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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029098/genital-granulomatosis-in-male-and-female-patients-with-crohn-s-disease-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-outcomes
#1
F Dederichs, I Iesalnieks, M Sladek, Ch Tzivinikos, R Hansen, C Muñoz, P Pavli, M N Cavicchi, V Abitbol, J-F Rahier, S R Vavricka, K Katsanos, E Domènech
Background: Genital granulomatosis (GG) is a metastatic form of Crohn's Disease (CD), characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the genital skin without contact to the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about GG as most publications are case reports or small series, and only sporadic in male cases. Methods and Aims: Cases of GG were retrospectively collected through the Collaborative Network For Exceptionally Rare case reports project of the European Crohn´s and Colitis Organization...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028811/elevated-expression-of-hsp10-protein-inhibits-apoptosis-and-associates-with-poor-prognosis-of-astrocytoma
#2
Weibing Fan, Shuang-Shi Fan, Juan Feng, Desheng Xiao, Songqing Fan, Jiadi Luo
Astrocytoma is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor, with pretty lowly 5-year survival rate in patients. Although extended surgical removal of the tumor and postoperative chemotherapy/radiotherapy executed, still there is large recurrence rate, mainly because diffuse glioma tumor cells ubiquitously infiltrate into normal parenchyma. So it becomes a priority to hunt novel molecular and signaling pathway targets to suppress astrocyma progression. HSP10, an important member of Heat shock proteins (Hsps) family, classically works as molecular chaperone folding or degradating of target proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027229/extracellular-nucleosides-and-nucleotides-as-immunomodulators
#3
REVIEW
Oliver Kepp, Friedemann Loos, Peng Liu, Guido Kroemer
Some anticancer agents induce immunogenic cell death that is accompanied by the emission of danger signals into the tumor microenvironment, thus attracting and activating innate immune effectors and finally inducing anticancer immunity. The release of extracellular nucleosides such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the tumor in response to anticancer therapy plays a pivotal role in the attraction of antigen presenting cells and the activation of inflammasome-mediated proinflammatory cascades. In contrast, the ectonucleotidase-catalyzed phosphohydrolysis of nucleotides to nucleosides reduces the extracellular availability of nucleotides, hence limiting the recruitment and activation of antigen-presenting cells...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027224/immunomodulation-by-ionizing-radiation-impact-for-design-of-radio-immunotherapies-and-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Benjamin Frey, Michael Rückert, Lisa Deloch, Paul F Rühle, Anja Derer, Rainer Fietkau, Udo S Gaipl
Ionizing radiation is often regarded as an element of danger. But, danger responses on the cellular and molecular level are often beneficial with regard to the induction of anti-tumor immunity and for amelioration of inflammation. We outline how in dependence of radiation dose and fraction, radiation itself-and especially in combination with immune modulators-impacts on the innate and adaptive immune system. Focus is set on radiation-induced changes of the tumor cell phenotype and the cellular microenvironment including immunogenic cancer cell death...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024591/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-the-cd40-cd40l-costimulatory-protein-protein-interaction
#5
Jinshui Chen, Yun Song, Damir Bojadzic, Alejandro Tamayo-Garcia, Ana Marie Landin, Bonnie B Blomberg, Peter Buchwald
Costimulatory interactions are required for T cell activation and development of an effective immune response; hence, they are valuable therapeutic targets for immunomodulation. However, they, as all other protein-protein interactions, are difficult to target by small molecules. Here, we report the identification of novel small-molecule inhibitors of the CD40-CD40L interaction designed starting from the chemical space of organic dyes. For the most promising compounds such as DRI-C21045, activity (IC50) in the low micromolar range has been confirmed in cell assays including inhibition of CD40L-induced activation in NF-κB sensor cells, THP-1 myeloid cells, and primary human B cells as well as in murine allogeneic skin transplant and alloantigen-induced T cell expansion in draining lymph node experiments...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018349/the-role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-on-cardiovascular-homeostasis-an-overview-with-update-on-immunomodulation
#6
REVIEW
Li-Long Pan, Ming Qin, Xin-Hua Liu, Yi-Zhun Zhu
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third endogenous gaseous signaling molecule alongside nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide, is synthesized by multiple enzymes in cardiovascular system. Similar to other gaseous mediators, H2S has demonstrated a variety of biological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, pro-angiogenic, vasodilating capacities and endothelial NO synthase modulating activity, and regulates a wide range of pathophysiological processes in cardiovascular disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms by which H2S mediates cardiovascular homeostasis are not fully understood...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017920/mycophenolic-mofetil-an-alternative-antiviral-and-immunomodulator-for-the-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-virus-infection
#7
Junhyung Cho, Hwajung Yi, Eun Young Jang, Mi-Seon Lee, Joo-Yeon Lee, Chun Kang, Chan Hee Lee, Kisoon Kim
Infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus results in a high incidence of mortality in humans. Severe complications from infection are often associated with hypercytokinemia. However, current neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) have several limitations including the appearance of oseltamivir-resistant H5N1 virus and the inability to completely ameliorate hyper-immune responses. To overcome these limitations, we evaluated the anti-viral activity of mycophenolic mofetil (MMF) against A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1) virus infection using MDCK cells and mice...
