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Gynecological pathology

Oksana V Bakun, Svitlana Y Karatieieva, Svitlana B Semenenko, Oksana I Yurkiv, Andrii M Berbets
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Maternal obesity is a serious problem in obstetric-gynecological practice in the world. Pathophysiological changes create conditions for obstetric and perinatal complications, the most important complications of which is gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, pathological course of labor, increased operative delivery, fetal distress. The aim of the study is to find out the depth of the problem "Obesity and Pregnancy" by analyzing the range of obstetric, perinatal complications based on the processing of scientific relevant literature data...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Inmaculada Moreno, Carlos Simon
Technical advances in massive parallel sequencing have allowed the characterization of the whole reproductive tract microbiome in all the compartments beyond the vagina. The microbiota in the uterine cavity seem to be a continuum from the microbiota in the vagina, but several works have reported significant differences between vaginal and endometrial microbiota, highlighting the relevance of assessing the upper genital tract microbiota to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the physiological and pathological processes taking place in the uterine cavity, including embryo implantation, pregnancy maintenance, and other gynecological diseases...
August 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Ashley S Felix, David E Cohn, Theodore M Brasky, Richard Zaino, Kay Park, David G Mutch, William T Creasman, Premal H Thaker, Joan L Walker, Richard G Moore, Shashikant B Lele, Saketh R Guntupalli, Levi S Downs, Christa I Nagel, John F Boggess, Michael L Pearl, Olga B Ioffe, Marcus E Randall, Louise A Brinton
BACKGROUND: Black women with endometrial cancer are more likely to die from their disease compared to white women with endometrial cancer. These survival disparities persist even when disproportionately worse tumor characteristics among black women are accounted. Receipt of less complete adjuvant treatment among black endometrial cancer patients could contribute to this disparity. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the hypothesis that black women with endometrial cancer are less likely than their white counterparts to receive adjuvant treatment within subgroups defined by tumor characteristics in the NRG Oncology/Gynecology Oncology Group 210 Study...
August 7, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ioan Lancrajan, Ioan Lisencu, Laurentiu Ignat, Rares Trisca, Madalina Coman, Floarea Mocean
Background: The quality of medical care, as well as the application of effective treatments in the management of patients with gynecologic neoplasm, is of great importance. Finding new and efficient ways of communication between the doctors involved in the multidisciplinary team for the management of the disease, from the diagnosis to the reintegration into society, would help improve the quality of comprehensive patient care. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the collaboration of family physicians with specialists treating patients suffering from gynecologic cancer, in order to improve the relationship between them via electronic communication...
July 2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Diya Das, Moumita Sengupta, Keya Basu, Mona Tirkey, Chhanda Datta, Uttara Chatterjee
Background: Pap-smears-based cytology and human papilloma virus testing have their own limitations in detecting cervical precancerous lesions, and still need further standardization. Co-expression of p16ink4a and Ki-67 can be used as additional biomarker. Aims: To study the role of liquid-based cytology and the dual immunostaining for p16/Ki-67 in predicting the presence of significant lesion in cases of mild cytological atypia. Materials and Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed in the Department of Pathology, in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology over 15 months including 545 patients...
July 2018: Journal of Cytology
Veronika Aleksandrovych, Paweł Basta, Krzysztof Gil
Adenomyosis seems to be the most widespread coexistent pathology included under the umbrella of common benign disorders of the human uterus. The incidence of adenomyosis is under discussion since different imaging criteria are used. In the majority of cases, prevalence is determined among women with uterine fibroids and endometriosis or severe gynecological symptoms. This common benign pathology is asymptomatic in 1/3 of cases. Up to 50% of women with infertility are affected by adenomyosis. It seems to be an important risk factor for spontaneous pre-term delivery and pre-term premature rupture of the membranes...
August 7, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Alvaro Monterrosa-Castro, Angélica Monterrosa-Blanco, Teresa Beltrán-Barrios
Hysterectomy is a common gynecologic surgery carried out to remove the pathologic uterus. Objective: To establish if sleep disorders and sexual function are associated with deterioration of the quality of life (QoL) in hysterectomized and sexually active women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with inhabitants from two cities of the Colombian Caribbean. The pollsters invited women aged between 40-59 years to participate; in their communities they applied surveys with demographic characteristics: Female Sexual Function Index, Atenas Insomnia Scale and Menopause Rating Scale...
