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Jeong-Woo Choi, Wenjun Zhou, Zheng-Wen Nie, Ying-Jie Niu, Kyung-Tae Shin, Xiang-Shun Cui
Spindlin 1 (SPIN1), which contains Tudor-like domains, regulates maternal transcripts via interaction with a messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding protein. SPIN1 is involved in tumorigenesis in somatic cells and is highly expressed in cancer cells. Nevertheless, the role of SPIN1 in porcine oocyte maturation remains totally unknown. To explore the function of SPIN1 in porcine oocyte maturation, knockdown, and overexpression techniques were used. SPIN1 mRNA was identified in maternal stages ranging from GV to MII. SPIN1 was localized in the cytoplasm and to chromosomes during meiosis...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Wei-Dong Li, Shuai Yu, Shi-Ming Luo, Wei Shen, Shen Yin, Qing-Yuan Sun
Benzo[ghi]perylene (B[ghi]P) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon widely found in haze. Long-term exposure to humans or animals can cause serious damage to the respiratory system. Melatonin is an endogenous natural hormone synthesized and released by the pineal gland. In this study, we investigated the effects of melatonin on in vitro cultured B[ghi]P-exposed mouse oocytes and the protective roles of melatonin. Our data indicate that B[ghi]P exposure leads to meiotic maturation arrest and reduced ability of sperm binding and parthenogenetic activation...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jesper Svedberg, Sara Hosseini, Jun Chen, Aaron A Vogan, Iva Mozgova, Lars Hennig, Pennapa Manitchotpisit, Anna Abusharekh, Thomas M Hammond, Martin Lascoux, Hanna Johannesson
Meiotic drive is widespread in nature. The conflict it generates is expected to be an important motor for evolutionary change and innovation. In this study, we investigated the genomic consequences of two large multi-gene meiotic drive elements, Sk-2 and Sk-3, found in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora intermedia. Using long-read sequencing, we generated the first complete and well-annotated genome assemblies of large, highly diverged, non-recombining regions associated with meiotic drive elements. Phylogenetic analysis shows that, even though Sk-2 and Sk-3 are located in the same chromosomal region, they do not form sister clades, suggesting independent origins or at least a long evolutionary separation...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Harriet Swearman, George Koustas, Emily Knight, Georgios Liperis, Christopher Grupen, Cecilia Sjoblom
RESEARCH QUESTION: Temperature fluctuation negatively impacts the assembly and function of the meiotic spindle, but does pH have a similar effect? DESIGN: Polarized light microscopy was used to study the spindle in living mouse oocytes under different pH conditions. Female mice (n = 53) were superovulated, and oocytes collected, denuded and allocated to treatment groups. All experiments were performed at 37°C, and standard bicarbonate-buffered medium was used either pre-equilibrated in 6% CO2 or unequilibrated (in ambient CO2 )...
September 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Mahmut Cerkez Ergoren
Traditional methods for analyzing meiotic recombination in humans are limited. Recently developed in vitro and in silico assays together are useful for confirmation and detection of meiotic recombination hotspots from population polymorphism data. These techniques are significant both for understanding the nature of human meiotic recombination and for applications such as association studies.
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Mahmut Cerkez Ergoren
Meiotic recombination plays a key role in reshuffling haplotypes in human populations and thus affects evolution profoundly. However, our understanding of recombination dynamics is largely limited to descriptions of variation in populations and families. Higher-resolution analysis (≤ 0.0001 cM) of de novo recombination events in human sperm DNA has revealed clustering into very narrow hotspots (1-2 kb) that generally coincide with abrupt breakdown of linkage disequilibrium. Recent findings have highlighted an unexpected molecular control of the distribution of meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammals by a rapidly evolving gene in trans, PR-domain-containing 9 (PRDM9), and specific DNA sequence motifs in cis...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Nikolay B Rubtsov, Yury M Borisov
B chromosomes (Bs) revealed more than a hundred years ago remain to be some of the most mysterious elements of the eukaryotic genome. Their origin and evolution, DNA composition, transcriptional activity, impact on adaptiveness, behavior in meiosis, and transfer to the next generation require intensive investigations using modern methods. Over the past years, new experimental techniques have been applied and helped us gain a deeper insight into the nature of Bs. Here, we consider mammalian Bs, taking into account data on their DNA sequencing, transcriptional activity, positions in nuclei of somatic and meiotic cells, and impact on genome functioning...
