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Biomarker in plasma

Matthew Egyud, Praveen Sridhar, Anand Devaiah, Emiko Yamada, Stefanie Saunders, Anders Ståhlberg, Stefan Filges, Paul M Krzyzanowski, Irina Kalatskaya, Wei Jiao, Lincoln D Stein, Scharukh Jalisi, Tony E Godfrey
BACKGROUND: Recommendations for perioperative therapy in head and neck cancer are not explicit and recurrence occurs frequently. Circulating tumor DNA is an emerging cancer biomarker, but has not been extensively explored for detection of recurrence in head and neck cancer. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were recruited into the study protocol. Tumors were sequenced to identify patient-specific mutations. Mutations were then identified in plasma circulating tumor DNA from pre-treatment blood samples and longitudinally during standard follow-up...
December 15, 2018: Head & Neck
David Rodrigues, Andrew Rowland
It is now established that a drug's pharmacokinetics-absorption-distribution-metabolism-excretion-drug-drug interaction (PK-ADME-DDI) profile can be modulated by age, disease, and genotype. In order to facilitate subject phenotyping and clinical DDI assessment, therefore, various endogenous compounds (in plasma and urine) have been pursued as drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter biomarkers. Compared to biomarkers, however, the topic of circulating extracellular vesicles as "liquid biopsy" has received little attention within the ADME community; most organs secrete nanovesicles (e...
December 16, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Benjamin E Garfield, Alexi Crosby, Dongmin Shao, Peiran Yang, Cai Read, Steven Sawiak, Stephen Moore, Lisa Parfitt, Carl Harries, Martin Rice, Richard Paul, Mark L Ormiston, Nicholas W Morrell, Michael I Polkey, Stephen John Wort, Paul R Kemp
INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a clinically important complication of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), a prognostic marker in PAH, has been associated with muscle loss in other conditions. We aimed to define the associations of GDF-15 and muscle wasting in PAH, to assess its utility as a biomarker of muscle loss and to investigate its downstream signalling pathway as a therapeutic target. METHODS: GDF-15 levels and measures of muscle size and strength were analysed in the monocrotaline (MCT) rat, Sugen/hypoxia mouse and in 30 patients with PAH...
December 15, 2018: Thorax
Tomohisa Akamatsu, Takehiro Sugiyama, Yoshinori Aoki, Ken Kawabata, Masaki Shimizu, Kaoru Okazaki, Masatoshi Kondo, Kan Takahashi, Yoshiki Yokoyama, Naoto Takahashi, Yu-Ichi Goto, Akira Oka, Masayuki Itoh
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the soluble form of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) as a biomarker of severity staging and prognosis in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). STUDY DESIGN: We performed an observational study enrolling 27 infants with HIE and 45 control infants of gestational age ≥36 weeks and birth weight ≥1800 g. The HIE criteria were pH ≤7.0 or a base deficit ≥16 mmol/L within 60 minutes after birth, and a 10-minute Apgar score ≤5 or resuscitation time ≥10 minutes...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Russell J Diefenbach, Jenny H Lee, Richard F Kefford, Helen Rizos
Analysis of liquid biopsies and the identification of non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of solid tumors has grown exponentially over the last few years. This has led to an increasing number of commercial kits optimised for the purification of circulating free (cf) DNA and RNA/miRNA from biofluids such as plasma, serum and urine. To optimise and standardise current practices we sought to evaluate the performance of spin column-based and magnetic bead-based commercial kits. The following commercial cfDNA purification kits were analysed in this study: QIAamp circulating nucleic acid kit (Qiagen, Germany); Plasma/serum cell-free circulating DNA Purification midi kit (Norgen Biotek, Canada); QIAamp minElute ccfDNA mini kit (Qiagen); Maxwell RSC ccfDNA plasma kit (Promega, USA); MagMAX cell-free DNA isolation kit (Applied Biosystems, USA); and NextPrep-Mag cfDNA isolation kit (Bioo Scientific, USA)...
December 2018: Cancer Genetics
Jessica L Berlier, Malini Rethnam, A'Qilah Banu Binte Abdul Majeed, Toshio Suda
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by clonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells. MM dysregulates the homeostasis of the bone niche cells like osteoclasts and osteoblasts, responsible for the bone maintenance leading to bone loss and hypercalcemia, as well as the normal immune cells leading to immunodeficiency and anemia. Osteoblasts are part of the cell population differentiating from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). MSC also gives rise to other cell types such as adipocytes and chondrocytes...
