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Military trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229538/association-of-prehospital-intubation-with-decreased-survival-among-pediatric-trauma-patients-in-iraq-and-afghanistan
#1
Steven G Schauer, Jason F Naylor, Guyon J Hill, Allyson A Arana, Jamie L Roper, Michael D April
INTRODUCTION: Airway compromise is the second leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield among US military casualties. Airway management is an important component of pediatric trauma care. Yet, intubation is a challenging skill with which many prehospital providers have limited pediatric experience. We compare mortality among pediatric trauma patients undergoing intubation in the prehospital setting versus a fixed-facility emergency department. METHODS: We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for all pediatric encounters in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229376/combat-related-guilt-and-the-mechanisms-of-exposure-therapy
#2
Benjamin Trachik, Clint Bowers, Sandra M Neer, Vu Nguyen, B Christopher Frueh, Deborah C Beidel
Exposure therapy (EXP) is one of the most widely used and empirically supported treatments for PTSD; however, some researchers have questioned its efficacy with specific populations and in targeting specific symptoms. One such symptom, guilt, has garnered increased attention in the PTSD treatment literature, as it is associated with worse symptomatology and outcomes. The current study examined cognitive changes in guilt in response to Intensive (3-week) and Standard (17-week) Trauma Management Therapy (TMT), and the potential mechanisms underlying TMT treatment...
November 27, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221878/universal-insurance-and-an-equal-access-healthcare-system-eliminate-disparities-for-black-patients-after-traumatic-injury
#3
Muhammad Ali Chaudhary, Meesha Sharma, Rebecca E Scully, Daniel J Sturgeon, Tracey Koehlmoos, Adil H Haider, Andrew J Schoenfeld
BACKGROUND: Although inequities in trauma care are reported widely, some groups have theorized that universal health insurance would decrease disparities in care for disadvantaged minorities after a traumatic injury. We sought to examine the presence of racial disparities in outcomes and healthcare utilization at 30- and 90-days after discharge in this universally insured, racially diverse, American population treated for traumatic injuries. METHODS: This work studied adult beneficiaries of TRICARE treated at both military and civilian trauma centers 2006-2014...
December 5, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214627/a-12-month-descriptive-analysis-of-emergency-intubations-at-brooke-army-medical-center-a-national-emergency-airway-registry-study
#4
Michael D April, Steven G Schauer, Calvin A Brown Rd, Patrick C Ng, Jessie Fernandez, Andrea E Fantegrossi, Joseph K Maddry, Shane Summers, Daniel J Sessions, Robert M Barnwell, Mark Antonacci
Emergency airway management is a critical skill for military healthcare providers. Our goal was to describe the Emergency Department (ED) intubations at Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC) over a 12-month period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Physicians performing endotracheal intubations in the BAMC ED complete data collection forms for each intubation event as part of the National Emergency Airway Registry, including patient demographics, intubation techniques, success and failure rates, adverse events, and patient disposition...
October 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213517/soccer-football-association-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-a-short-review-and-recommendation
#5
REVIEW
Ricardo Nitrini
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) was initially described in boxers, but in recent years it has been reported in other settings, particularly in contact sports and military personnel. Soccer (football association) had previously been (and still is) considered relatively safe when compared to other sports, such as American football. However, a few cases of professional soccer players with CTE have been reported in the last few years. It is still unknown how frequent this condition is in soccer players, and the role played by heading the ball remains elusive...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209687/high-risk-of-brain-tumors-in-military-personnel-a-case-control-study
#6
P Fallahi, G Elia, R Foddis, A Cristaudo, A Antonelli
Scientific literature suggests a relationship between military occupation and the development of brain tumors, but no italian study has investigated on the impact of this job on the brain cancer morbidity. In this a study information were obtained from patients recruited in the Neurosurgical Department of the University-Hospital of Pisa, Italy, from 1990 to 1999. The study has been conducted as a case-control study. 161, newly diagnosed cases of brain tumors (glioma and meningiomas, histologically confirmed), were recruited, such as 483 controls (with other non tumoral neurologic diseases: trauma, hemorrhagic brain disorders, aneurism, etc), by matching cases and controls (1:3), for age (± 5 years) and gender...
November 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208449/surgical-treatment-of-thoracic-spinal-tuberculosis-a-multi-center-retrospective-study
#7
Wenjie Wu, Jingtong Lyu, Xun Liu, Fei Luo, TianYong Hou, Qiang Zhou, Zhilin Li, Yuan Chen, Li Tao Li, Yonghong Zheng, Gaoju Wang, Jianzhong Xu, Zehua Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aim present multicenter retrospective study is to assess safety and effectiveness of different surgery strategy in thoracic tuberculosis, and to provide a reference for surgical treatment of thoracic tuberculosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study reviewed 394 patients with thoracic tuberculosis who were treated in six institution between January 2000 and January 2015. There were 208 males and 186 females with average ages of 34.92±13.14 years (range 5-76 years)...