March 2018: Sleep Science
Crîngu Antoniu Ionescu, Alexandra Matei, Dan Navolan, Mihai Dimitriu, Roxana Bohâltea, Adrian Neacsu, Corina Ilinca, Liana Ples
Ovarian masses are one of the most frequently identified entities in gynecological practice. Early differential diagnosis is a key factor in the medical management of each patient. Transvaginal ultrasound along with additional preoperative testing, such as serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) levels and the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) score, usually provide sufficient information for a presumptive diagnosis. Minimally invasive surgery as a therapeutic approach is the standard procedure for uncomplicated and benign adnexal masses...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Stephen Fiascone, Valery A Danilack, Mary J Kao, Michael Cohen, Kamaljeet Singh, Elizabeth Kalife, Christine Luis, Elizabeth Lokich, Paul Disilvestro, Katina Robison
BACKGROUND: Multiple population-level studies have demonstrated an adverse effect of long wait times to surgery on survival for women with endometrial cancer. Other retrospective and non-randomized prospective studies have shown that pre-operative administration of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) decreases tumor glandular cellularity, which may be a surrogate marker for clinically meaningful tumor response. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pre-operative injection with DMPA decreases tumor glandular cellularity when compared to placebo injection in women awaiting hysterectomy for endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia or type I endometrial cancer, and to determine whether DMPA injection affects quality of life while waiting for surgery...
July 28, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Agedi N Boto, Pei Hui
Due to their derivation from the cell types involved in gynecologic hormonal networks, many gynecologic tumors may produce hormones. In a normal physiological setting, these hormones are essential for regulating the biology and function of gynecological organs, the ovary and uterus in particular. Overproduction of hormones by the tumor may lead to abnormal clinical manifestations of the patients and spillage of excess hormonal products into the blood. Abnormal elevation of serum hormones may be considered as biomarkers that are important to pathologists and clinicians in making precise tumor diagnoses and likely useful in monitoring the tumor burden/recurrence to guide patient treatment options...
January 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Dina Bassiouny, Mahmoud A El-Baz, Tawakol M Gamil, Nazem Shams, Nadia Ismiil, Valerie Dubé, Guangming Han, Matthew Cesari, Fang-I Lu, Elzbieta Slodkowska, Hak Fai Chiu, Magda Naeim, Nim Li, Sharon Nofech-Mozes, Mahmoud A Khalifa
There is a controversy about whether endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) might represent a different entity from the corresponding ovarian cancer occurring de novo, in the absence of endometriosis. This study investigated the clinical-pathologic characteristics and outcome of EAOC compared with other ovarian carcinomas that are not associated with endometriosis (non-EAOC) in a large cohort. Seven hundred two patients meeting the inclusion criteria were further subclassified as group I when patients had ovarian carcinoma associated with or arising within endometriosis (EAOC) and group II when patients had non-EAOC...
July 27, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Fatoumata Matokoma Sidibe, Zakaria Traore, Aspasia Georgala, Rajae Kanab, Denis Larsimont, Ahmad Awada, Martine Piccart-Gebhart
Endometrial small cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an extremely rare and aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. It is characterized by early regional and systemic spread leading to rapid development of lymph nodes, pelvic and extrapelvic metastasis and compromising the outcome. In this paper, we reported three cases of ESCC confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemistry studies. In one case, ESCC was associated with endometrioid carcinoma and carcinosarcoma, while the other two cases were pure ESCC. Two cases were diagnosed at early stage IA of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) cancer staging system...
July 26, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Michael J Nathenson, Anthony P Conley, Heather Lin, Nicole Fleming, Alexander Lazar, Wei-Lien Wang, Vinod Ravi
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study examined the clinicopathologic features of adenosarcoma patients to determine potential prognostic factors and retrospectively evaluated overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) after primary treatment of adenosarcoma including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. METHODS: One hundred sixty-five patients with adenosarcoma were identified from the MD Anderson Cancer Center tumor registry between 1982 and 2014...