December 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Woo-Sung Kwon, Ye-Ji Kim, Do-Yeal Ryu, Ki-Jin Kwon, Won-Hee Song, Md Saidur Rahman, Myung-Geol Pang
Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a type III kinase that is highly expressed in seminal plasma of infertile men. FLT3 activation can be blocked by inhibition of its phosphorylation using the nontoxic and selective inhibitor, quizartinib. We investigated the function of FLT3 and the corresponding effects of quizartinib in mouse spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were treated with different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 20, and 30 μM) of quizartinib for 90 min at 37 °C in 5% CO2 in air. FLT3 was detected in capacitated and non-capacitated spermatozoa...
December 8, 2018: Theriogenology
Leticia Gomes Lira, Rute Mattos Dourado Esteves Justa, Antonio Augusto Ferreira Carioca, Sara Maria Moreira Lima Verde, Geni Rodrigues Sampaio, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva Torres, Nágila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids with multiple oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Ninety-five women with recently diagnosed breast cancer and no previous treatment were selected for this study. The socioeconomic, clinical, and demographic profile of the patients was determined using a structured questionnaire and medical records. Body weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index...
August 21, 2018: Nutrition
Alaa Kamnaksh, Noora Puhakka, Idrish Ali, Gregory Smith, Roxanne Aniceto, Jesse McCullough, Shalini Das Gupta, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Rhys Brady, Pablo Casillas-Espinosa, Matt Hudson, Cesar Santana-Gomez, Riikka Immonen, Pedro Andrade de Abreu, Nigel Jones, Sandy Shultz, Richard J Staba, Terence J O'Brien, Denes Agoston, Asla Pitkänen
The Epilepsy Bioinformatics Study for Antiepileptogenic Therapy (EpiBioS4Rx) is an international, multicenter, multidisciplinary study aimed at preventing epileptogenesis (EpiBioS4Rx: One of the study's major objectives is the discovery of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive plasma protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers that are sensitive, specific, and translatable to the human condition. Epilepsy due to structural brain abnormalities, secondary to neurological insults such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), currently represents ∼50% of all epilepsy cases...
November 26, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Daniel Saucier, Gabriel Wajnberg, Jeremy Roy, Annie-Pier Beauregard, Simi Chacko, Nicolas Crapoulet, Sébastien Fournier, Anirban Ghosh, Stephen M Lewis, Alier Marrero, Colleen O'Connell, Rodney J Ouellette, Pier Jr Morin
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive death of motor neurons. Mean survival for a patient diagnosed with ALS is between 2 to 5 years. Early and efficient diagnosis of the various forms of ALS remains a significant challenge, resulting in a need to identify clinically-relevant biomarkers in readily accessible body fluids. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short, evolutionarily conserved non-coding RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression that have received interest as disease biomarkers...
December 12, 2018: Brain Research
Douglas A Jabs, Mark L Van Natta, Garrett Trang, Norman G Jones, Jeffrey M Milush, Ryan Cheu, Nichole R Klatt, Ronald P Danis, Peter W Hunt
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationships among age-related macular degeneration (AMD), mortality, and biomarkers of systemic inflammation in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). DESIGN: Case control study. PARTICIPANTS: Participants with intermediate-stage AMD at enrollment in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA) and 2:1 controls matched for age and gender. METHODS: Cryopreserved baseline plasma specimens were assayed for biomarkers of inflammation, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, interferon-γ inducible protein (IP)-10, soluble CD14 (sCD14), soluble CD163 (sCD163), kynurenine/tryptophan (KT) ratio, and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP)...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Isabella Corsato Alvarenga, Charles Gregory Aldrich, Dennis E Jewell
One of the liver functions is copper storage, which can be toxic when in excess. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the relationship between hepatic copper and pathology conditions in stored samples from 55 post-mortem dogs (37 Beagles, 12 Labrador Retrievers, and 6 Labrador Mixes). The analyses evaluated data from blood chemistry and complete blood count (CBC) that were measured immediately before euthanasia, and liver biopsies which were harvested at necropsy and frozen at -80 °C...
December 13, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Christiane Mühle, Christian Weinland, Erich Gulbins, Bernd Lenz, Johannes Kornhuber
By catalyzing the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) changes the local composition of the plasma membrane with effects on receptor-mediated signaling. Altered enzyme activities have been noted in common human diseases, including alcohol dependence. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unresolved. Blood samples were collected from early-abstinent alcohol-dependent in-patients ( n [♂] = 113, n [♀] = 87) and matched healthy controls ( n [♂] = 133, n [♀] = 107), and analyzed for routine blood parameters and serum ASM activity...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael Kellner, Christoph Muhtz, Åsa Weinås, Stjepan Ćurić, Alexander Yassouridis, Klaus Wiedemann
While the impact of childhood trauma on basal and dynamic cortisol regulation has widely been studied, the most abundant steroid hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated derivative DHEA-S have received little attention in this context. One-hundred in-door patients suffering from major depression or an anxiety disorder filled in the Childhood Trauma Questionaire. A low dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) measuring DHEA, DHEA-S and cortisol was performed. Furthermore, various cardiovascular risk parameters were measured...
