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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526572/comprehensive-evaluation-of-immunomodulation-by-moderate-hypoxia-in-s-agalactiae-vaccinated-nile-tilapia
#1
Sanchala Gallage, Takayuki Katagiri, Masato Endo, Masashi Maita
Streptococcus agalactiae is a major bacterial pathogen in tilapia aquaculture. Vaccines are known to provide protection but S. agalactiae clearance in tilapia can be reduced by marginal environmental conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine S. agalactiae clearance in vaccinated Nile tilapia under moderate hypoxic (55± 5% DO) and normoxic (85 ± 5%DO) conditions. Fish were acclimatized to either moderate hypoxia or normoxia and immunized with formalin-inactivated S. agalactiae. Fish were experimentally challenged with S...
May 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526570/role-of-medicinal-plants-on-growth-performance-and-immune-status-in-fish
#2
REVIEW
Elham Awad, Amani Awaad
Disease outbreaks increase proportionally with increases in intensive aquaculture. Natural products including medicinal plants have been known from thousands of years for treating some human diseases. It is well known that many active compounds are responsible for potential bio-activities. For that reason, there has been considerable interest in the use of medicinal plants in aquaculture with a view to providing safe and eco-friendly compounds for replacing antibiotics and chemical compounds as well as to enhance immune status and control fish diseases...
May 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525653/predicted-philogeny-secondary-conformational-structure-and-epitope-antigenicity-of-immunological-sequences-in-poultry
#3
L J Lara, A P Peconick, É J Fassani, A M P Júnior, P R B Chalfun, D L Raymundo, T A Barçante, J M de P Barçante
Poultry production is faced with different types of stresses that are responsible for issues of animal welfare as well as for economic losses. Moreover, the immunity decreases when animals are stressed. In silico analyses are important in reducing the cost and in increasing the accuracy of scientific results. A bioinformatics tool was used to perform ontology studies on 15 different immunological sequences of poultry. The mRNA structures and sequences with maximum antigenic residues were also predicted. No homology was found between the sequences of poultry and mammals...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524218/-autoimmune-pathology-in-neuropaediatrics-what-aspects-have-really-undergone-a-change
#4
V Cantarin-Extremera
Autoimmune neurological diseases are an important group of pathologies in neuropaediatrics. The central nervous system was considered to be an immunologically privileged organ, as it protects itself from the surroundings by means of the blood-brain barrier. In recent years, however, reports have been published of a growing number of disorders produced by antibodies that react against neuronal or glial proteins and give rise to a wide variety of clinical conditions (epilepsy, encephalopathy, movement disorders, etc...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524115/label-free-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-chitosan-oligosaccharide-treated-rice-infected-with-southern-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus
#5
Anming Yang, Lu Yu, Zhuo Chen, Shanxue Zhang, Jing Shi, Xiaozhen Zhao, Yuanyou Yang, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from thesouth of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years and severelyinfluenced rice production. Its long incubation period and early symptoms are not evident; thus, controlling it is difficult. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is a green plant immunomodulator. Early studies showed that preventing and controlling SRBSDV have a certain effect and reduce disease infection rate, but its underlying controlling and preventing mechanism is unclear...
May 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522957/crohn-s-disease-and-smoldering-multiple-myeloma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
So Young Park, Jae Min Kim, Hyun Joon Kang, Minje Kim, Jae Joon Han, Chi Hoon Maeng, Sun Kyung Baek, Hwi-Joong Yoon, Si-Young Kim, Hyo Jong Kim
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that presents with abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhea. Although the etiology has not been fully elucidated, both environmental and genetic causes are known to be involved. In chronic inflammatory conditions such as IBD, B lymphocytes are chronically stimulated, and they induce monoclonal expansion of plasma cells, sometimes resulting in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Immunomodulators that are commonly used to control inflammation, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blockers could increase the possibility of hematologic malignancy...