October 10, 2018: Genes
Bong-Seok Song, Pil-Soo Jeong, Jong-Hee Lee, Moon-Hyung Lee, Hae-Jun Yang, Seon-A Choi, Hwal-Yong Lee, Seung-Bin Yoon, Young-Ho Park, Kang-Jin Jeong, Young-Hyun Kim, Yeung Bae Jin, Ji-Su Kim, Bo-Woong Sim, Jae-Won Huh, Sang-Rae Lee, Deog-Bon Koo, Kyu-Tae Chang, Sun-Uk Kim
Successful production of transgenic pigs requires oocytes with a high developmental competence. However, cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) obtained from antral follicles have a heterogeneous morphology. COCs can be classified into one of two classes: class I, with five or more layers of cumulus cells; and class II, with one or two layers of cumulus cells. Activator [e.g., epidermal growth factor (EGF)] or inhibitors (e.g., wortmannin and U0126) are added to modulate kinases in oocytes during meiosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of kinase modulation on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in COCs...
2018: PloS One
Jingyi Li, Shijun Shen, Jiayu Chen, Wenqiang Liu, Xiaocui Li, Qianshu Zhu, Beiying Wang, Xiaolong Chen, Li Wu, Mingzhu Wang, Liang Gu, Hong Wang, Jiqing Yin, Cizhong Jiang, Shaorong Gao
Extensive and accurate chromatin remodeling is essential during primordial germ cell (PGC) development for the perpetuation of genetic information across generations. Here, we report that distal cis-regulatory elements (CREs) marked by DNase I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) show temporally restricted activities during mouse and human PGC development. Using DHS maps as proxy, we accurately locate the genome-wide binding sites of pluripotency transcription factors in mouse PGCs. Unexpectedly, we found that mouse female meiotic recombination hotspots can be captured by DHSs, and for the first time, we identified 12,211 recombination hotspots in mouse female PGCs...
October 10, 2018: Cell Research
Carla M Abreu, Rohit Prakash, Peter J Romanienko, Ignasi Roig, Scott Keeney, Maria Jasin
The DNA-damage repair pathway homologous recombination (HR) requires factors that promote the activity of strand-exchange protein RAD51 and its meiosis-specific homolog DMC1. Here we show that the Shu complex SWS1-SWSAP1, a candidate for one such HR regulator, is dispensable for mouse viability but essential for male and female fertility, promoting the assembly of RAD51 and DMC1 on early meiotic HR intermediates. Only a fraction of mutant meiocytes progress to form crossovers, which are crucial for chromosome segregation, demonstrating crossover homeostasis...
October 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Guojia Ma, Wei Zhang, Liwang Liu, Wun S Chao, Yong Qiang Gu, Lili Qi, Steven S Xu, Xiwen Cai
BACKGROUND: Meiosis is a specialized cell division critical for gamete production in the sexual reproduction of eukaryotes. It ensures genome integrity and generates genetic variability as well. The Rec8-like cohesin is a cohesion protein essential for orderly chromosome segregation in meiotic cell division. The Rec8-like genes and cohesins have been cloned and characterized in diploid models, but not in polyploids. The present study aimed to clone the homoeologous genes (homoeoalleles) for Rec8-like cohesin in polyploid wheat, an important food crop for humans, and to characterize their structure and function under a polyploid condition...
October 11, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Bingyue Zhang, Huiran Niu, Qingqing Cai, Mengqin Liao, Keren Chen, Yaosheng Chen, Peiqing Cong
Faithful repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian oocytes is essential for meiotic maturation and embryonic development. In the present study we investigated the roles of Roscovitine and Trichostatin A (TSA) in DNA damage recovery during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes. Etoposide was used to trigger DNA damage in oocytes. When these DNA-damaged oocytes were treated with 2 μM Roscovitine, 50 nM TSA or both for 22 h, first polar body extrusion and blastocyst formation in all treated groups were significantly improved compared with the etoposide-only group...
October 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Giacomo Zilio, Lea Moesch, Nathalie Bovet, Anouk Sarr, Jacob C Koella
Sexual reproduction and meiotic recombination generate new genetic combinations and may thereby help an individual infected by a parasite to protect its offspring from being infected. While this idea is often used to understand the evolutionary forces underlying the maintenance of sex and recombination, it also suggests that infected individuals should increase plastically their rate of recombination. We tested the latter idea with the mosquito Aedes aegypti and asked whether females infected by the microsporidian Vavraia culicis were more likely to have recombinant offspring than uninfected females...