December 2018: Psychiatry Research
Linda G Rikkert, Edwin van der Pol, Ton G van Leeuwen, Rienk Nieuwland, Frank A W Coumans
Biomarkers in the blood of cancer patients include circulating tumor cells (CTCs), tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tdEVs), EV-associated miRNA (EV-miRNA), and circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA). Because the size and density of biomarkers differ, blood is centrifuged to isolate or concentrate the biomarker of interest. Here, we applied a model to estimate the effect of centrifugation on the purity of a biomarker according to published protocols. The model is based on the Stokes equation and was validated using polystyrene beads in buffer and plasma...
December 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Donatella Paoli, Giulia Pecora, Francesco Pallotti, Fabiana Faja, Marianna Pelloni, Andrea Lenzi, Francesco Lombardo
STUDY QUESTION: Is ageing associated with a decline in semen quality and molecular changes to human sperm? SUMMARY ANSWER: Semen quality declines with advancing age and characteristic molecular changes take place during the ageing process, including increased sperm DNA damage, altered sperm protamination and altered seminal plasma miRNA profile. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: During ageing, the reproductive system is exposed to physiological changes and potentially damaging factors that may impair testicular function...
December 14, 2018: Human Reproduction
Josef Stehlik, Brian Armstrong, David A Baran, Nancy D Bridges, Anil Chandraker, Robert Gordon, Teresa De Marco, Michael M Givertz, Alain Heroux, David Iklé, Judson Hunt, Abdallah G Kfoury, Joren C Madsen, Yvonne Morrison, Erika Feller, Sean Pinney, Sudipta Tripathi, Peter S Heeger, Randall C Starling
Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-18 (CTOT-18) is a follow-up analysis of the 200-subject multicenter heart transplant CTOT-05 cohort. CTOT-18 aimed to identify clinical, epidemiological and biological markers associated with adverse clinical events past 1 year after transplant. We examined various candidate biomarkers including serum antibodies, angiogenic proteins, blood gene expression profiles and T-cell alloreactivity. The composite endpoint (CE) included death, retransplant, coronary stent, myocardial infarction or cardiac allograft vasculopathy...
December 14, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Maria Assunta Piano, Lisa Gianesello, Angela Grassi, Paola Del Bianco, Adriana Mattiolo, Anna Maria Cattelan, Lolita Sasset, Paola Zanovello, Maria Luisa Calabrò
The aim of this study was to identify circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) that could be used as biomarkers in patients at risk for or affected by AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Screening of 377 miRNAs was performed using low-density arrays in pooled plasma samples of 10 HIV/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-infected asymptomatic and 10 AIDS-KS patients before and after successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). MiR-375 was identified as a potential marker of active KS, being the most down-regulated in AIDS-KS patients after cART and the most up-regulated in naïve AIDS-KS patients compared to naïve asymptomatic subjects...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Najia Shahid, Ayesha Iqbal, Amna Jabbar Siddiqui, Muhammad Shoaib, Syed Ghulam Musharraf
BACKGROUND: Cancer of oral cavity is a seriously growing problem in many parts of the world. In Indian subcontinent, most of these cases have been attributed to the use of tobacco-related products. This study is focused on the identification of distinguishing metabolites of oral cancer in comparison with tobacco snuff dippers and healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 234 plasma samples including 62 healthy controls, 81 tobacco snuff dippers, and 91 oral cancer samples were analyzed using mass spectrometry...
December 13, 2018: Head & Neck
Cornelia Braicu, Diana Gulei, Roxana Cojocneanu, Raduly Lajos, Ancuta Jurj, Erik Knutsen, George Adrian Calin, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Despite substantial progress in oncology, lung cancer remains the number one malignancy in terms of both incidence and mortality rates, and there thus remains an urgent need for new therapeutic alternatives. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have an important role in cancer initiation and progression due to their capacity to interfere with transcriptional signaling and regulate key cellular processes. miR-181a and miR-181b (miR-181a/b), which are located on chromosomes 1 and 9, are pathologically expressed in the tumor tissue and plasma of patients diagnosed with lung cancer...
December 8, 2018: Molecular Oncology
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