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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30547470/pulmonary-function-testing-in-animals
#1
Gary W Hoyle, Connie F Schlueter, Sadiatu Musah
Nanoparticles possess a number of useful properties that make them useful for a variety of industrial and commercial applications. The small size of nanoparticles means that they are respirable and can penetrate deep into the lung when inhaled. Because of this, there is interest in assessing possible toxic effects of nanoparticles on the respiratory system. Measurement of respiratory mechanics and pulmonary function represents a sensitive way of detecting pathological effects of inhaled substances on the lungs...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529249/transcriptomic-analysis-of-microrna-expression-in-enamel-producing-cells
#2
Minou Nirvani, Cuong Khuu, Amela Tulek, Tor Paaske Utheim, Lars Peter Sand, Malcolm L Snead, Amer Sehic
There is little evidence for the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of circadian rhythms during enamel development. Few studies have used ameloblast-like cell line LS8 to study the circadian rhythm of gene activities related to enamel formation. However, the transcriptomic analysis of miRNA expression in LS8 cells has not been established yet. In this study, we analyze the oscillations of miRNAs in LS8 cells during one-day cycle of 24 h by next generation deep sequencing. After removal of low quality reads, contaminants, and ligation products, we obtained a high number of clean reads in all 12 samples from four different time points...
December 5, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526277/the-effectiveness-of-deep-oscillation-therapy-on-reducing-swelling-and-pain-in-athletes-with-acute-lateral-ankle-sprains
#3
Matt Hausmann, Jacob Ober, Adam S Lepley
CLINICAL SCENARIO: Ankle sprains are the most prevalent athletic related musculoskeletal injury treated by athletic trainers, often affecting activities of daily living and delaying return to play.1 Most of these cases present with pain and swelling in the ankle, resulting in decreased range of motion and strength deficits.1 Due to these impairments, proper treatment is necessary to avoid additional loss of play and prevent future injuries. Recently, there has been an increased use of deep oscillation therapy by clinicians to manage pain and swelling following a variety of injuries, including ankle sprains...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525692/anisotropic-quantum-well-electro-optics-in-few-layer-black-phosphorus
#4
Michelle C Sherrott, William S Whitney, Deep Jariwala, Souvik Biswas, Cora Went, Joeson Wong, George R Rossman, Harry A Atwater
The incorporation of electrically tunable materials into photonic structures such as waveguides and metasurfaces enables dynamic, electrical control of light propagation at the nanoscale. Few-layer black phosphorus is a promising material for these applications due to its in-plane anisotropic, quantum well band structure, with a direct band gap that can be tuned from 0.3 eV to 2 eV with number of layers and subbands that manifest as additional optical transitions across a wide range of energies. In this work, we report an experimental investigation of three different, anisotropic electro-optic mechanisms that allow electrical control of the complex refractive index in few-layer black phosphorus from the mid-infrared to the visible: Pauli-blocking of intersubband optical transitions (the Burstein-Moss effect); the quantum-confined Stark effect; and the modification of quantum well selection rules by a symmetry-breaking, applied electric field...
December 7, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30521519/bayesian-adaptive-dual-control-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-a-computational-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Logan L Grado, Matthew D Johnson, Theoden I Netoff
In this paper, we present a novel Bayesian adaptive dual controller (ADC) for autonomously programming deep brain stimulation devices. We evaluated the Bayesian ADC's performance in the context of reducing beta power in a computational model of Parkinson's disease, in which it was tasked with finding the set of stimulation parameters which optimally reduced beta power as fast as possible. Here, the Bayesian ADC has dual goals: (a) to minimize beta power by exploiting the best parameters found so far, and (b) to explore the space to find better parameters, thus allowing for better control in the future...
December 6, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30459468/the-immediate-effects-of-breathing-with-oscillated-inspiratory-and-expiratory-airflows-on-secretion-clearance-in-intubated-patients-with-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Sujittra Kluayhomthong, Chulee Ubolsakka-Jones, Pornanan Domthong, Wipa Reechaipichitkul, David A Jones
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized crossover trial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the combination of incentive spirometry with oscillation (OIS) and positive expiratory pressure with oscillation (OPEP) to promote secretion clearance in intubated patients with cervical spinal cord injury. SETTING: Spinal cord unit, tertiary care hospital, North East Thailand. METHODS: Thirteen intubated patients (C4-7, AIS score C) with secretion retention performed three interventions randomly allocated on consecutive days, a Sham deep breathing, OPEP and OPEP + OIS breathing exercise...
