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Tao Lin, Jae Eun Lee, Jeong Won Kang, Reza K Oqani, Eun Seok Cho, Seong Bok Kim, Dong Il Jin
Poor-quality oocytes (those with 1 to 2 layers of cumulus cells) typically possess low meiotic competence and development. Prolonging the duration of in vitro maturation (IVM; 52 h) can enhance the maturation rate of poor-quality oocytes, but it does not improve subsequent embryonic development. This likely reflects the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis seen in these oocytes compared with the non-prolonged IVM (44 h) group. Melatonin is a free radical scavenger, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic agent that reported to enhance the quality of embryos by inhibiting ROS generation and apoptosis...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Xueyi Shen, Changmin Niu, Jiaqian Guo, Mengmeng Xia, Jing Xia, Yanqiu Hu, Ying Zheng
Stimulated by retinoic acid 8 (Stra8), one of genes induced by retinoic acid (RA), is required for the meiotic initiation of male spermatogenesis. The present study found that Stra8 inhibited apoptosis in male Stra8‑knockout mice, and in mice with vitamin A deficiency and vitamin A recovery in vivo. This phenotype was also verified in GC1 spermatogonia (spg) cells overexpressing Stra8. In addition, microarray analysis identified that there were nine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the Stra8‑overexpressed GC1 spg cells compared with the control groups; the expression of these nine genes was verified via mRNA expression levels...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Musa AlHarbi, Nahla Ali Mobark, Latifa AlMubarak, Rasha Aljelaify, Mariam AlSaeed, Amal Almutairi, Fatmah Alqubaishi, M Emarat Hussain, Ali Abdullah O Balbaid, Amal Said Marie, Lamia AlSubaie, Saeed AlShieban, Nada alTassan, Shakti H Ramkissoon, Malak Abedalthagafi
Primary brain tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in children. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a high-grade astrocytoma that occurs in both children and adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite extensive study in recent years, the clinical management of these tumors has remained largely unchanged, consisting of surgical resection, conventional chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Although the etiology and genomic drivers in GBM are diverse, constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a rare, recessively inherited disease with a predisposition to gliomagenesis...
August 13, 2018: Oncologist
Yang Zhou, Yan Qin, Yingying Qin, Binyang Xu, Ting Guo, Hanni Ke, Min Chen, Lianjun Zhang, Feng Han, Yaqiong Li, Min Chen, Axel Behrens, Yaqing Wang, Zhiheng Xu, Zi-Jiang Chen, Fei Gao
Meiosis is a germ cell-specific division that is indispensable for the generation of haploid gametes. However, the regulatory mechanisms of meiotic initiation remain elusive. Here, we report that the Wdr62 (WD40-repeat protein 62) is involved in meiotic initiation as a permissive factor rather than an instructive factor. Knock-out of this gene in a mouse model resulted in meiotic initiation defects. Further studies demonstrated that Wdr62 is required for RA-induced Stra8 expression via the activation of JNK signaling, and the defects in meiotic initiation from Wdr62-deficient mice could be partially rescued by JNK1 overexpression in germ cells...
August 13, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Muhammad Jakir Hasan, Habibur Rahman
The oilseed crop Brassica juncea carries many desirable traits; however, resistance to clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae , is not available in this species. We are the first to report the clubroot resistant resynthesized B. juncea lines, developed through interspecific crosses between a clubroot resistant B. rapa ssp. rapifera and two susceptible B. nigra lines, and the stability of the resistance in self-pollinated generations. The interspecific nature of the resynthesized B. juncea plants was confirmed by using A- and B-genome specific SSR markers, and flow cytometric analysis of nuclear DNA content...
June 2018: Breeding Science
Alexandra Colin, Pavithra Singaravelu, Manuel Théry, Laurent Blanchoin, Zoher Gueroui
Coordination between actin filaments and microtubules is critical to complete important steps during cell division. For instance, cytoplasmic actin filament dynamics play an active role in the off-center positioning of the spindle during metaphase I in mouse oocytes [1-3] or in gathering the chromosomes to ensure proper spindle formation in starfish oocytes [4, 5], whereas cortical actin filaments control spindle rotation and positioning in adherent cells or in mouse oocytes [6-9]. Several molecular effectors have been found to facilitate anchoring between the meiotic spindle and the cortical actin [10-14]...
