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Cognition tests

Roger S McIntyre, Ioana Florea, Brigitte Tonnoir, Henrik Loft, Raymond W Lam, Michael Cronquist Christensen
OBJECTIVE: This post hoc analysis investigates the effect of vortioxetine on cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms in working adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Population data from FOCUS, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study investigating the efficacy of vortioxetine versus placebo on cognitive functioning and depression in patients with MDD, were used to analyze mean change from baseline scores for the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Trail Making Test A/B (TMT-A/B), Stroop, and Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Enrica Cavedo, Bruno Dubois, Olivier Colliot, Simone Lista, Bernard Croisile, Guy Louis Tisserand, Jacques Touchon, Alain Bonafe, Pierre J Ousset, Olivier Rouaud, Fréderic Ricolfi, Alain Vighetto, Florence Pasquier, Samantha Galluzzi, Christine Delmaire, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Nadine Girard, Stéphane Lehericy, Françoise Duveau, Marie Chupin, Marie Sarazin, Didier Dormont, Harald Hampel
OBJECTIVE: Cortical thinning, previously identified during prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a "candidate" biomarker implemented in AD clinical therapy trials. We investigated the effect of donepezil treatment on cortical thickness in mild cognitively impaired subjects with the amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, a prodromal at-risk group for progression to AD dementia. METHODS: Data were from a longitudinal analysis of a community-based multicenter suspected prodromal AD cohort diagnosed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (81 donepezil vs 92 placebo) enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group design using donepezil (10 mg/day)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Krista L Kaups
Consideration of the effects of aging on physicians' practice is crucial to addressing aging clinicians' competence, that is, their ability to practice with reasonable skill and safety. Given physician workforce shortages even in resource abundant countries, the establishment of a compulsory retirement age in the US is impractical and unlikely. Several US hospitals and institutions have sought to address concerns about competence by establishing mandatory age-linked testing and evaluation for physicians. However, these procedures have raised questions regarding age discrimination and test validity...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Meghan M McConnell, Sandra Monteiro, Molly M Pottruff, Alan Neville, Geoff R Norman, Kevin W Eva, Kulamakan Kulasegaram
PURPOSE: Training to become a physician is an emotionally laden experience. Research in cognitive psychology indicates that emotions can influence learning and performance, but the materials used in such research (e.g., word lists) rarely reflect the complexity of material presented in medical school. The present study examined whether emotions influence learning of basic science principles. METHOD: Fifty-five undergraduate psychology students were randomly assigned to write about positive, negative, or neutral life events for nine minutes...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Thomas G Burns, Natasha N Ludwig, Tiffany N Tajiri, Nick DeFilippis
The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance and behavioral symptoms in a sample of children diagnosed with partial epilepsy who were seizure controlled on AED monotherapy for one year. Ninety-eight seizure-controlled children on AED monotherapy were included in this study. Specific AEDs examined included topiramate, divalproex sodium, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine. Groups did not differ on age, region of focal epilepsy, or Full-Scale IQ. Direct measures included the WISC-IV and selected tests from the DKEFS (Verbal Fluency and Trail Making Test)...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
H Li, C L Lv, C S Yang, D F Wei, K W Chen, S W Li, Z J Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SORL1 rs1699102 is associated with the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of this single nucleotide polymorphism on cognition and brain structure during normal aging are unclear. This study aimed to examine the effects of the rs1699102 polymorphism on age-related cognitive decline and cortical gray matter reduction in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: A total of 780 non-demented adults completed a battery of neuropsychological tests...
October 25, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
R N Villar-Quiles, J Porta-Etessam
INTRODUCTION: Neurosyphilis can occur at any time following infection by Treponema pallidum and its incidence has increased over recent years. The epidemiological and clinical pattern has undergone a substantial change in the post-antibiotic era. AIMS: To describe and analyse the population of patients diagnosed with neurosyphilis at a tertiary hospital in Madrid from January to May 2015. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the following data was performed: demographic, clinical, complementary tests -serology, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging- and progression of 28 patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2015...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
M van der Gaag, H Ising, J Lokkerbol, F Smit
Diagnoses have heterogeneous outcomes, varying from good to extremely poor. There is a need to single out an ultra-high-risk group of individuals who have illnesses that might well end unfavourably or who might later develop serious psychopathology.<br/> AIM: To devise a screening instrument that can identify a group of individuals who run a very high risk of developing a first-episode psychosis, and to create a type of intervention that can modify the course of the illness.<br/> METHOD: We developed a short screening instrument (PQ-16) and were able to ascertain its predictive value...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Agnes Turnpenny, James Caiels, Beckie Whelton, Lisa Richardson, Julie Beadle-Brown, Tanya Crowther, Julien Forder, Joanna Apps, Stacey Rand
BACKGROUND: This study reports the experiences of developing and pre-testing an Easy Read version of the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) for self-report by people with intellectual disabilities. METHODS: The study has combined survey development and pre-testing methods with approaches to create accessible information for people with intellectual disabilities. A working group assisted researchers in identifying appropriate question formats, pictures and wording...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Akihiro Nishio, Ryo Horita, Tadahiro Sado, Seiko Mizutani, Takahiro Watanabe, Ryosuke Uehara, Mayumi Yamamoto
AIMS: Many studies have reported that the prevalence of mental illness and cognitive disability is higher among homeless individuals compared to the general population, and the rates of mental illness among the homeless population have recently increased. This study compared causes of homelessness or barriers to escaping homelessness for people with/without mental illness/cognitive disability, revealed problems with the Japanese homeless policy, and proposed an effective and necessary support system...
