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Gynecological pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321869/uterine-leiomyosarcoma
#1
Ingolf Juhasz-Böss, Lena Gabriel, Rainer M Bohle, Lars C Horn, Erich-Franz Solomayer, Georg-Peter Breitbach
Uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS) is a rare entity among malignant gynecologic tumors with a very unfavorable prognosis and the highest prevalence in the pre- and peri-menopause. Only early-stage tumors have an acceptable prognosis, provided the patient has been treated without injuring the uterus. uLMS is often diagnosed accidentally and the correct diagnosis ishampered by equivocal features similar to the far more frequent benign uterine fibroids. Surgery is the basis of therapy, and it should be done in order to remove the uterus intact...
October 16, 2018: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320987/-management-of-dysmenorrhea
#2
M Libarle, Ph Simon, V Bogne, A Pintiaux, E Furet
Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common reasons for consultation in gynecology. The social and economic burdens are important. Dysmenorrhea may therefore be considered as a major public health issue. Its management is not yet optimal as dysmenorrhea still affects the quality of life of many patients. Primary dysmenorrhea, with no underlying organic cause, results from myometrial hyper contractility, arteriolar vasoconstriction, and tissue hypoxia. Secondary dysmenorrhea may involve the pathophysiological mechanisms of primary dysmenorrhea, but is mainly the expression of an underlying gynecological pathology...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317387/five-cases-of-uterine-perivascular-epithelioid-cell-tumors-pecomas-and-review-of-literature
#3
Weiwei Shan, Yue Shi, Qin Zhu, Bingyi Yang, Liying Xie, Bing Li, Chengcheng Ning, Qiaoying Lv, Yali Cheng, Bingying Xie, Mingzhu Bai, Yuhui Xu, Xiaojun Chen, Xuezhen Luo
OBJECTIVES: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare condition and the recognition of this condition is limited. Here we report five cases of uterine PEComa to add to the limited understanding of this rare condition. METHODS: Five cases from Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University were diagnosed as uterine PEComas. We collected the patients' clinical and pathological data as well as their outcomes. RESULTS: All the five cases were diagnosed post-operationally...
October 13, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306579/pathology-of-cancers-of-the-female-genital-tract-including-molecular-pathology
#4
Jaime Prat, David G Mutch
To better understand pathology reports, gynecologic oncologists must be familiar with the terminology used in gynecologic pathology. This chapter of the FIGO Cancer Report 2018 summarizes the clinical and pathological features of the most common cancers of the female genital tract, as well as their main molecular genetic alterations. In selected cases, an approach for processing surgical specimens is also included.
October 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305856/the-effect-of-anterior-uterocervical-angle-on-primary-dysmenorrhea-and-disease-severity
#5
Mefkure Eraslan Sahin, Erdem Sahin, Yusuf Madendag, Ilknur Col Madendag, Ahter Tanay Tayyar, Fatma Özdemir, Gokhan Acmaz, Iptisam Ipek Muderris
Background: Primary dysmenorrhea, defined as painful menstrual cramps originating in the uterus without underlying pathology, is a gynecological disease that affects quality of life and school success. Our goal was to determine the effect of anterior uterocervical angle on primary dysmenorrhea and disease severity. Methods: A total of 200 virgin adolescents, 16 to 20 years of age, were included in the study. The Andersch and Milsom scale was used to determine dysmenorrhea severity...
2018: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302765/chrysin-leads-to-cell-death-in-endometriosis-by-regulation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-cytosolic-calcium-level
#6
Soomin Ryu, Fuller W Bazer, Whasun Lim, Gwonhwa Song
Chrysin is a natural compound derived from honey, propolis, or passion flowers and has many functional roles, such as antiinflammatory and antiangiogenesis effects. Although endometriosis is a benign gynecological disease, there is a need to identify the pathology and develop a therapy for endometriosis. Elucidating the biological mechanism of chrysin on endometriosis will improve the understanding of endometriosis. In this study, we confirmed the apoptotic effects of chrysin in human endometriotic cells using End1/E6E7 (endocervix-derived endometriotic cells) and VK2/E6E7 (vaginal mucosa-derived epithelial endometriotic cells)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301868/detection-of-endometrial-precancer-by-a-targeted-gynecologic-cancer-liquid-biopsy
#7
John A Martignetti, Deep Pandya, Nimesh Nagarsheth, Ying Chen, Olga Camacho, Shannon Tomita, Michael Brodman, Charles Ascher-Walsh, Valentin Kolev, Samantha Cohen, Timothy Harkins, Eric Schadt, Boris Reva, Robert Sebra, Peter Dottino
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in industrialized countries and both its incidence and associated mortality are increasing. The "liquid biopsy" is becoming an important transformative precision oncology tool but barriers intrinsic to blood sampling have limited its use in early cancer detection. We hypothesized that using a more targeted sample for analysis, namely, a uterine lavage, should provide a more sensitive and specific diagnostic test for endometrial cancer. Using a custom 12-gene endometrial cancer panel, molecular analysis of uterine lavage fluid from an asymptomatic 67-year-old female without histopathologic evidence of pre-malignant lesions or cancer in her uterine tissue, revealed two oncogenic PTEN mutations...