August 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Natalie R Peer, Sze Ming Law, Brenda Murdoch, Eugenia H Goulding, Edward M Eddy, Kwanhee Kim
Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA), a retinoic acid-dependent transcription factor, is expressed in both somatic and germ cells of the testis. Rara-null male mice with global Rara mutations displayed severely degenerated testis and infertility phenotypes. To elucidate the specific responsibility of germ cell RARA in spermatogenesis, Rara was deleted in germ cells, generating germ cell-specific Rara conditional knockout (Rara cKO) mice. These Rara cKO animals exhibited phenotypes of quantitatively reduced epididymal sperm counts and disorganized germ cell layers in the seminiferous tubules, which worsened with aging...
August 6, 2018: Endocrinology
Ladan Monsef, Parnaz Borjian Boroujeni, Mehdi Totonchi, Marjan Sabbaghian, Anahita Mohseni Meybodi
Genetic abnormalities have been considered as a significant cause of male infertility. Increased expression of SPATA33, during the first wave of spermatogenesis, indicates its possible association with the meiotic process. The aim of the present study was to investigate genetic variations of SPATA33 gene and its expression in patients with non-obstructive azoospermic disorder. A total of 100 Iranian non obstructive azoospermic (NOA) men with idiopathic infertility were considered as case group. Control group comprised 100 fertile men who had at least one child...
August 10, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Matthew Hartfield, Stephen I Wright, Aneil F Agrawal
Under neutrality, linkage disequilibrium (LD) results from physically linked sites having non-independent coalescent histories. In obligately sexual organisms, meiotic recombination is the dominant force separating linked variants from one another, and thus in determining the decay of LD with physical distance. In facultatively sexual diploid organisms that principally reproduce clonally, mechanisms of mitotic exchange are expected to become relatively more important in shaping LD. Here we outline mathematical and computational models of a facultative-sex coalescent process that includes meiotic and mitotic recombination, via both crossovers and gene conversion, to determine how LD is affected with facultative sex...
August 10, 2018: Genetics
Jian Li, Ji-Xin Tang, Jin-Mei Cheng, Bian Hu, Yu-Qian Wang, Batool Aalia, Xiao-Yu Li, Cheng Jin, Xiu-Xia Wang, Shou-Long Deng, Yan Zhang, Su-Ren Chen, Wei-Ping Qian, Qing-Yuan Sun, Xing-Xu Huang, Yi-Xun Liu
Mammalian oocytes are arrested at the prophase of the first meiotic division for months and even years, depending on species. Meiotic resumption of fully grown oocytes requires activation of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF), which is composed of Cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). It has long been believed that Cyclin B1 synthesis/accumulation and its interaction with CDK1 is a prerequisite for MPF activation in oocytes. In this study, we revealed that oocyte meiotic resumption occurred in the absence of Cyclin B1...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Anna Rita Piras, Giovanni Pietro Burrai, Federica Ariu, Laura Falchi, Maria Teresa Zedda, Salvatore Pau, Sergio Domenico Gadau, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Daniela Bebbere, Sergio Ledda, Luisa Bogliolo
BACKGROUND: Storage conditions during transportation of explanted ovaries are a critical step in setting up fertility preservation protocols in both animal and human fields. Here, we evaluated the effects of ovary storage at 4 °C on the preservation of preantral follicles and oocytes retrieved from antral follicles using the domestic cat as model. METHODS: Ovaries were harvested from fifty-five healthy domestic queens during ovariectomy and stored at 4 °C for 0 (control), 24, 48, 72 and 96 h...
August 10, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Susan E Liao, Yiwei Ai, Ryuya Fukunaga
Drosophila Blanks is a testes-specific RNA-binding protein required for post-meiotic spermiogenesis. However, Blanks's role in regulating RNA populations in the testes remains unknown. We performed small RNA and mRNA high-throughput sequencing in blanks mutant testes and controls. We identified two miRNAs, one siRNA, and hundreds of mRNAs that are significantly upregulated or downregulated in blanks mutant testes. Pathway analysis revealed that differentially expressed mRNAs are involved in catabolic and metabolic processes, anion and cation transport, mating, and reproductive behavior...
July 2018: Heliyon
Yonatan B Tzur, Eitan Winter, Jinmin Gao, Tamar Hashimshony, Itai Yanai, Monica P Colaiácovo
Developmental programs are executed by tightly controlled gene regulatory pathways. Here, we combined the unique sample retrieval capacity afforded by laser capture microscopy with analysis of mRNA abundance by CEL-Seq, to generate a spatiotemporal gene expression map of the C. elegans syncytial germline from adult hermaphrodites and males. We found that over 6,000 genes exhibit spatiotemporal dynamic expression patterns throughout the hermaphrodite germline, with two dominant groups of genes exhibiting reciprocal shifts in expression at late pachytene during meiotic prophase I...