November 20, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458039/robust-desynchronization-of-parkinson-s-disease-pathological-oscillations-by-frequency-modulation-of-delayed-feedback-deep-brain-stimulation
#7
Mohammad Daneshzand, Miad Faezipour, Buket D Barkana
The hyperkinetic symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (PD) are associated with the ensembles of interacting oscillators that cause excess or abnormal synchronous behavior within the Basal Ganglia (BG) circuitry. Delayed feedback stimulation is a closed loop technique shown to suppress this synchronous oscillatory activity. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) via delayed feedback is known to destabilize the complex intermittent synchronous states. Computational models of the BG network are often introduced to investigate the effect of delayed feedback high frequency stimulation on partially synchronized dynamics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444084/depth-dependence-of-coherent-hemodynamics-in-the-human-head
#8
Kosar Khaksari, Giles Blaney, Angelo Sassaroli, Nishanth Krishnamurthy, Thao Pham, Sergio Fantini
We report a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study of coherent hemodynamic oscillations measured on the human forehead at multiple source-detector distances (1 to 4 cm). The physiological source of the coherent hemodynamics is arterial blood pressure oscillations at a frequency of 0.1 Hz, induced by cyclic inflation (to a pressure of 200 mmHg) and deflation of two thigh cuffs wrapped around the subject's thighs. To interpret our results, we use a recently developed hemodynamic model and a phasor representation of the oscillations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin concentrations in the tissue (phasors O, D, and T, respectively)...
November 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30440840/delayed-feedback-frequency-adjustment-for-deep-brain-stimulation-of-subthalamic-nucleus-oscillations
#9
Mohammad Daneshzand, Miad Faezipour, Buket D Barkana
Neural oscillations within the Basal Ganglia (BG) circuitry are associated with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are observable through the Local Field Potential (LFP) of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) or Globus Pallidus externa (GPe) neurons. LFP amplitude modulation in a delayed feedback protocol for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is shown to destabilize the complex intermittent synchronous states. However, traditional High Frequency Stimulations (HFS) often intensify the synchronization of highly fluctuating neurons, are less efficient in activating all neurons in large scale networks and consume more battery of the DBS device...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423476/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-modulates-subthalamic-pathological-oscillations
#10
REVIEW
Alessandro Stefani, Laura Clara Grandi, Salvatore Galati
Low frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus area (PPNa) has been proposed as a novel surgical target for gait dysfunction in the late stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). Since the mid-2000s, we have shown that intrasurgical delivery of stimulation in the pontine tegmentum affects the firing activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), but its effect on STN oscillatory rhythms has not been studied. Neuronal oscillations detected by local field potential (LFPs) have great importance, since they express complex movement-related behavior such as locomotion...
November 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418266/analysis-of-movement-related-beta-oscillations-in-the-off-medication-state-during-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery
#11
Ryan B Kochanski, Jay Shils, Leo Verhagen Metman, Gian Pal, Sepehr Sani
PURPOSE: Local field potential recordings from deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads provide insight into the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease (PD). We recorded local field potential activity from DBS leads within the subthalamic nucleus in patients with PD undergoing DBS surgery to identify reproducible pathophysiological signatures of the disease. METHODS: Local field potentials were recorded in 11 hemispheres from patients with PD undergoing subthalamic nucleus-DBS...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417986/a-novel-understanding-of-phocidae-hearing-adaptations-through-a-study-of-northern-elephant-seal-mirounga-angustirostris-ear-anatomy-and-histology
#12
Hrvoje Smodlaka, Wael A Khamas, Hali Jungers, Roman Pan, Mohammed Al-Tikriti, Josip A Borovac, Lauren Palmer, Martina Bukac
The most conspicuous aural adaptation in northern elephant seals (NES) is complete absence of an auricle and a tortuous collapsed external acoustic meatus. The NES epitympanic recess contains massive ossicles immersed in the middle ear cavernous sinuses. Engorgement of the cavernous sinuses would make ossicles fully buoyant during deep diving. NES have a comparatively larger cochlear nerve, which carries a significantly larger number of axons than in terrestrial mammals, which would give them auditory ability similar to the obligate marine mammals such as cetaceans...
November 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411946/implications-of-an-improved-neutron-antineutron-oscillation-search-for-baryogenesis-a-minimal-effective-theory-analysis
#13
Christophe Grojean, Bibhushan Shakya, James D Wells, Zhengkang Zhang
Future neutron-antineutron (n-n[over ¯]) oscillation experiments, such as at the European Spallation Source and the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, aim to find first evidence of baryon number violation. We investigate implications of an improved n-n[over ¯] oscillation search for baryogenesis via interactions of n-n[over ¯] mediators, parametrized by an effective field theory (EFT). We find that even in a minimal EFT setup there is overlap between the parameter space probed by n-n[over ¯] oscillation and the region that can realize the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe...