October 9, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297273/rna-sequencing-rna-seq-and-its-application-in-ovarian-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Jinglu Wang, Dylan C Dean, Francis J Hornicek, Huirong Shi, Zhenfeng Duan
Despite the surgical and chemotherapeutic advances over the past few decades, ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of gynecological cancer-related mortality. The absence of biomarkers in early detection and the development of drug resistance are principal causes of treatment failure in ovarian cancer. Recent progress in RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) with Next Generation Sequencing technology has expanded the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. As compared to previous hybridization-based microarray and Sanger sequence-based methods, RNA-Seq provides multiple layers of resolutions and transcriptome complexity, with less background noise and a broader dynamic range of RNA expression...
October 5, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291332/phylogenetics-of-mycoplasma-hominis-clinical-strains-associated-with-gynecological-infections-or-infertility-as-disclosed-by-an-expanded-multilocus-sequence-typing-scheme
#9
Safa Boujemaa, Amina Ben Allaya, Béhija Mlik, Helmi Mardassi, Boutheina Ben Abdelmoumen Mardassi
To our knowledge, the phylodistribution of M. hominis clinical strains associated with various pathological conditions of the urogenital tract has not been explored hitherto. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 59 M. hominis Tunisian clinical isolates, categorized as gynecological infections- or infertility-associated pathotypes. For this purpose, we developed an expanded multilocus sequence typing (eMLST) scheme, combining the previously reported multilocus sequence typing (MLST) loci (gyrB, tuf, ftsY, uvrA, gap) with a new selected set of putative virulence genes (p120', vaa, lmp1, lmp3, p60), referred herein to as multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST) loci...
October 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290652/early-stage-ovarian-carcinoma-with-symptoms-mimicking-tuberculous-peritonitis-in-a-postmenopausal-woman-a-case-report
#10
Seong Taek Mun, Si-Hyong Jang, Aeli Ryu
RATIONALE: Ovarian cancer has the poorest prognosis of the gynecological cancers. Early diagnosis and treatment are important, but early-stage ovarian carcinoma has nonspecific symptoms. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum CA-125 levels can be helpful but may not elucidate cases of diffuse peritoneal diseases mimicking carcinomatosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient had intermittent abdominal discomfort and dysuria. Abdominal-pelvic computed tomography findings were suspicious for peritoneal tuberculosis (TB) and a small cystic mass in the left ovary...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283331/intracrine-regulation-of-estrogen-and-other-sex-steroid-levels-in-endometrium-and-non-gynecological-tissues-pathology-physiology-and-drug-discovery
#11
REVIEW
Gonda Konings, Linda Brentjens, Bert Delvoux, Tero Linnanen, Karlijn Cornel, Pasi Koskimies, Marlies Bongers, Roy Kruitwagen, Sofia Xanthoulea, Andrea Romano
Our understanding of the intracrine (or local) regulation of estrogen and other steroid synthesis and degradation expanded in the last decades, also thanks to recent technological advances in chromatography mass-spectrometry. Estrogen responsive tissues and organs are not passive receivers of the pool of steroids present in the blood but they can actively modify the intra-tissue steroid concentrations. This allows fine-tuning the exposure of responsive tissues and organs to estrogens and other steroids in order to best respond to the physiological needs of each specific organ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280203/perioperative-adverse-events-in-women-undergoing-concurrent-urogynecologic-and-gynecologic-oncology-surgeries-for-suspected-malignancy
#12
Emily R W Davidson, Katherine Woodburn, Mariam AlHilli, Cecile A Ferrando
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: This study's objectives were to compare the incidence of adverse events after concurrent urogynecologic and gynecologic oncology surgery to gynecologic oncology surgery alone and to describe the frequency of modification in planned urogynecologic procedures. The authors hypothesized there would be no difference in major complications. METHODS: This was a retrospective matched cohort study of women who underwent concurrent surgery at a large tertiary care center between January 2004 and June 2017...