August 9, 2018: Genetics
Emily L Kurdzo, Hoa H Chuong, Jared M Evatt, Dean S Dawson
In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes segregate away from each other-the first of two rounds of chromosome segregation that allow the formation of haploid gametes. In prophase I, homologous partners become joined along their length by the synaptonemal complex (SC) and crossovers form between the homologs to generate links called chiasmata. The chiasmata allow the homologs to act as a single unit, called a bivalent, as the chromosomes attach to the microtubules that will ultimately pull them away from each other at anaphase I...
August 9, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Ziad Jowhar, Sigal Shachar, Prabhakar R Gudla, Darawalee Wangsa, Erin Torres, Jill L Russ, Gianluca Pegoraro, Thomas Ried, Armin Raznahan, Tom Misteli
Sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) are common genetic syndromes characterized by the presence of an aberrant number of X and Y chromosomes due to meiotic defects. These conditions impact structure and function of diverse tissues, but the proximal effects of SCA on genome organization are unknown. Here, to determine the consequences of SCAs on global genome organization, we have analyzed multiple architectural features of chromosome organization in a comprehensive set of primary cells from SCA patients with various ratios of X and Y chromosomes by use of imaging-based high-throughput Chromosome Territory Mapping (HiCTMap)...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Aleksandar Vještica, Laura Merlini, Pedro Junior Nkosi, Sophie G Martin
The ploidy cycle, which is integral to sexual reproduction, requires meiosis to halve chromosome numbers as well as mechanisms that ensure zygotes are formed by exactly two partners1-4 . During sexual reproduction of the fungal model organism Schizosaccharomyces pombe, haploid P and M cells fuse to form a diploid zygote that immediately enters meiosis5 . Here we reveal that rapid post-fusion reconstitution of a bipartite transcription factor blocks re-fertilization. We first identify mutants that undergo transient cell fusion involving cytosol exchange but not karyogamy, and show that this drives distinct cell fates in the two gametes...
August 8, 2018: Nature
Maryam Gholamitabar Tabari, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei, Mohammad Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei, Ali Asghar Ahmadi, Mehdi Amirikia
We designed a study to induce differentiation of Oct4-GFP (expression of Green Fluorescent Protein of oct4) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by embryoid body (EB) culture system into germ cells (GCs) using retinoic acid (RA) and evaluated the expression level of (Fkbp6, Mov10l1, 4930432K21Rik, and Tex13) in differentiated cells. The expression levels of four GC-related genes, Oct4, Mvh, Scp3, and Stra8, was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR). Immunostaining and flow cytometry were used as additional tests to confirm q-RT-PCR findings...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Pierre Romé, Hiroyuki Ohkura
The meiotic spindle in oocytes is assembled in the absence of centrosomes, the major microtubule nucleation sites in mitotic and male meiotic cells. A crucial, yet unresolved question in meiosis is how spindle microtubules are generated without centrosomes and only around chromosomes in the exceptionally large volume of oocytes. Here we report a novel oocyte-specific microtubule nucleation pathway that is essential for assembling most spindle microtubules complementarily with the Augmin pathway. This pathway is mediated by the kinesin-6 Subito/MKlp2, which recruits the γ-tubulin complex to the spindle equator to nucleate microtubules in Drosophila oocytes...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Ching-Jung Lin, Fuqu Hu, Raphaelle Dubruille, Jeffrey Vedanayagam, Jiayu Wen, Peter Smibert, Benjamin Loppin, Eric C Lai
Intragenomic conflicts are fueled by rapidly evolving selfish genetic elements, which induce selective pressures to innovate opposing repressive mechanisms. This is patently manifest in sex-ratio (SR) meiotic drive systems, in which distorter and suppressor factors bias and restore equal transmission of X and Y sperm. Here, we reveal that multiple SR suppressors in Drosophila simulans (Nmy and Tmy) encode related hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs), which generate endo-siRNAs that repress the paralogous distorters Dox and MDox...
August 6, 2018: Developmental Cell
Jude Beaudoin, Raphaël Ioannoni, Vincent Normant, Simon Labbé
When reproduction in fungi takes place by sexual means, meiosis enables the formation of haploid spores from diploid precursor cells. Copper is required for completion of meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. During the meiotic program, genes encoding copper transporters exhibit distinct temporal expression profiles. In the case of the major facilitator copper transporter 1 (Mfc1), its maximal expression is induced during middle-phase meiosis and requires the presence of the Zn6Cys2 binuclear cluster-type transcription factor Mca1...
2018: PloS One
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