April 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522586/antitumor-synergism-and-enhanced-survival-with-a-tumor-vasculature-targeted-enzyme-prodrug-system-rapamycin-and-cyclophosphamide
#7
John J Krais, Needa Virani, Partick H McKernan, Quang Nguyen, Kar-Ming Fung, Vassilios I Sikavitsas, Carla D Kurkjian, Roger G Harrison
Mutant cystathionine gamma-lyase was targeted to phosphatidylserine exposed on tumor vasculature through fusion with annexin A1 or annexin A5.  Cystathionine gamma-lyase E58N, R118L, and E338N mutations impart non-native methionine gamma-lyase activity, resulting in tumor-localized generation of highly toxic methylselenol upon systemic administration of non-toxic selenomethionine.  The described therapeutic system circumvents systemic toxicity issues using a novel drug delivery/generation approach and avoids the administration of non-native proteins and/or DNA required with other enzyme prodrug systems...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522115/interferon-alpha-2a-as-alternative-treatment-for-conjunctival-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
D Cruzado-Sánchez, M Salas-Diaz, W A Tellez, S E Alvarez-Matos, S Serpa-Frías
CASE REPORT: A 35 year-old male patient with a history of HIV infection characterized by progressive tumour growth in bulbar conjunctiva of the left eye, corresponding to conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma that responded to treatment with interferon alpha-2a. DISCUSSION: Interferon alpha-2b has been used at conjunctival level as a topical immunomodulator treatment, with complete remission of epithelial neoplasms being observed. However, there have not been any previous publications on the use of interferon alpha-2a, which differs from interferon alpha-2b in a single amino acid, for the treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma...
May 15, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520589/distance-to-specialist-care-and-disease-outcomes-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Nienke Z Borren, Grace Conway, William Tan, Elizabeth Andrews, John J Garber, Vijay Yajnik, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) requires specialized health care. Patients frequently travel long distances to obtain care for IBD, which may hinder regular care and affect outcomes adversely. METHODS: This study included patients with established Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis receiving care at a single referral center between January 2005 and August 2016. Distance to our health care center from the zip code of residence was determined for each patient and classified into quartiles...
May 16, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518049/red-blood-cell-storage-time-and-transfusion-current-practice-concerns-and-future-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
María García-Roa, María Del Carmen Vicente-Ayuso, Alejandro M Bobes, Alexandra C Pedraza, Ataúlfo González-Fernández, María Paz Martín, Isabel Sáez, Jerard Seghatchian, Laura Gutiérrez
Red blood cells (RBCs) units are the most requested transfusion product worldwide. Indications for transfusion include symptomatic anaemia, acute sickle cell crisis, and acute blood loss of more than 30% of the blood volume, with the aim of restoring tissue oxygen delivery. However, stored RBCs from donors are not a qualitative equal product, and, in many ways, this is a matter of concern in the transfusion practice. Besides donor-to-donor variation, the storage time influences the RBC unit at the qualitative level, as RBCs age in the storage bag and are exposed to the so-called storage lesion...
May 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516071/levamisole-as-an-adjuvant-to-short-course-therapy-in-newly-diagnosed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#11
Chetna Ashok Shamkuwar, Sushant Hiraman Meshram, Sunil M Mahakalkar
BACKGROUND: The estimated incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in India are 2.1 and 2.6 million cases respectively. Immunotherapy may shorten tuberculosis treatments and improve the immunity of individuals as well. Hence we study the efficacy of levamisole (LVM) (immunomodulator) as an adjuvant to chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted for 21 months in newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515346/the-novel-complex-combination-of-alum-cpg-odn-and-hh2-as-adjuvant-in-cancer-vaccine-effectively-suppresses-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#12
Yaomei Tian, Meng Li, Chaoheng Yu, Rui Zhang, Xueyan Zhang, Rong Huang, Lian Lu, Fengjiao Yuan, Yingzi Fan, Bailing Zhou, Ke Men, Heng Xu, Li Yang
Single-component adjuvant is prone to eliciting a specific type of Th1 or Th2 response. So, the development of combinatorial adjuvants inducing a robust mixed Th1/Th2 response is a promising vaccination strategy against cancer. Here, we describe a novel combination of aluminum salts (alum), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) and innate defense regulator peptide HH2 for improving anti-tumor immune responses. The CpG-HH2 complex significantly enhanced the production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β, promoted the uptake of antigen and strengthened the activation of p38, Erk1/2 and NF-κB in vitro, compared to CpG or HH2 alone...
April 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513757/-new-drugs-for-horses-and-production-animals-in-2016
#13
Ilka Ute Emmerich
In 2016, only one newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredient for horses and food-producing animals was released on the German market for veterinary drug products. The immunomodulator Pegbovigrastim is now available as an injection solution for cattle (Imrestor(®)). Four established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients are available for further species: the ectoparasitic Amitraz (Apitraz(®)) from the triazapentadiene group was additionally authorized for honeybees, the expectorant Bromhexine (Exflow(®) Vet) for chickens, turkeys and ducks and the macrolide antibiotic Gamithromycin (Zactran(®)) for pigs...