October 2, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30275701/feasibility-of-radical-hysterectomy-in-women-with-figo-stage-iib-cervical-cancer-an-observation-study-of-10-year-experience-in-a-tertiary-center
#13
Lei Yuan, Jiaqi Guo, Xiaochun Zhang, Mo Chen, Congjian Xu, Liangqing Yao
Purpose: Although definitive chemoradiotherapy is considered as a standard of care for FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer in many countries, the role of surgery remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of patients with FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer who received radical surgery in China. Patients and methods: A total of 74 women with FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer were treated with radical hysterectomy, with or without adjuvant radio/chemoradiotherapy, at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University between 2004 and 2015...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273686/the-association-of-sonographic-evidence-of-adenomyosis-with-severe-endometriosis-and-with-gene-expression-in-eutopic-endometrium
#14
Uri P Dior, Debbie Nisbet, Jenny N Fung, Grant Foster, Martin Healey, Grant W Montgomery, Peter Aw Rogers, Sarah J Holdsworth-Carson, Jane E Girling
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the presence of sonographic evidence of adenomyosis (SEOA) in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for investigation of endometriosis and to assess if there is an association between SEOA and endometriosis severity. Using gene expression analysis, we also aimed to determine if gene expression in eutopic endometrium differed in patients with and without adenomyosis. DESIGN: A prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2)...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273338/high-risk-human-papillomavirus-status-and-prognosis-in-invasive-cervical-cancer-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#15
Jiayao Lei, Alexander Ploner, Camilla Lagheden, Carina Eklund, Sara Nordqvist Kleppe, Bengt Andrae, K Miriam Elfström, Joakim Dillner, Pär Sparén, Karin Sundström
BACKGROUND: High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection is established as the major cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). However, whether hrHPV status in the tumor is associated with subsequent prognosis of ICC is controversial. We aim to evaluate the association between tumor hrHPV status and ICC prognosis using national registers and comprehensive human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this nationwide population-based cohort study, we identified all ICC diagnosed in Sweden during the years 2002-2011 (4,254 confirmed cases), requested all archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks, and performed HPV genotyping...
October 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272366/clinical-associations-between-asct2-and-p%C3%A2-mtor-in-the-pathogenesis-and-prognosis-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#16
Huiming Guo, Yu Xu, Feng Wang, Zongwen Shen, Xiaoyu Tuo, Hong Qian, Huawe Wang, Kunhua Wang
Alanine serine cysteine‑preferring transporter 2 (ASCT2; also known as SLC1A5) is an important glutamine transporter, and it serves a crucial role in tumor growth and progression. ASCT2 is highly expressed in numerous types of cancer, but the pathological significance of its expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) level is hyperelevated in a number of tumor types, including ovarian cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the prognostic role of ASCT2 and phosphorylated (p)‑mTOR in EOC...
September 24, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270319/aberrant-uptake-of-a-fluorescent-l-glucose-analogue-flg-into-tumor-cells-expressing-malignant-phenotypes
#17
Katsuya Yamada
Glucose, one of the most fundamental sugar elements, has either D- or L-conformation. Of these, most cells preferentially take up D-glucose as an essential energy/carbon source. Such stereoselective uptake of glucose has been explored by fluorophore-bearing D- and L-glucose analogues. 2-[N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG), the most widely used fluorescent D-glucose analogue, was abundantly taken up into living Escherichia coli cells, whereas no detectable uptake was obtained for 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-L-glucose (2-NBDLG), the antipode of 2-NBDG developed as a fluorescent L-glucose analogue (fLG)...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261787/how-to-handle-lymphadenectomy-specimens-to-identify-metastasis-more-accurately-in-gynecologic-pathology
#18
Gunsu Kimyon Comert, Nazmiye Dincer, Alp Usubutun
AIM: To identify the value of processing multiple sections to detect metastasis in lymph nodes (LNs) dissected during gynecologic cancer surgery, and to evaluate the sizes of metastatic LNs in each region to compare with the largest one. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 362 patients who had gynecologic cancer with at least one metastatic LN. Slides of 627 metastatic LN specimens were categorized according to the processing technique into single and more than one section (MOS) groups...
September 27, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254944/endometriosis-involving-the-sciatic-nerve-a-case-report-of-isolated-endometriosis-of-the-sciatic-nerve-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Tal D Saar, Stefaan Pacquée, Dean Helmar Conrad, Mikhail Sarofim, Philippe De Rosnay, David Rosen, Greg Cario, Danny Chou
Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition which affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age and up to 50% of women with pelvic pain and infertility. The most commonly affected areas are the pelvic peritoneum, ovaries and rectovaginal septum. Isolated endometriosis of the sciatic nerve is very rare. Our patient suffered from worsening right hip and buttock pain with severe exacerbation during menstruation. Several different imaging modalities (ultrasound of her pelvis and right hip, as well as X-rays and computed tomography scans of her right hip and lumbosacral spine) failed to identify any pathology...
April 2018: Gynecology and minimally invasive therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254943/an-elongated-endometrial-polyp-prolapsing-through-the-introitus-in-a-virgin
#20
Teerayut Temtanakitpaisan, Hsin-Hong Kuo, Kuan-Gen Huang
The objective of the study is to report on the unusual case of an elongated endometrial polyp prolapsing through the introitus. A nulliparous 38-year-old woman presented to the gynecology department with an abnormal mass prolapsing at the vulva area without any abnormal uterine bleeding. Because she had no history of having engaged in sexual intercourse, a pelvic examination was not performed. Ultrasonography revealed an intrauterine hyperechoic lesion 1.5 cm × 0.8 cm in diameter suspected to be endometrial polyp...
April 2018: Gynecology and minimally invasive therapy
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