December 2, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201287/does-size-really-matter-a-multisite-study-assessing-the-latent-structure-of-the-proposed-icd-11-and-dsm-5-diagnostic-criteria-for-ptsd
#8
Maj Hansen, Philip Hyland, Karen-Inge Karstoft, Henrik B Vaegter, Rikke H Bramsen, Anni B S Nielsen, Cherie Armour, Søren B Andersen, Mette Terp Høybye, Simone Kongshøj Larsen, Tonny E Andersen
Background: Researchers and clinicians within the field of trauma have to choose between different diagnostic descriptions of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the DSM-5 and the proposed ICD-11. Several studies support different competing models of the PTSD structure according to both diagnostic systems; however, findings show that the choice of diagnostic systems can affect the estimated prevalence rates. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the potential impact of using a large (i.e. the DSM-5) compared to a small (i...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199929/healing-a-sick-world-psychiatric-medicine-and-the-atomic-age
#9
Ran Zwigenberg
The onset of nuclear warfare in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had far-reaching implications for the world of medicine. The study of the A-bomb and its implications led to the launching of new fields and avenues of research, most notably in genetics and radiation studies. Far less understood and under-studied was the impact of nuclear research on psychiatric medicine. Psychological research, however, was a major focus of post-war military and civilian research into the bomb. This research and the perceived revolutionary impact of atomic energy and warfare on society, this paper argues, played an important role in the global development of post-war psychiatry...
January 2018: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193289/disproportionate-mental-health-burden-associated-with-past-year-intimate-partner-violence-among-women-receiving-care-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#10
Melissa E Dichter, Anneliese Sorrentino, Scarlett Bellamy, Elina Medvedeva, Christopher B Roberts, Katherine M Iverson
Experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) can lead to mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and unhealthy substance use. Women seen in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) face high rates of both IPV and mental health morbidity. This study aimed to identify associations between recent IPV experience and mental health diagnoses among women VHA patients. We examined medical records data for 8,888 female veteran and nonveteran VHA patients across 13 VHA facilities who were screened for past-year IPV between April, 2014 and April, 2016...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189604/2017-military-supplement-to-shock-journal-perftorantm-vidaphortm-introduction-to-western-medicine
#11
Gary W Latson
Perftoran, which has been re-branded as Vidaphorfor marketing in North America, is an emulsion of perfluorocarbons in a surfactant and electrolyte mixture. It was developed in Russia as an oxygen-carrying intravenous plasma additive for hemorrhagic anemia and ischemic conditions from various etiologies. It was approved for clinical use in Russia in 1996 and used by the Russian Armed Forces and in civilian medical care. It was also approved in Mexico from 2005 to 2010. It has been reportedly administered to over 35,000 patients with significant evidence of benefit and relatively mild and manageable adverse effects...
November 20, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188311/differences-by-veteran-civilian-status-and-gender-in-associations-between-childhood-adversity-and-alcohol-and-drug-use-disorders
#12
Elizabeth A Evans, Dawn M Upchurch, Tracy Simpson, Alison B Hamilton, Katherine J Hoggatt
PURPOSE: To examine differences by US military Veteran status and gender in associations between childhood adversity and DSM-5 lifetime alcohol and drug use disorders (AUD/DUD). METHODS: We analyzed nationally representative data from 3119 Veterans (n = 379 women; n = 2740 men) and 33,182 civilians (n = 20,066 women; n = 13,116 men) as provided by the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III). We used weighted multinomial logistic regression, tested interaction terms, and calculated predicted probabilities by Veteran status and gender, controlling for covariates...
November 29, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187748/genome-wide-association-study-of-subcortical-brain-volume-in-ptsd-cases-and-trauma-exposed-controls
#13
Rajendra A Morey, Sarah L Davis, Melanie E Garrett, Courtney C Haswell, Christine E Marx, Jean C Beckham, Gregory McCarthy, Michael A Hauser, Allison E Ashley-Koch
Depending on the traumatic event, a significant fraction of trauma survivors subsequently develop PTSD. The additional variability in PTSD risk is expected to arise from genetic susceptibility. Unfortunately, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have failed to identify a consistent genetic marker for PTSD. The heritability of intermediate phenotypes such as regional brain volumes is often 80% or higher. We conducted a GWAS of subcortical brain volumes in a sample of recent military veteran trauma survivors (n = 157), grouped into PTSD (n = 66) and non-PTSD controls (n = 91)...