2018: PloS One
Luigia Santella, Nunzia Limatola, Filip Vasilev, Jong Tai Chun
Starfish and sea urchin are excellent models to study the mechanisms that regulate oocyte maturation and egg activation. Hormonal stimulation of starfish oocytes and their following interaction with spermatozoa induce rapid changes of F-actin and Ca2+ increases which are prerequisites for normal fertilization and development. Fully grown oocytes isolated from the gonads of starfish contain a large nucleus (∼60-70 μm) (termed germinal vesicle, GV), which is arrested at the first prophase of meiosis. If inseminated, these immature oocytes are penetrated by additional spermatozoa...
October 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kimberly M Davenport, Stephanie McKay, Alan G Fahey, Clare Gill, Brenda M Murdoch
Meiotic recombination is an important contributor to genetic variation and ensures proper chromosome segregation during gametogenesis. Previous studies suggest that at least 1 crossover (CO) per chromosome arm is important to avoid mis-segregation. While the total number of COs per spermatocyte is known to differ in mice, this is only beginning to be evaluated in sheep. This study used a cytogenetic approach to quantify and compare the number of COs per spermatocyte in rams from 3 breeds of sheep: Suffolk, Icelandic, and Targhee...
October 9, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Nitikorn Poriswanish, Rita Neumann, Jon H Wetton, John Wagstaff, Maarten H D Larmuseau, Mark A Jobling, Celia A May
The human X and Y chromosomes are heteromorphic but share a region of homology at the tips of their short arms, pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1), that supports obligate crossover in male meiosis. Although the boundary between pseudoautosomal and sex-specific DNA has traditionally been regarded as conserved among primates, it was recently discovered that the boundary position varies among human males, due to a translocation of ~110 kb from the X to the Y chromosome that creates an extended PAR1 (ePAR). This event has occurred at least twice in human evolution...
October 8, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Yue He, Yu Lin, Yu Zhu, Ping Ping, Guishuan Wang, Fei Sun
The expression of many genes during the post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis is largely regulated by germ cell-specific RNA binding proteins at the level of post-transcription. One of these RNA binding proteins, YBX2, participates in mRNA storage and regulation of translation in haploid spermatids. How YBX2-stored mRNAs become translationally competent during spermiogenesis remains unknown. In the present study, we report for the first time that YBX2 interacts with PAIP1, a protein translation enhancer, in vitro and in vivo...
October 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Shou Soeda, Kaori Yamada-Nomoto, Tatsuo Michiue, Miho Ohsugi
During vertebrate fertilization, sperm chromatin remodeling occurs concomitantly with maternal chromosome segregation at anaphase II, leading to simultaneous formation of two pronuclei. In mammals, these processes take much longer than in other vertebrates. Here, we explore the molecular basis and physiological importance of this mammalian-specific temporal regulation using mouse oocytes. We demonstrate the involvement of protein phosphatase in temporal regulation. Early onset of pronuclear formation causes paternal-biased abnormalities in pronuclear morphology and chromosome segregation at the first mitosis...
September 28, 2018: Developmental Cell
Tisha Bohr, Christian R Nelson, Stefani Giacopazzi, Piero Lamelza, Needhi Bhalla
The conserved factor Shugoshin is dispensable in C. elegans for the two-step loss of sister chromatid cohesion that directs the proper segregation of meiotic chromosomes. We show that the C. elegans ortholog of Shugoshin, SGO-1, is required for checkpoint activity in meiotic prophase. This role in checkpoint function is similar to that of conserved proteins that structure meiotic chromosome axes. Indeed, null sgo-1 mutants exhibit additional phenotypes similar to that of a partial loss-of-function allele of the axis component, HTP-3: premature synaptonemal complex disassembly, the activation of alternate DNA repair pathways, and an inability to recruit a conserved effector of the DNA damage pathway, HUS-1...
October 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Xavier Raffoux, Mickael Bourge, Fabrice Dumas, Olivier C Martin, Matthieu Falque
Meiotic recombination is a major driver of genome evolution by creating new genetic combinations. To probe the factors driving variability of meiotic recombination, we used a high-throughput method to measure recombination rates in hybrids between SK1 and a total of 26 S. cerevisiae strains from different geographic origins and habitats. Fourteen intervals were monitored for each strain, covering chromosomes VI and XI entirely, and part of chromosome I. We found an average number of crossovers per chromosome ranging between 1...
October 5, 2018: Genetics
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