May 17, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511092/epigenetics-and-immunotherapy-the-current-state-of-play
#14
REVIEW
Jennifer Dunn, Sudha Rao
Cancer cells employ a number of mechanisms to escape immunosurveillance and facilitate tumour progression. The recent explosion of interest in immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint blockade, is a result of discoveries about the fundamental ligand-receptor interactions that occur between immune and cancer cells within the tumour microenvironment. Distinct ligands expressed by cancer cells engage with cell surface receptors on immune cells, triggering inhibitory pathways (such as PD-1/PD-L1) that render immune cells immunologically tolerant...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508256/the-role-of-micronutrients-in-alopecia-areata-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Jordan M Thompson, Mehwish A Mirza, Min Kyung Park, Abrar A Qureshi, Eunyoung Cho
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring form of hair loss caused by immune-mediated attack of the hair follicle. As with other immune-mediated diseases, a complex interplay between environment and genetics is thought to lead to the development of AA. Deficiency of micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals may represent a modifiable risk factor associated with development of AA. Given the role of these micronutrients in normal hair follicle development and in immune cell function, a growing number of investigations have sought to determine whether serum levels of these nutrients might differ in AA patients, and whether supplementation of these nutrients might represent a therapeutic option for AA...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507951/the-phytochemical-bergenin-enhances-t-helper-1-responses-and-anti-mycobacterial-immunity-by-activating-the-map-kinase-pathway-in-macrophages
#16
Ved P Dwivedi, Debapriya Bhattacharya, Vinod Yadav, Dhiraj K Singh, Santosh Kumar, Mona Singh, Durbadal Ojha, Anand Ranganathan, Luc Van Kaer, Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Gobardhan Das
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the greatest health concerns worldwide, which has hindered socioeconomic development in certain parts of the world for many centuries. Although current TB therapy, "Directly Observed Treatment Short-course," is effective, it is associated with unwanted side effects and the risk for the generation of drug-resistant organisms. The majority of infected individuals successfully confine the mycobacterial organisms and remain asymptotic unless immune responses are perturbed. Thus, host immunity can protect against TB and immunomodulation is therefore an attractive therapeutic option...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507932/application-of-various-types-of-liposomes-in-drug-delivery-systems
#17
EDITORIAL
Mehran Alavi, Naser Karimi, Mohsen Safaei
Liposomes, due to their various forms, require further exploration. These structures can deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs for cancer, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulation, diagnostics, ophtalmica, vaccines, enzymes and genetic elements. Preparation of liposomes results in different properties for these systems. In addition, based on preparation methods, liposomes types can be unilamellar, multilamellar and giant unilamellar; however, there are many factors and difficulties that affect the development of liposome drug delivery structure...
April 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507913/role-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-in-lung-transplantation
#18
REVIEW
Kelly E Hathorn, Walter W Chan, Wai-Kit Lo
Lung transplantation is one of the highest risk solid organ transplant modalities. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and lung transplant outcomes, including acute and chronic rejection. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology, evaluation, and management of GERD in lung transplantation, as informed by the most recent publications in the field. The pathophysiology of reflux-induced lung injury includes the effects of aspiration and local immunomodulation in the development of pulmonary decline and histologic rejection, as reflective of allograft injury...
April 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507792/oncolytic-measles-virus-encoding-interleukin-12-mediates-potent-antitumor-effects-through-t-cell-activation
#19
Rūta Veinalde, Christian Grossardt, Laura Hartmann, Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault, John C Bell, Dirk Jäger, Christof von Kalle, Guy Ungerechts, Christine E Engeland
Combination of oncolytic virotherapy with immunomodulators is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy for numerous tumor entities. In this study, we developed measles Schwarz vaccine strain vectors encoding immunomodulators to support different phases in the establishment of antitumor immune responses. Therapeutic efficacy of the novel vectors was evaluated in the immunocompetent MC38cea tumor model. We identified vectors encoding an IL-12 fusion protein (MeVac FmIL-12) and an antibody against PD-L1 (MeVac anti-PD-L1), respectively, as the most effective...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507598/thalidomide-induces-clinical-remission-and-mucosal-healing-in-adults-with-active-crohn-s-disease-a-prospective-open-label-study
#20
Yao He, Ren Mao, Fang Chen, Ping-Ping Xu, Bai-Li Chen, Yun Wu, Yun Qiu, Sheng-Hong Zhang, Rui Feng, Zhi-Rong Zeng, Shomron Ben-Horin, Min-Hu Chen
BACKGROUND: Thalidomide is effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission in children and adolescents with refractory Crohn's disease (CD). However, little is known about the efficacy and safety of thalidomide for adult patients with CD. METHODS: We conducted a prospective open-label cohort study between January 2013 and April 2015. A total of 47 adult patients with active CD who were dependent/resistant or intolerant to corticosteroids and/or immunomodulators or biologics received 50-100 mg of thalidomide daily...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
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