October 24, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
A Gouveia, S P Dias, T Santos, H Rocha, C R Coelho, L Ruano, O Galego, M C Diogo, D Seixas, M J Sá, S Batista
OBJECTIVES: To characterize cognitive impairment in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and to correlate the pattern of cognitive deficits with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicenter cross-sectional study, we recruited consecutive patients with PPMS as well as age, sex, and education level-matched healthy controls (HC). All participants underwent neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and brain MRI was performed in patients with PPMS for analysis of lesion load, subcortical GM volumes, and regional cortical volumes...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Quinten van Geest, B Westerik, Y D van der Werf, J J G Geurts, H E Hulst
Sleep disturbances are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its impact on cognition and functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus and thalamus is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between sleep disturbances, cognitive functioning and resting-state (RS) FC of the hippocampus and thalamus in MS. 71 MS patients and 40 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological testing and filled out self-report questionnaires (anxiety, depression, fatigue, and subjective cognitive problems). Sleep disturbances were assed with the five-item version of the Athens Insomnia Scale...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Zhao-Guang Tan, Wei-Hong Gao, Xiang-Sheng Cai, Fang Wang, Hong-Xiang Hui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on cognitive dysfunction in diabetic rats. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, diabetes mellitus (DM) group, and GLP-1 treatment group. Rat models of type 2 diabetes were established by high-sugar and high-fat feeding and streptozotocin (STZ) injection, and 25 days after the onset of diabetes, GLP-1 was infused in GLP-1 treatment group at the rate of 30 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) via a subcutaneous osmotic pump for 7 days...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Harry Jell, Jonathan Fulford, James Carter, Lara Nyman, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones
: The influence of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on indices of maximal sprint and intermittent exercise performance is unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of NO3(-) supplementation on sprint running performance, and cognitive function and exercise performance during the sport-specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test (IR1). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomised, crossover study, 36 male team-sport players received NO3(-)-rich (BR; 70 mL·day(-1); 6...
October 21, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Natalie S Ryan, Jennifer M Nicholas, Philip S J Weston, Yuying Liang, Tammaryn Lashley, Rita Guerreiro, Gary Adamson, Janna Kenny, Jon Beck, Lucia Chavez-Gutierrez, Bart de Strooper, Tamas Revesz, Janice Holton, Simon Mead, Martin N Rossor, Nick C Fox
BACKGROUND: The causes of phenotypic heterogeneity in familial Alzheimer's disease with autosomal dominant inheritance are not well understood. We aimed to characterise clinical phenotypes and genetic associations with APP and PSEN1 mutations in symptomatic autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (ADAD). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed genotypic and phenotypic data (age at symptom onset, initial cognitive or behavioural symptoms, and presence of myoclonus, seizures, pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal signs, and cerebellar signs) from all individuals with ADAD due to APP or PSEN1 mutations seen at the Dementia Research Centre in London, UK...
October 21, 2016: Lancet Neurology
Elizabeth Galik, Barbara Resnick, Erin Vigne, Sarah Dee Holmes, Victoria Nalls
BACKGROUND: Resistiveness to care is behavior that prevents or interferes with caregivers' performing or assisting with activities of daily living and puts residents at risk for inappropriate use of antipsychotic drugs, other restraining interventions, social isolation, and physical abuse. The purpose of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of a previously developed Resistiveness to Care measure. PROCEDURES: This was a descriptive study using baseline data from an ongoing randomized controlled trial testing a Function and Behavior Focused Care (FBFC) intervention...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Pamela Jane Marsh, Vince Polito, Subba Singh, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon, Anthony W Harris
BACKGROUND: Impaired ability to make inferences about what another person might think or feel (i.e., social cognition impairment) is recognised as a core feature of schizophrenia and a key determinant of the poor social functioning that characterizes this illness. The development of treatments to target social cognitive impairments as a causal factor of impaired functioning in schizophrenia is of high priority. In this study, we investigated the acceptability, feasibility, and limited efficacy of 2 programs targeted at specific domains of social cognition in schizophrenia: "SoCog" Mental-State Reasoning Training (SoCog-MSRT) and "SoCog" Emotion Recognition Training (SoCog-ERT)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Sallie Baxendale, Pamela Thompson
The revised terminology and concepts for the organization of seizures and epilepsy proposed by the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology in 2010 allows for a number of new opportunities in the study of cognition and behavior in adults. This review examines the literature that has looked for behavioral and cognitive correlates of the newly recognized genetic epilepsies in adults. While some studies report clear cognitive phenotypes associated with specific genetic mutations in adults with epilepsy, others report remarkable clinical heterogeneity...
October 21, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Michael D Nevarez, Johanna C Malone, Dorene M Rentz, Robert J Waldinger
OBJECTIVE: Identifying adaptive ways to cope with extreme stress is essential to promoting long-term health. Memory systems are highly sensitive to stress, and combat exposure during war has been shown to have deleterious effects on cognitive processes, such as memory, decades later. No studies have examined coping styles used by combat veterans and associations with later-life cognitive functioning. Defenses are coping mechanisms that manage difficult memories and feelings, with some more closely related to memory processes (e...
October 7, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Cathy Joanna Jensen, Frauke Demol, Romy Bauwens, Ron Kooijman, Ann Massie, Agnès Villers, Laurence Ris, Jacques De Keyser
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the β2-adrenergic receptor on astrocytes might contribute to this energy balance, it has not yet been shown conclusively in vivo. Inducible astrocyte specific β2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice were generated by crossing homozygous β2-adrenergic receptor floxed mice (Adrb2flox) and mice with heterozygous tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase-expression driven by the astrocyte specific L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter promoter (GLAST-CreERT2)...
2016: PloS One
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