October 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994306/pharmacological-treatments-and-infectious-diseases-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Valeria Dipasquale, Claudio Romano
The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising, as is the employment of immunosuppressive and biological drugs. Most patients with IBD receive immunosuppressive therapies during the course of the disease. These molecules are a double-edged sword; while they can help control disease activity, they also increase the risk of infections. Therefore, it is important that pediatricians involved in primary care, pediatric gastroenterologists, and infectious disease physicians have a thorough knowledge of the infections that can affect patients with IBD...
October 10, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994285/biologically-inspired-design-of-nanoparticle-artificial-antigen-presenting-cells-for-immunomodulation
#9
John W Hickey, Fernando P Vicente, Gregory P Howard, Hai-Quan Mao, Jonathan P Schneck
Particles engineered to engage and interact with cell surface ligands and to modulate cells can be harnessed to explore basic biological questions as well as to devise cellular therapies. Biology has inspired the design of these particles, such as artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) for use in immunotherapy. While much has been learned about mimicking antigen presenting cell biology, as we decrease the size of aAPCs to the nanometer scale, we need to extend biomimetic design to include considerations of T cell biology-including T-cell receptor (TCR) organization...
October 10, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994272/programmed-death-ligand-1-expression-and-its-correlation-with-lymph-node-metastasis-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#10
Hyo Jung An, Gyung Hyuck Ko, Jeong-Hee Lee, Jong Sil Lee, Dong Chul Kim, Jung Wook Yang, Min Hye Kim, Jin Pyeong Kim, Eun Jung Jung, Dae Hyun Song
Background: The immunotherapeutic role of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in life expectancy in many cancers has been highlighted. However, data regarding PD-L1 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are limited. In this study, we describe the PD-L1 and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressions in PTC and analyze their correlation with lymph node (LN) metastasis. Materials and Methods: Clinicopathological data were obtained from 116 patients with PTC who were treated in Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, Korea in 2009...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993458/dairy-heifers-naturally-exposed-to-fasciola-hepatica-develop-a-type-2-immune-response-and-concomitant-suppression-of-leukocyte-proliferation
#11
John Graham-Brown, Catherine Hartley, Helen Clough, Aras Kadioglu, Matthew Baylis, Diana J L Williams
Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode of global importance in livestock. Control strategies reliant on anthelmintics are unsustainable due to the emergence of drug resistance. Vaccines are under development, but efficacy is variable. Evidence from experimental infection suggest vaccine efficacy may be affected by parasite-induced immunomodulation. Little is known about the immune response to F. hepatica following natural exposure. Hence we analysed the immune responses over time in calves naturally exposed to F...
October 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992252/uromodulin-slpa-binding-dictates-lactobacillus-acidophilus-uptake-by-intestinal-epithelial-m-cells
#12
Sae Yanagihara, Takashi Kanaya, Shinji Fukuda, Gaku Nakato, Misaho Hanazato, Xue-Ru Wu, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Hiroshi Ohno
Bacterial access to the gut immune system is a crucial process to promote host immune responses. The probiotic L-92 strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus exerts anti-allergic immunomodulatory effects upon oral administration in mice. Here we show that M cells are responsible for L-92 internalization for evoking L-92-mediated immune responses. L-92 specifically bound to uromodulin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expressed exclusively on M cells among intestinal epithelial cells. Internalization of L-92 into M cells was significantly reduced in uromodulin-deficient (Umod-/-) mice compared to Umod+/+ mice...
July 22, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991723/infections-and-chlamydia-pneumoniae-antibodies-influence-the-functional-outcome-in-thrombolysed-strokes
#13
Domenico Consoli, Simone Vidale, Marco Arnaboldi, Anna Cavallini, Arturo Consoli, Franco Galati, Donata Guidetti, Giuseppe Micieli, Maurizia Rasura, Roberto Sterzi, Danilo Toni, Domenico Inzitari
OBJECTIVE: Thrombolysis is effective in ischemic stroke patients, but some factors influence its benefit. Previous infections could increase the risk of ischemic stroke by an activation of systemic inflammation. We analysed the influence of previous infections and Chlamydia pneumoniae serology on functional outcome in thrombolysed stroke patients. METHODS: Consecutive thrombolysed stroke patients admitted during calendar year 2011 were analysed. Demographics, vascular risk factors, clinical and aetiological data were registered...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991085/crohn-s-disease-of-the-pouch-a-true-diagnosis-or-an-oversubscribed-diagnosis-of-exclusion
#14
Amy L Lightner, Joel G Fletcher, John H Pemberton, Kellie L Mathis, Laura E Raffals, Thomas Smyrk
BACKGROUND: After IPAA, 8% of patients with ulcerative colitis are later diagnosed with Crohn's disease of the pouch, associated with an increased rate of pouch failure. No study has reported on how often the clinical diagnosis is correlated with histologic findings of Crohn's disease in the excised pouch. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the clinical diagnosis is consistent with pathologic confirmation at pouch excision. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a tertiary IBD referral center...
