horseradish and/or radish (HRR) as possible contributors to delaying age-related dementia. The hypothesis is that the inverse association found sometimes between fish intake and cognitive decline is partially due to exposure of the oral cavity to active peroxidases from HRR served in conjunction with fish. This hypothesis can be tested by specifically looking at whether HRR is consumed with fish and whether such HRR is prepared in a way that preserves activity of HRR peroxidases...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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