July 23, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Taisuke Mori, Fumitake Ito, Akemi Koshiba, Hisashi Kataoka, Yukiko Tanaka, Hiroyuki Okimura, Khaleque N Khan, Jo Kitawaki
Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease that causes various clinical symptoms, such as chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and infertility, seriously affecting women's health and their quality of life. The symptoms and endometriotic lesions are relieved, in many cases, after menopause, when estrogen levels are lowered. Therefore, endometriosis is considered to be estrogen-dependent. Aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the last step of estrogen biosynthesis converting testosterone and androgen to estrogen, was previously reported to be more abundant in endometriotic tissues than in the normal endometrium, leading to an increased local estrogen concentration...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Jeanna M McCuaig, Tracy L Stockley, Patricia Shaw, Michael Fung-Kee-Fung, Alon D Altman, James Bentley, Marcus Q Bernardini, Beatrice Cormier, Hal Hirte, Katharina Kieser, Andree MacMillan, Wendy S Meschino, Karen Panabaker, Renee Perrier, Diane Provencher, Kasmintan A Schrader, Kimberly Serfas, Eva Tomiak, Nora Wong, Sean S Young, Walter Henri Gotlieb, Paul Hoskins, Raymond H Kim
The landscape of genetic testing in ovarian cancer patients has changed dramatically in recent years. The therapeutic benefits of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in treatment of BRCA1/2 -related ovarian cancers has resulted in an increased demand and urgency for genetic testing results, while technological developments have led to widespread use of multi-gene cancer panels and development of tumour testing protocols. Traditional genetic counselling models are no longer sustainable and must evolve to match the rapid evolution of genetic testing technologies and developments in personalized medicine...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Eirwen M Miller, Joan Tymon-Rosario, Jaya Sunkara, Bryan E Harmon, Rouzan G Karabakhtsian, Akiva P Novetsky
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of endometrial clear cell carcinomas is difficult owing to the low reproducibility of histological cell type in high-grade endometrial cancers. Recently, immunoreactivity for napsin A and glypican 3 has been reported in clear cell cancers. We sought to evaluate the use of napsin A and glypican 3 staining to distinguish clear cell carcinoma from other high-grade endometrial cancers. METHODS/MATERIALS: Twenty cases of pure and mixed endometrial clear cell carcinoma were extracted from the 2000-2014 archival material in the Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Pathology at Montefiore Medical Center and compared to serous and grade 3 endometrioid controls...
July 20, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Gustavo Filipov Peres, Daniel Spadoto-Dias, Flávia Neves Bueloni-Dias, Nilton José Leite, Leonardo Vieira Elias, Maria Aparecida Custódio Domingues, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Rogério Dias
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the malignant potential of endometrial polyps (EP) by assessing the immunoexpressions of both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67 cell proliferation index, neovascularization network (endoglin - CD105), cellular adhesion molecules (claudins 3 and 4), and extracellular matrix proteins (MMP-2 and -9) in both EP and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (type I) in comparison with the normal endometrium. Study design: This is a cross-sectional comparative study...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Hirokuni Takano, Keiko Nakajima, Yoko Nagayoshi, Hiromi Komazaki, Jiro Suzuki, Hiroshi Tanabe, Shigeki Niimi, Seiji Isonishi, Aikou Okamoto
OBJECTIVE: Since there have been few large series studies to date, we investigated the relationship between Trousseau's syndrome associated with cerebral infarction and its clinical associations with ovarian cancer. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the association between cerebral infarction onset and ovarian cancer. Eight-hundred twenty-seven consecutive ovarian cancer patients from 4 affiliated academic institutions were included in the study over a 12 years period...
September 2018: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Mohamed Amine Azami, Iliass Elalami, Abderrahim Siati, Najjat Lamalmi
Dermoid cysts or mature cystic teratoma are the most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor. It may be complicated by torsion, rupture, chemical peritonitis and malignant change but is rarely complicated by infection. We present a case of an ovarian dermoid cyst with super-infection caused by Schistosoma haematobium ( S. haematobium ). We present here a case of incidental finding of S. haematobium eggs in an infected cystic teratoma of the ovary because of the rare occurrence of this lesion. A 45-year-old Moroccan woman admitted to the gynecological department because of abdominal pain and fever...
July 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Boyeon Kim, Yongjung Park, Banseok Kim, Hyo Jun Ahn, Kyung-A Lee, Jae Eun Chung, Sang Won Han
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of CA 125, HE4, and ROMA for ovarian cancer in Koreans and set optimal cutoffs. METHOD: Serum levels of HE4 and CA 125 and the ROMA score were determined in 762 patients with benign gynecological disease and 70 with ovarian cancer. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to calculate the areas under the curve (AUC). CA 125, HE4, and ROMA exhibiting maximum Youden index were determined, respectively, as the optimal cutoffs, and sensitivity and specificity were evaluated by applying those cutoffs...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
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