November 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990726/multiple-mechanisms-of-dimethyl-fumarate-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-neurotoxicity-in-human-neuronal-cells
#15
Michela Campolo, Giovanna Casili, Marika Lanza, Alessia Filippone, Irene Paterniti, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Emanuela Esposito
Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by a complex heterogeneity of pathological changes, and any therapeutic approach categorically requires a multi-targeted way. It has been demonstrated that together with the hallmarks of the disease such as neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques, oxidative and inflammatory stress covered an important role. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an orally bioavailable methyl ester of fumaric acid and activator of Nrf2 with potential neuroprotective and immunomodulating activities...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990062/regulation-of-m1%C3%A2-type-and-m2%C3%A2-type-macrophage-polarization-in-raw264-7-cells-by-galectin%C3%A2-9
#16
Ran Lv, Qi Bao, Yan Li
Generally considered as a potent pro‑inflammatory signal, β‑galactosidelectin suppresses T cell receptor activation, can both promote and inhibit integrin‑mediated adhesion and is required in nuclear pre‑mRNA splicing. Galectin‑9 (Gal‑9), a member of β‑galactoside lectin, is involved many processes of T cell‑mediated diseases (such as autoimmune diseases and asthma) and immunomodulation of macrophages. Macrophages are involved in the occurrence of inflammation, development and digestion and other stages...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987556/taenia-crassiceps-antigens-induce-a-th2-immune-response-and-attenuate-injuries-experimentally-induced-by-neurotoxoplasmosis-in-balb-c-mice
#17
Amanda J S Souza, Anália C Milhomem, Hanstter H A Rezende, Hidelbertp Matos-Silva, Marina C Vinaud, Milton A P Oliveira, Ana M Castro, Ruy S Lino-Júnior
Toxoplasma gondii is a pathogenic agent responsible for causing both systemic and local disease which elicits a typically pro-inflammatory, Th1 immune response. Taenia crassiceps antigen induces a Th2 immune response that immunomodulates Th1 based infections. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate whether T. crassiceps cysticerci antigens are able to modulate the inflammatory response triggered in experimental neurotoxoplasmosis (NT). BALB/c mice were inoculated with T. gondii cysts and/or cysticerci antigens and euthanized at 60 and 90days after inoculation (DAI)...
October 5, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986660/risk-factors-for-rescue-therapy-in-crohn-s-patients-maintained-on-infliximab-after-withdrawal-of-the-immunomodulator-a-long-term-follow-up
#18
Monika Fischer, Sarah C Campbell, Cynthia S J Calley, Debra J Helper, Michael V Chiorean, Hala M Fadda
BACKGROUND: Usefulness of thiopurine and scheduled infliximab combination therapy in non-immunomodulator (IM)-naïve Crohn's disease (CD) patients and the optimal length of dual therapy are still debated. AIMS: To determine proportion of patients developing disease flare requiring rescue therapy and risk factors associated with disease flare after de-escalation of IM from combination therapy. METHODS: Adult CD patients in clinical remission on combination therapy were identified from a large single-center database between 2002 and 2009...
October 6, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986117/screening-prophylaxis-and-counselling-before-the-start-of-biological-therapies-a-practical-approach-focused-on-ibd-patients
#19
REVIEW
Cândida Abreu, António Sarmento, Fernando Magro
The standard of care in the management of immune-mediated inflammatory conditions relies on immunomodulators, glucocorticoids, and biologicals (including anti-tumour necrosis factor -α and other monoclonal antibodies). These agents have an overall favourable benefit/risk ratio; however, they modulate the immune response as part of their mechanisms of action, and therefore they may increase the risk of developing infections, particularly in older patients or in patients with concomitant corticosteroids. Some of these infections may be preventable by immunization, chemoprophylaxis or counselling...
September 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985671/challenges-and-opportunities-of-nontraditional-approaches-to-treating-bacterial-infections
#20
Brian N Tse, Amesh A Adalja, Christopher Houchens, Joseph Larsen, Thomas V Inglesby, Richard Hatchett
Due to increasing rates of antimicrobial-resistant infections and the current inadequacy of the antibiotic pipeline, there is increasing interest in nontraditional approaches to antibacterial therapies. We define "traditional" agents as small-molecule agents that directly target bacterial components to exert a bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect, and "nontraditional approaches" as antimicrobial therapeutics that work through other means (ie, not a small molecule and/or utilizes a nontraditional target). Due to their atypical features, such therapies may be less susceptible to the emergence of resistance than traditional antibiotics...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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