October 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408025/harnessing-olfactory-bulb-oscillations-to-perform-fully-brain-based-sleep-scoring-and-real-time-monitoring-of-anaesthesia-depth
#14
Sophie Bagur, Marie Masako Lacroix, Gaëtan de Lavilléon, Julie M Lefort, Hélène Geoffroy, Karim Benchenane
Real-time tracking of vigilance states related to both sleep or anaesthesia has been a goal for over a century. However, sleep scoring cannot currently be performed with brain signals alone, despite the deep neuromodulatory transformations that accompany sleep state changes. Therefore, at heart, the operational distinction between sleep and wake is that of immobility and movement, despite numerous situations in which this one-to-one mapping fails. Here we demonstrate, using local field potential (LFP) recordings in freely moving mice, that gamma (50-70 Hz) power in the olfactory bulb (OB) allows for clear classification of sleep and wake, thus providing a brain-based criterion to distinguish these two vigilance states without relying on motor activity...
November 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367683/electroencephalographic-eeg-density-spectral-array-monitoring-in-children-during-sevoflurane-anaesthesia-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
I J de Heer, S J M Bouman, F Weber
Electroencephalographic density spectral array monitoring has been developed to facilitate the interpretation of unprocessed electroencephalogram signals. The primary aim of this prospective observational study, performed in a tertiary children's hospital, was to identify the clinical applicability and validity of density spectral array monitoring in infants and children during sevoflurane anaesthesia. We included 104 children, aged < 6 years, undergoing elective surgery during sevoflurane anaesthesia. We investigated the correlation between non-steady state end-tidal sevoflurane and the expression of the four electroencephalogram frequency bands β, α, θ and δ, representing density spectral array...
October 27, 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359609/working-memory-2-0
#16
REVIEW
Earl K Miller, Mikael Lundqvist, André M Bastos
Working memory is the fundamental function by which we break free from reflexive input-output reactions to gain control over our own thoughts. It has two types of mechanisms: online maintenance of information and its volitional or executive control. Classic models proposed persistent spiking for maintenance but have not explicitly addressed executive control. We review recent theoretical and empirical studies that suggest updates and additions to the classic model. Synaptic weight changes between sparse bursts of spiking strengthen working memory maintenance...
October 24, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334148/gazenet-end-to-end-eye-movement-event-detection-with-deep-neural-networks
#17
Raimondas Zemblys, Diederick C Niehorster, Kenneth Holmqvist
Existing event detection algorithms for eye-movement data almost exclusively rely on thresholding one or more hand-crafted signal features, each computed from the stream of raw gaze data. Moreover, this thresholding is largely left for the end user. Here we present and develop gazeNet, a new framework for creating event detectors that do not require hand-crafted signal features or signal thresholding. It employs an end-to-end deep learning approach, which takes raw eye-tracking data as input and classifies it into fixations, saccades and post-saccadic oscillations...
October 17, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333563/limits-of-detection-of-gravimetric-signals-on-earth
#18
S Rosat, J Hinderer
Gravimetry is a well-established tool to probe the deep Earth's processes. Geophysical signals coming from the deep Earth, like the inner core free oscillations, have however never been detected. Challenging quests raise the question of the limits of detection of elusive signals at the Earth's surface. Knowledge of the instrumental limits and of the environmental noise level at a site is fundamental to judge the true sensitivity of an instrument. We perform a noise level comparison of various gravimeters and a long-period seismometer at the J9 gravimetric observatory of Strasbourg (France) to provide a reference of instrumental performances...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333208/miocene-biome-turnover-drove-conservative-body-size-evolution-across-australian-vertebrates
#19
Ian G Brennan, J Scott Keogh
On deep time scales, changing climatic trends can have a predictable influence on macroevolution. From evidence of mass extinctions, we know that rapid climatic oscillations can indirectly open niche space and precipitate adaptive radiation, changing the course of ecological diversification. These dramatic shifts in the global climate, however, are rare events relative to extended periods of protracted climate change and biome turnover. It remains unclear whether during gradually changing periods, shifting habitats may instead promote non-adaptive speciation by facilitating allopatry and phenotypic conservatism...
October 17, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322214/a-quadrature-single-side-band-mixer-with-passive-negative-resistance-in-software-defined-frequency-synthesizer
#20
Dongsheng Liu, Ang Hu, Kefeng Zhang
Software-defined radio (SDR) is a good solution for complying with the existing and incoming protocols for emerging wireless sensor networks (WSN) and internet of things (IoT) applications. The frequency synthesizer in a SDR tranceiver usually consists of a phase locked loop (PLL) and a post synthesizer. The PLL is the narrow band signal source and the post synthesizer generates wideband outputs by mixing and dividing. Compared with a frequency synthesizer utilizing the wideband PLL, this synthesizer features relatively constant loop parameters and mitigates the requirement for the oscillator...
October 14, 2018: Sensors
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