November 30, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186896/the-impact-of-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-on-trauma-and-spatial-processing
#14
Jessica K Miller, Siné McDougall, Sarah Thomas, Jan Wiener
The influence of genes and the environment on the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) continues to motivate neuropsychological research, with one consistent focus being the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene, given its impact on the integrity of the hippocampal memory system. Research into human navigation also considers the BDNF gene in relation to hippocampal dependent spatial processing. This speculative paper brings together trauma and spatial processing for the first time and presents exploratory research into their interactions with BDNF...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185182/tinnitus-traumatic-brain-injury-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-military
#15
John C Moring, Alan L Peterson, Kathryn E Kanzler
PURPOSE: Acoustic trauma is more prevalent in military settings, especially among individuals with combat-related military occupational specialties. Gunfire, improvised explosive devices, and mortar explosions are a few examples that may cause hearing degradation and tinnitus. It is possible that the same events that are associated with auditory problems can cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: This paper reviews the distinct and overlapping symptoms of tinnitus, TBI, and PTSD, and how these disorders interact to synergistically promote negative outcomes...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182727/an-ambulatory-psg-study-of-the-posttraumatic-nightmares-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#16
Andrea J Phelps, Richard A A Kanaan, Christopher Worsnop, Suzy Redston, Naomi Ralph, David Forbes
Study Objectives: This study used ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) to investigate posttraumatic nightmares of PTSD. The key research question was whether posttraumatic nightmares occur in both REM and non-REM sleep, and if so, whether nightmares in each sleep stage differed in content, phenomenology and heart rate response. Underlying sleep disorders were investigated in an exploratory way. Methods: Thirty-five treatment-seeking veterans, current serving military members and emergency service personnel undertook full PSG using the Compumedics (Melbourne, Australia) SomtePSG V1 system, during an inpatient psychiatric admission...
November 22, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179017/intimate-partner-violence-and-disordered-eating-among-male-and-female-veterans
#17
Brooke A Bartlett, Katherine M Iverson, Karen S Mitchell
Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects many women and men in the United States and has been associated with numerous mental health conditions, including disordered eating (DE). Veterans may be especially vulnerable to experiencing both of these serious problems given the unique aspects and stressors relevant to military culture, including high rates of trauma exposure. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of past-year IPV among independent samples of male (N = 642) and female (N = 198) veterans and to examine the association between past-year IPV and DE...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177710/reflections-on-recent-research-into-animal-assisted-interventions-in-the-military-and-beyond
#18
REVIEW
Christina B Rumayor, Amy M Thrasher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review was threefold: to address the current state of Animal-Assisted Interactions (AAI) within the military; to summarize recent literature (within the past three years) in the field of AAI; and to discuss trends in AAI research since 2014. RECENT FINDINGS: With regard to AAI within the military, several canine interaction programs have been utilized to assist service members in coping with various issues. Therapy dogs have been deployed with Combat-Operational Stress Control units; they have been integrated into medical clinics and behavioral health treatment programs in garrison; and policy has been developed to address the use of therapy animals in military treatment facilities...
November 25, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175878/ionised-calcium-levels-in-major-trauma-patients-who-received-blood-en-route-to-a-military-medical-treatment-facility
#19
Tony Kyle, Ian Greaves, Anthony Beynon, Vicky Whittaker, Mike Brewer, Jason Smith
BACKGROUND: Hypocalcaemia is a common metabolic derangement in critically ill patients. Blood transfusion can also contribute to depleted calcium levels. The aims of this study were to identify the incidence of hypocalcaemia in military trauma patients receiving blood products en route to a deployed hospital facility and to determine if intravenous calcium, given during the prehospital phase, has an effect on admission calcium levels. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients transported by the UK Medical Emergency Response Team in Afghanistan between January 2010 and December 2014 who were treated with blood products in the prehospital setting...
November 24, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173084/multi-drug-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-deployment-related-trauma-patients
#20
Wesley R Campbell, Ping Li, Timothy J Whitman, Dana M Blyth, Elizabeth R Schnaubelt, Katrin Mende, David R Tribble
BACKGROUND: The contribution of multi-drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli infections (MDRGN-I) in patients with trauma is not well described. We present characteristics of MDRGN-Is among military personnel with deployment-related trauma (2009-2014). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study were assessed for infectious outcomes and microbial recovery. Infections were classified using standardized definitions. Gram-negative bacilli were defined as multi-drug-resistant if they showed resistance to ≥3 antibiotic classes or were producers of extended-spectrum β-lactamase or carbapenemases...
April 2017: Surgical Infections
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